|Principal Town: ||Haddington|
|Population (1991): |
|Area (hectares): ||66558|
|Entry Updated: ||10-AUG-2009||
Local Authority Contact Information|
|Address: ||East Lothian Council|
East Lothian is bounded to the west by the City of Edinburgh
, to the north by the estuary of the River Forth, to the east by the North Sea
and to the south by the Lammermuir Hills
which rise to 535m (1755 feet) at Meikle Says Law
on the boundary with the Scottish Borders
Two parallel geological fault lines 1¼ miles (2 km) apart traverse East Lothian from southwest to northeast, the Dunbar-Gifford fault and the Lammermuir fault. To the north of the former, the landscape is characterised by rolling farmland, sandy beaches and the distinctive pyramid of Berwick Law (187m / 613 feet) and the whale-backed Traprain Law (224m / 734 feet) which are of volcanic origin. To the south of the latter, sandstones, limestone and conglomerate predominate, giving rise to notable coastal cliff formations that are home to colonies of sea birds.
East Lothian is bisected by one main river, the Tyne, which flows SW-NE to meet the North Sea west of Dunbar. It is joined by numerous tributaries which flow down from the Lammermuirs where there are three reservoirs, the largest being Whiteadder Reservoir. To the west the River Esk makes a brief appearance en route to join the Firth of Forth at Musselburgh and in the east near Stenton is Pressmennan Loch, created in 1819.
East Lothian benefits from a mild climate with some of the lowest rainfall in Scotland. Over 57% of the area is given over to arable farming, the remainder largely comprising woodland (8%), grassland (12%) and moorland (9%). There are 21 designated Sites of Scientific Interest, including locations such as the Bass Rock and Danskine Loch, in addition to Aberlady Bay Local Nature Reserve and John Muir Country Park.
Between 1951 and 1991, the population of East Lothian increased from 52,000 to more than 85,000, its chief settlements being Musselburgh, Haddington (the administrative centre), Tranent, Gullane, Aberlady, North Berwick, East Linton, Prestonpans and Dunbar.
The history of East Lothian has been influenced by its proximity to the mouth of the Forth estuary and its position on the main routeways to Edinburgh
skirting either side of the Lammermuirs, the ruins of sizeable castles such as Tantallon, Dirleton
occupying strategic locations. Evidence of early occupation is to be found in the Iron Age settlements in the northern foothills of the Lammermuirs at sites such as White Castle and The Chesters, while the famous Traprain Law
hoard of silver is associated with the brief presence of the Romans in the Lothians.
Religious foundations such as Nunraw Abbey and the Collegiate Church of Haddington indicate the growth of church landholdings during the Middle Ages and country houses such as Lennoxlove and Yester represent important country estates of a later period. East Lothian was in the forefront of the Agricultural Revolution during the 18th and 19th centuries when landowners reclaimed land, enclosed fields, introduced crop rotations and created planned estate villages such as Ormiston.
Formerly known as Haddingtonshire, East Lothian was one of the four districts of Lothian region between 1975 and 1996.
East Lothian's economy is focused on agriculture and farm land occupies 88% of the council's territory. The Council itself is the largest employer with around 4,500 employees. Other sectors including tourism, mining, quarrying, power generation, electronics, scientific research and printing are also important to the economy.
Tourism continues to grow, with historic buildings and the coastal towns maintaining their popularity, while new attractions, such as the Scottish Seabird Centre in North Berwick, are generating significant interest. Aberlady Bay and the John Muir Country Park provide coastal walking and birdwatching. The links also provide some of the best golf courses in Scotland, with Muirfield regularly hosting the Open Championship. Throughout the summer there are festivals and agricultural shows in many of the region's towns and villages.
Although previously a major employer in the west of the region, there is no longer any deep mining for coal, with activity now centred around the open cast site at Blindwells (Tranent). Quarrying includes sizeable limestone workings at East Barns which is processed on-site into cement.
Fishing, previously a key industry in Musselburgh, Cockenzie, North Berwick and Dunbar, is no longer a significant economic activity.
Unemployment is well below the national average.
References and Further Reading
(1997) Exploring Scotland's Heritage: Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders. Second Edition, The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and The Stationery Office, EdinburghCollard, Mark
(1998) Lothian: A Historical Guide. Birlinn, EdinburghCraig, G.Y. and P.McL.D. Duff
(1975) The Geology of the Lothians and South East Scotland. Scottish Academic Press, EdinburghGreen, C.R.
(1908) Haddington, or East Lothian. Groome, Francis H. (ed.)
(1882) Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland. Vol 1-6. Thomas C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works, EdinburghHaddington History Society (ed.)
(1997) Haddington: Royal Burgh - A History and a Guide. Tuckwell Press, Phantassie, East LothianKnight, John and John Gifford
(1992) East Lothian Villages. East Lothian District LibraryM'Neill, P.
(1883) Tranent and its Surroundings. John Menzies and Co, Edinburgh and GlasgowMcWilliam, Colin
(1978) The Buildings of Scotland: Lothian except Edinburgh. Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, MiddlesexMiller, J.
(1844) The Lamp of Lothian. Re-published in 1900Statham, Craig
(2011) Lost East Lothian. Birlinn, EdinburghTranter, Nigel
(1979) Portrait of the Lothians. Robert Hale, LondonWhyte, Ian and Kathleen Whyte
(1988) Discovering East Lothian. John Donald Publishers Ltd., Edinburgh
|Use the tabs on the right of this page to see other parts of this entry
There are 1154 related entries.
3 Council Areas,
3 Historical Counties,
22 People and