Earlston is a parish, which lies in the Scottish Borders Council Area, some 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Melrose and 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Kelso in the Scottish Borders.
It is located in the old county of Berwickshire, which disappeared following the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1974.
The parish has an area of 39.8 sq. km (15.3 sq. miles). Earlston has 7 neighbouring parishes; namely Gordon, Hume, Legerwood, Melrose, Mertoun, Nenthorn and Smailholm. The boundaries of this parish were modified among significant changes recommended by the Boundary Commissioners after the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889.