The oldest free lending library in Scotland was founded at Innerpeffray about 1680 by David Drummond, 3rd Lord Maddertie, who was a brother-in-law of James Graham, the Marquis of Montrose (1612-50). Drummond gave over his private collection of books to the library so that they could be used for the purposes of education and also founded an adjacent school.
Situated on the left bank of the River Earn in rural Perth & Kinross, the Innerpeffray Library was originally located in the loft of the Collegiate Chapel of St Mary, which lies next to the Library, but moved to the present purpose-built building in 1762. This building was the work of Robert Hay Drummond, who had become Archbishop of York and gifted his own books to the Library on his death. The collection was further augmented during the 18th and 19th Centuries and now comprises some 3800 volumes, including many rare books dating from the early 16th Century onward. Amongst the collection is a French pocket bible, dating from 1633, which was carried into battle by Montrose and bears his signature. Since 1694 the collection was administered by a private trust, the Innerpeffray Mortification. Although lending ceased in 1968, the Innerpeffray Library continues as a unique reference library.