Cartographer. Gordon was born at Pitlurg (Aberdeenshire). He was educated at the University of Aberdeen and later studied in Paris. He purchased the estate of Straloch in Aberdeenshire and thus gave rise to the Gordons of Straloch.
A noted cartographer, Gordon worked with his son James (c.1615-86) to verify and revise the maps of Timothy Pont (c.1560 - 1630) for inclusion in Blaeu's noted world atlas of 1654. His work can be seen in the National Library of Scotland.
Gordon's grandson, another Robert (1668 - 1731), founded the a school for boys and gave his name to the Robert Gordon University.
Gordon died at Pitlurg.