Pencaitland is a parish, which lies in East Lothian Council Area, some 5 miles (8 km) southeast of Prestonpans and 5 miles (9 km) southwest of Haddington in East Lothian.
It is located in the old county of East Lothian, which disappeared following the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1974.
The parish has an area of 20.5 sq. km (7.9 sq. miles). Pencaitland has 4 neighbouring parishes; namely Gladsmuir, Ormiston, Saltoun and Tranent. The boundaries of this parish were modified as a consequence of the Local Government (Scotland), 1894.