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Dundee

Classification and Statistics

Settlement Type: city
Population (2001): 154674    
(1991): 158981
(1981): 174346
(Combined with Invergowrie, Kingoodie and Monifieth)
(1971): 182204
(1961): 182978
(1951): 177340
(1901): 159033
(Parliamentary Burgh)
(1891): 153587
(1881): 140054
(1871): 120547
(1861): 90426
(1841): 63732

Tourist Rating: Three Stars
Text of Entry Updated: 23-APR-2014
Location

Latitude: 56.461°N Longitude: 2.9736°W
National Grid Reference: NO 401 303
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Geography
Located on 'one of the finest natural sites of any city in the British Isles', Dundee is situated at the mouth of the Tay estuary where it occupies a south-facing natural harbour sheltered to the landward side by hills. To the west is the Carse of Gowrie and to the north the Sidlaw Hills which separate Dundee from the valley of Strathmore. The centre of the city is dominated by Dundee Law which rises to a height of 174m (571 feet), and is a conical basalt hill that is the remains of a volcanic plug. During the past century the city has expanded to incorporate surrounding villages.

The town developed around its Mediaeval streets or 'gates'; namely Cowgate, Marketgait, Murraygate, Nethergate, Seagate, Stannergate and Wellgate. The architect William Burn (1789 - 1870) put forward a plan to improve the city in the 1820s, and the first development in this regard was the building of Reform Street - taking its name from the Reform Act of 1832. The town centre moved away from the river as King William IV and the Earl Grey docks were built in the 19th C. but these were infilled in the early 1960s to provide the northern landing of the Tay Road Bridge. Extensive land reclamation continued to the west at Riverside, providing space for Dundee Airport.

History
The original settlement occupied a natural harbour between Castle Rock on the east and St Nicholas Craig on the west. In medieval times Dundee traded wool, sheepskins and cattlehides with continental markets supplying in return quality textiles, metal goods and wine. The town was given the status of a burgh and developed as a 'new town' between 1178 and 1190 by Earl David, son of King William I 'the Lion' (1143 - 1214). It prospered for many years as the third of Scotland's royal burghs after Edinburgh and Aberdeen. The city was destroyed by General Monk in 1651 and later its harbour was devastated by a storm. For nearly a century and a half thereafter the city's fortunes waned.

During the 19th Century Dundee again grew rapidly as a result of the whaling and fishing trade, shipbuilding, textile manufactures and the import from Bengal of jute which was processed in mills employing large numbers of people. Between 1841 and 1881 the city's population rose from 63,700 to 140,000. By the latter half of the 19th Century some of the world's most expensive real-estate was in Dundee, and the city was pouring vast sums of money into the development of the USA, with bankers such as Robert Fleming (1845 - 1933) investing in railways, ranches and the expansion of the country westwards.

Dundee was also noted for its jam, produced from 1797 by the Keiller family, and its journalism which came to be dominated in the 20th century by D.C. Thomson and Company publishers of, amongst others, the Courier and Advertiser, Sunday Post, People's Friend, Scots Magazine, together with the Beano and Dandy children's comics. Today, D.C. Thomson is one of the largest employers in Dundee and the only major magazine and newspaper house in Scotland to be controlled by Scots in Scotland.

Dundee was the birthplace of the historian Hector Boece (c.1465-1536), John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee (c.1649-89), Admiral Adam Duncan of Camperdown (1731-1804), mathematician Sir James Ivory (1765 - 1842), artist John Zephaniah Bell (1794 - 1883), Canadian politician William Lyon Mackenzie (1795 - 1861), electrical pioneer James Bowman Lindsay (1799 - 1862), engineer David Kirkaldy (1820-97), doggerel poet William McGonagall (1830 - 1902), missionary Mary Slessor (1848 - 1915), plant collector Augustine Henry (1857 - 1930), pioneer of flight Preston Watson (1880 - 1915), comedian Will Fyffe (1885 - 1947), Jimmy MacDonald (1906-91), who was the voice of Mickey Mouse, philosopher George Elder Davie (1912 - 2007), academic Lord Perry of Walton (1921 - 2003), boxer Dick McTaggart (b.1935), actors Brian Cox (b. 1946) and Ian McDiarmid (b.1947), musician Robbie McIntosh (1950-74), songwriter Michael Marra (b.1952), politician George Galloway (b. 1954), musician Ricky Ross (b.1957), athlete Liz McColgan (b.1964), jockey Peter Niven (b.1964) and Olympic sailor Shirley Robertson (b.1968).

Industry
The importance of Dundee as a centre of textile manufacture was based on mills which moved from the Dichty Burn, to the north, into the city itself, making use of the power of the Scouring Burn in the west of the city and the Dens Burn to the east. The city has had a harbour since Mediaeval times, but this grew through trade with the Baltic and London during the 18th C. and the importance of the whaling industry in the 19th C. Today, Dundee's port, dock and industrial estate facilities are important to the North Sea offshore oil industry and the city is served by a small airport situated to the west of the city centre. Chief amongst the city's industries are printing, publishing, food processing, biotechnology, digital entertainment software and the manufacture of tyres, carpets, electronics, computers and clothing. The principal industrial estates are located at the Technology Park, West Pitkerro, Baldovie, Wester Gourdie, Kingsway East, Dryburgh, Claverhouse and the Riverside.
References and Further Reading
Anon (1878) The Municipal History of the Royal Burgh of Dundee. Improved Edition. Winter, Duncan & Co., Dundee
Anon (1959) The History of Dundee. Scottish Advertisers Ltd., Dundee
Eunson, Eric and Bill Early (2002) Old Dundee. Stenlake Publishing Ltd., Catrine, Ayrshire
Gifford, John (ed.) (2012) The Buildings of Scotland: Dundee and Angus. Yale University Press, New Haven and London
Kay, Billy (ed.) (1995) The Dundee Book: An Anthology of Living in the City. Mainstream, Edinburgh
King, Brian (2011) Undiscovered Dundee. Black & White Publishing, Edinburgh
Lythe, S.G.E. (1938) The origin and development of Dundee: a study in historical geography. Scottish Geographical Magazine Vol. 54, pp. 344-57
McKean, Charles and David Walker (1984) Dundee: An Illustrated Introduction. The Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland and the Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh
McKean, Charles, Bob Harris and Christopher A. Whatley (2009) Dundee: Renaissance to Enlightenment. Dundee University Press
McKean, Charles, Patricia Whatley and Kenneth Baxter (2013) Lost Dundee: Dundee's Lost Architectural Heritage. Birlinn Ltd., Edinburgh
RCAHMS (1992) Dundee on Record - Images of the Past. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Edinburgh
Tomlinson, J. (2011) Jute No More: Transforming Dundee. Dundee University Press
Watson, Norman (2006) Dundee: A Short History. Black and White Publishing Ltd., Edinburgh

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