Haddington, a royal and parliamentary burgh and a parish of Haddingtonshire, is said to derive its name from the Gaelic hofdingia-tun, or in more modern form heuedinge-town, meaning `princes' town; while earlier etymologists derive it from the name of Haden, a Saxon chief, who is related to have settled on the banks of the Tyne. Lying 150 feet above sea-level, the town occupies a pleasant situation, almost in the centre of the county, on the left bank of the river Tyne, which here makes a semicircular sweep; and it is overlooked by the Garleton Hills (590 feet) 1½ mile to the N. By road it is 17 miles E of Edinburgh and 11 WSW of Dunbar; whilst, as terminus of a branch line of the North British, it is 4¾ miles ESE of Longniddry Junction, this being 13½ miles E by N of Edinburgh and 44 WNW of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Though still a comparatively small place, and though for a long period of a somewhat mean appearance, it now is one of the neatest and cleanest towns of Scotland, with spacious and straight main thoroughfares, containing an abundant array of shops, and with good, sometimes even handsome, edifices, among which a few curious ancient houses still remain. Haddington comprises three principal streets, respectively 600, 330, and 700 yards long, and various minor thoroughfares connecting those with each other and with the outlying parts of the town. Across the river to the E lies the ancient barony of Nungate, now included in the burgh of Haddington, and chiefly inhabited by the poorer classes; at the western extremity of the High Street is the suburb of Gallow Green; and the outskirts of the town are adorned with pleasant villas. The rich agricultural landscape surrounding Haddington, and the graceful curve made by the Tyne, which here first begins to assume the dimensions of a river, render the situation and appearance of the local capital very pleasing. The Tyne is spanned at Haddington by four bridges. The Abbey Bridge, a structure of 3 arches, dating from mediæval times, spans the river 1 mile E of the town near the site of the old abbey; and the Nungate Bridge, also an ancient erection, has 3 arches over the river, and 2 smaller ones across Giffordgate. The Waterloo Bridge was built in 1817, and spans the Tyne to the S of the town. Stevenson Bridge, a useful iron footbridge, crosses the Tyne at the W end of the Haugh. The river, though adding much to the beauty and comfort of Haddington, has at various dates occasioned great damage in times of flood. In 1358 the convent (mentioned below) was on the point of being swept away by one of those inundation s; but, according to legend, was preserved by the courageous conduct of one of the nuns, who seized an image of the Virgin Mary and threatened to throw it into the flood, unless the impending destruction was averted. A tablet erected in the town commemorates a great flood that took place on 4 Oct. 1775, when the river rose 17 feet in one hour. `Thanks be to God,' concludes the Latin inscription, `that it was not in the night-time, for no one perished.' At the W end of the town stand the County Buildings, erected in 1833 from a design by Mr Burn of Edinburgh at a cost of £5500. They are in the Tudor style of architecture, and are built chiefly of stone procured near the town, though the façade is constructed of polished stone from Fife. They contain the sheriff and justice of peace court rooms, and the various county offices, including the county jail. Immediately to the E stands the Corn Exchange, erected in 1854 at a cost of upwards of £2400 after designs by Mr Billings. This spacious edifice, said to be exceeded in size among buildings of its class in Scotland only by the Corn Exchange in Edinburgh, measures within walls 128 feet in length and 50 in breadth. Its front elevation, though somewhat plain, is massive and not inelegant. The Town Buildings, situated at the junction of High Street and Back Street, were erected in 1748 from a plan of William Adam, the celebrated architect. They were enlarged in 1830-31 by the addition of three cells, a spacious town . hall, and an ornamental spire 150 feet high, from designs by Mr Gillespie Graham. They contain the town-council room, the assembly room, and the free town library. In Hardgate Street is situated Bothwell Castle, an old town house of the Earls of Bothwell. Near the town stands the County Lunatic Asylum, a handsome building opened in 1866. In the vicinity of the railway a monument to Robert Ferguson of Raith, M. P. for Haddingtonshire from 1835 to 1837, was raised in 1843 at a cost of £650. It consists of a statue surmounting a Doric fluted column, whose base is adorned with four life-size figures of mourners. In 1880, at a cost of over £1000, a memorial was erected to George, eighth Marquis of Tweeddale (1787-1876). Designed by Mr Rhind of Edinburgh, it is a reproduction of the beautiful old Elizabethan well at Pinkie House, and consists of an arch with a marble bust of the Marquis, surmounted by an elaborate open crown, the height of whose finial is 25 feet. In 1880, too, a new cross 10 feet high, resting on three steps, and bearing the Haddington arms, was presented to the burgh by Messrs Bernard.
The chief ecclesiastical edifice in Haddington is the Abbey (parish) church. Of dark red sandstone, this building dates from about the 12th or 13th century, and it stands in an open area to the SE of the town, close beside the river. The choir and transepts are in a ruinous condition; but the square tower, 90 feet high, is still entire, and the aisled, five-bayed nave or western part of the cross is used as the parish church, having been fitted up in a superior manner in 1811 with 1233 sittings at a cost of £6000. Originally a cruciform edifice in the Decorated style, with earlier Transition and even Norman features, the Abbey church measured from E to W 210 feet, and from N to S, across the transepts, 110 feet. The breadth of the nave was 62 feet. It long has borne the title Lucerna -Laudoniæ, or Lamp of Lothian, though that name seems originally to have belonged to the now vanished church of the Frauciscan monastery, on account both of its beauty and of the distance at which its lights were visible. In the aisle is the splendid monument of the Lauderdale family. The living is worth £799, 13s. 4d. The other churches of Haddington include three other Established churches, among which St John's chapel of ease is a neat Gothic building, erected in 1838 at a cost of £1600; it contains 872 sittings. There are also one Free church (St John's), with 862 sittings; two United Presbyterian churches, the East and the West, with respectively 549 and 450 sittings; a plain Gothic Episcopalian chapel of 1770, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, renovated in 1843, and seated for 200; and St Mary's Roman Catholic church, built in 1862, and seated for 500. In Nungate there is a ruined chapel dedicated to St Martin. A handsome new building, known as the Knox Memorial Institute, and bearing a life-size statue of the great Iconoclast on its tower, which is 14 feet square and 80 high, was erected in 1878-80 at a cost of £10, 000. It comprises, besides the school, a lecture room to hold 400. The old and once famous grammar school of Haddington is included in the institute, whose endowment of £112 has been largely increased by recent subscriptions, over £1000 having been subscribed for bursaries. The primary and a Roman Catholic school, with respective accommodation for 400 and 126 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 248 and 74, and grants of £164, 18s. and £63, 11s. There are also a private English and classical school for boys, a young ladies' boarding school, a girls, day school, an infant school, and an industrial school. The former mathematical school, where Edward Irving was teacher in 1810-12, was incorporated with the grammar school. Among other means of culture are a law library, a town and county library, and a free public town library, originating in a bequest of books about 1717 by the Rev. John Gray of Aberlady; * and it should be mentioned that Haddington was the headquarters of the itinerating libraries, organised in 1817 for the good of the people of East Lothian by the philanthropic Samuel Brown. Amongst the various associations that have their seats or headquarters at Haddington are the United East Lothian Agriculture; Society, the East Lothian Agricultural Club, clubs for curling, golf, and bowling, a total abstinence society, lodges of Good Templars, Freemasons, Oddfellows, and Free Gardeners, the East Lothian and the Haddington horticultural societies, a naturalists' club, an ornithological society, a benefit society, a female society for the relief of the poor, and a rifle association. It is also the headquarters of the 1st Haddington Rifle Volunteers. Two weekly papers. The Haddingtonshire Advertiser (1880) and The Haddingtonshire Courier (1859)-are published in the town on Friday. There are branch offices of the Bank of Scotland, British Linen Company's Bank, the Commercial Bank of Scotland, and the Royal Bank, besides a savings' bank; and 21 insurance companies are represented in Haddington by agents or offices.
The drainage and the water supply are now excellent. Till 1874 the town depended for its water upon local wells; but in Oct. 1874 it acquired a supply of more than 100,000 gallons per day of pure spring water from works constructed, at a cost of about £5000, on the Ear; of Wemyss's estate, at a distance of 4½ miles.
Haddington can now boast of no great manufacturing industry, though it does a large amount of retail trade in supplying the surrounding district, and though a vast amount of agricultural produce changes hands at its weekly markets. A woollen manufacture on an extensive scale was begun in 1681 in the suburb of Nungate by a company employing English workmen. It purchased some of the lands that had formerly belonged to the monastery, erected fulling-mills, dyehouses, and other premises, and gave the whole the name of Newmills. The company was exempted by various Scottish Acts of Parliament from certain taxes, and Colonel Stanfield, the chief partner, received the honour of knighthood for his exertions; but after his death the prosperity of his company came to an end, and Colonel Charteris, purchasing their lands, changed the name from Newmills to Amisfield, after the ancient seat of his forefathers in Nithsdale. In 1750, and again at a later date, vigorous attempts were made to revive the manufacture, but both proved abortive. The industrial establishments that are now situated in the town or its immediate neighbourhood include two small woollen mills and a waulk mill, two breweries, two foundries, an engineering work, a tannery and skinnery in Nungate, two coach works, and three agricultural implement factories. The chief commercial interest, however, centres in its grain markets, which were the largest in Scotland until the construction of railways enabled those of Edinburgh to excel them. Markets are held at Haddington in the Corn Exchange every Friday. Oats are sold at 1-2 o'clock, barley at 20 minutes past 12, beans and peas at 15 minutes to 1, and wheat at 1 o'clock. A hiring market for farm servants is held at Haddington on the first Friday in February; a cattle fair on the Friday before Gifford Tryst in March; and an Autumn fair on the first Friday in October.
Haddington is a royal burgh of very ancient standing, and is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, dean of guild, treasurer, and 12 councillors; who also are commissioners of police and the local authority of the burgh. Prior to the date of the Burgh Reform Act, the town council, according to an act of the Convention of Royal Burghs in 1665, consisted of 16 merchants' and trades' councillors. The council nominates a baron-bailie of Nungate, another of a portion of Gladsmuir parish which holds feu of the burgh, and 2 Burlaw bailies, but none of these functionaries hold courts. The municipal constituency (1883) is 681, of whom 121 are women. The income of the town is derived from lands, houses, feu-duties, customs and market dues, and fees on the entry of burgesses. It amounted in 1831-32 to £1422; in 1860-61 to £1173; and in 1881-82 to £1334. At one time Haddington was the seat of a circuit justiciary court; but it now sends all its justiciary business to Edinburgh. The ordinary sheriff court meets at Haddington every Thursday during session; and a sheriff court, under the Debts Recovery and Small Debt Act, meets every alternate Thursday. A justice of peace court is held on the second Tuesday of every month, and a court of quarter-sessions is held on the first Tuesday of March, the third Tuesday of April, the first Tuesday of August, and the last Tuesday of October. The burgh and county are united for police purposes; and the burgh has also an officer who unites the functions of inspector of nuisances, sanitary inspector, lodging-house inspector, and inspector under the Explosives Acts. In 1880 the royal burgh was extended so as to include the whole of the parliamentary burgh, which has a constituency of 566, and unites with Dunbar (455), Jedburgh (406), North Berwick (236), and Lauder (143) in returning one member to parliament-always a Liberal since 1847. The annual value of property in the burgh, in 1871, was £13, 392; in 1876, £14, 335; and in 1882-83, £16, 202, 17s. Pop. (1831) 3857, (1841) 3777, (1851) 3883, (1861) 3897, (1871) 4007, (1881) 4043, of whom 2079 were females. Houses (1881) inhabited 928, vacant 42, building 3.
Haddington is mentioned as a burgh in David I.'s confirmation charter to Dunfermline Abbey (1130); and Ada, daughter of the Ear; of Surrey and Warren, received it in 1 139 as dower on her marriage with Prince Henry, David's son. On her death, in 1178, William the Lyon inherited it as a royal; demesne; and here, in 1198, was born his son Alexander II. Under the reign of this last the town seems first to have felt the miseries of war, for in 1216 it was burned by King John of England during his incursion into the Lothians. In 1242 the Ear; of Athole was assassinated within its walls, in revenge for his having overthrown Walter de Bisset in tournament. Two years later Haddington was again destroyed by the flames, on the same night, we are significantly told, as several; other Scottish towns. Though formally demanded in 1293 from John Baliol by Edward I., it does not seem to have suffered much in the wars of the succession. In 1355-56 Edward III. invaded Scotland to avenge the seizure of Berwick by the Scots, and Haddington was a third time reduced to ashes. In 1400 Henry IV. of England entered Haddington, but did no damage; and in 1503 the Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., spent one night there on her way to Edinburgh. But the most famous event in the history of the town is its siege. In April; 1548, the year after the Battle of Pinkie, the English seized Haddington, fortified it, and left a strong garrison to defend it under Sir James Willord. The Scots, largely reinforced by foreign troops, and commanded by the French general, André de Montalembert, Sieur D'Essé, immediately laid siege to the town. The garrison made a long and gallant resistance, repulsed assaults, and led sallies, during one of which Wilford was captured. At last, however, plague appeared among the garrison, and the English determined to evacuate the place. To prevent the soldiers and military stores from falling into the hands of the besieging army, the Earl of Rutland marched into Scotland with 6000 men, entered Haddington by night, and on 1 Oct. 1559 safely conducted all the soldiers and artillery to Berwick. No vestiges of the fortifications now remain. There is a full contemporary account of the siege of Haddington in Jean de Beaugué's Histoire de la Guerre d'Escosse. In 1598 Haddington was again burned. The calamity having been occasioned through the carelessness of a maidservant in placing a screen covered with clothes too near a fire-place during the night, the magistrates enacted that a crier should perambulate the town during the winter evenings, warning the people to guard against fire. The ceremony got the name of 'Coal an' Can'le,' from the following rude verses which the crier recited:-
'A' guid men's servants where're ye be,
Keep coal an' can'le for charitie!
Baith in your kitchen an' your ha'.
Keep weel your fires whatever befa,!
In bakehouse. brewhouse, barn. and byre,
I warn ye a' keep weel your fire!
For oftentimes a little spark
Brings mony hands to mickle wark!
Ye nourrices that hae bairns to keep,
See that ye fa' nae o'er sound asiecp,
For iosing o' your guid renown,
An' banishing o' this barrous toun
'Tis for your sakes that I do cry:
Tak' warning by your neighbours bye!'
A privy council order of 10 Nov. 1636, anent some Egyptians or Gipsies, prisoners in Haddington tolbooth, ordained' the men to be hanged, and the women to be drowned, and such of the women as have children to be scourged through the burgh and burned in the cheek.' Beyond the visit from Oliver Cromwell on 30 Aug. 1650, already narrated under Dunbar, the later history of Haddington contains little more of interest. The great Reformer, John Knox (1505-72), was born at Haddington; and the site of his birthplace in Giffordgate is marked by a tree which was planted in 1881 in accordance with one of the last wishes of Thomas Carlyle. (See Gifford.) John Brown (1722-87), author of the Self--Interpreting Bible, was minister of the Secession congregation from 1751 to his death; and at Haddington were born his son, the Rev. John Brown (17541832), the author of various works, and his grandson, Samuel Brown, M-D. (1817-57), an able chemist. Other illustrious natives were John Heriot (1760-1833), miscellaneous writer and editor of the Sun and True Briton, David Scott (1675-1742), author of a History of Scotland, Samuel Smiles (b. 1816), author of Self Help, etc., and Jane Welsh (1801-66), whose tombstone in the abbey churchyard records how' for forty years she was the true and ever-loving helpmate of Thomas Carlyle, and, by act and word, unweariedly forwarded him, as none else could, in all of worth that he did or attempted.' Haddington gives the title of Earl, in the peerage of Scotland, to the descendants of the Hamiltons of Innerwick, the remote kinsmen of the duca; family of Hamilton. In 1606, Sir John Ramsay, brother of George Lord Ramsay of Dalhousie, and the chief protector of James VI. from the conspiracy of the Earl of Gowrie, was created Viscount Haddington and Lord Ramsay of Barns; in 1615 he was raised to a place among the peers of England, by the titles of Ear; of Holderness and Baron Kingston-upon-Thames; but dying, in 1625, without issue, he left all his honours to be disposed of at the royal; will. In 1627 Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield-who was eminent as a lawyer, and had become Lord-President of the Court of Session, and Secretary of State, and had been created Baron of Binning and Byres in 1613, and Ear; of Melrose in 1619-obtained the king's permission to change his last and chief title into that of Ear; of Haddington. In 1827, Thomas, ninth Earl, while only heir-apparent, was created Baron Melrose of Tyninghame in the peerage of the United Kingdom; and this nobleman, during the brief administration of Sir Robert Pee; in 1834-35, was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. The family seats are Tyninghame House, 2¾ miles NE of East Linton, and Mellerstain and Lennel House in Berwickshire.
The parish of Haddington occupies the centre of Haddingtonshire, and is bounded on the N by the parish of Athelstaneford, on the E by Prestonkirk and Morham, on the S by Yester, Bolton, Salton, and Gladsmuir, and on the W by Gladsmuir and Aberlady. Its form is exceedingly irregular, consisting of a main body 4½ miles long by 3 broad, with five projections radiating therefrom. Its greatest length, from NNW to SSE, is 8 3/8 miles; its greatest breadth, at right angles to its longer axis, is 7 miles; and its area is 12,113 acres, of which nearly 50 are water. Except in the N which is occupied by the rounded summits of the Garleton Hills, the surface of the parish presents a beautifully undulating landscape, covered with prosperous farms or dignified private grounds. The southern slopes of the Garleton Hills are clothed with fine plantations; and on the top of Byres or Byrie Hill, one of the summits, stands a monument, erected in 1824 to John, fourth Ear; of Hope-toun, one of the heroes of the Peninsular War. It has an ascent of 132 steps, and is visible from Edinburgh, 17 miles distant. The river Tyne traverses the parish from SW to NE in a sinuous course that maintains an average breadth of from 50 to 56 feet. Trap rock forms the mass of the Garleton Hills, though on the southern slopes that is overlaid by calciferous sandstone; and sandstone of various kinds and qualities prevails in the rest of the parish. The soil towards the SW border is shallow and inferior, but elsewhere it is good and in high cultivation. About 1250 acres are under wood, and more than 500 in pasture; while the rest is cultivated. Coal has been sought for but not found. There is a weak chalybeate spring, called Dobson's Well, about ½ mile W of the burgh. The industries of the parish, besides agriculture, are restricted to the town of Haddington.
Besides the burgh of Haddington the parish contains the hamlets of Abbey and St Lawrence. A mile and a quarter S of Haddington stands Lennoxlove House, anciently called Lethington, the seat of Lord Blantyre. Part of it dates from very antique times, and was a very strong fortalice. Lethington was the home of Sir Richard Maitland and of James VI.'s chancellor, Secretary Lethington, and for a long period it was the chief seat of the Lauderdale family. The first park wall, 12 feet high, enclosing an area of more than 1 square mile, is said to have been raised in six weeks by the Duke of Lauderdale, in order to save his country from the reproach of the Duke of York, that there was not a single deer park in it. The other chief seats, all noticed separately, are Amisfield, Stevenson House, Monkrigg, Coalstoun, Clerkington, Letham, Alderston, and Huntington. Nine proprietors hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 18 of between £100 and £500, 44 of from £50 to £100, and 91 of from £20 to £50. The North British railway traverses one of the projections of the parish, and there is a branch of that railway to the burgh within the parish. Six miles of the great road from Edinburgh to the E of England lie within its limits, besides a section of a road to North Berwick, and numerous subordinate roads. Haddington parish is in the presbytery of Haddington and the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The churches have already been noticed above. The origin of the parish is difficult to trace. At the accession of David I. in 1123 it was a clearly defined district, though both then and afterwards of a larger extent than now. Till 1674 it comprehended a considerable part of Athelstaneford, and till 1692 of Gladsmuir also. The ancient church, dedicated to the Virgin, was granted about 1134 by David I. to the priory of St Andrews, which held it with all its endowments, including the lands of Clerkington on both sides of the Tyne, till the Reformation. Six chapels also were situated in the parish-those of St Lawrence, which has given its name to a hamlet, St Martin, St Catherine, St Kentigern, and St John, and one in the barony of Penston, which, previous to the erection of Gladsmuir parish, lay within the limits of Haddington. At the Reformation the property of all these chapels, with that of the church to which they were attached, belonged as part of the immense possessions of the priory of St Andrews, to James Stewart, the notorious Earl of Moray, the bastard brother and the minister of Mary of Scotland. The possessions were soon after usurped by the Ear; of Morton, during the period of his regency; and when he was put to death for his participation in the murder of Darnley, they were forfeited to the Crown. Esme, Duke of Lennox, the cousin and favourite of James VI., next obtained them, as a temporal lordship, from the king. Later, Thomas, the first Earl of Haddington, purchased the Haddington portion of the lordship-consisting of the patronage and property and emoluments of the church and its chapels-from Ludovic the son of Esme; and, in 1620, obtained from the king a confirmation of his purchase. In the 18th century the patronage and property were transferred, by another purchase, to Charles, the first Ear; of Hopetoun; and they have since continued in the possession of his descendants. From the Reformation till 1602 the churches of Haddington and Athelstaneford and the chapel of St Martin were all served by one minister; and not long afterwards St Martin's was abandoned. In 1633 Haddington church was appointed one of the twelve prebends of the chapter of Edinburgh; and in 1635 a second minister was appointed. From the 12th or 13th century to the Reformation, Haddington gave its name to a deanery. The parish also contained a Franciscan monastery, dating probably from the 12th century. Edward I. is said to have destroyed it, and there are now no vestiges of it extant, unless the present church may be held as having formed part of it. At the village of Abbey there stood a convent of Cistercian nuns, founded in 1178 by Ada, Countess of Northumberland and mother of Malcolm IV. and William the Lyon. It was dedicated by her to the Virgin, and it was endowed with extensive and valuable possessions, of which the lands of Nunside or Nunlands, now Huntington, and the church of Athelstaneford with its teinds were only a part. In 1296, Eva, the prioress, made submission to Edward I., and obtained the restoration of her rights. James II. granted a charter to the priory in 1458, confirming one previously obtained from the bishop of St Andrews in 1349. In 1471 the lairds of Yester and Makerston forcibly seized part of the Abbey lands, and the nuns had to seek the aid of parliament against them. In 1548 the estates held a parliament in the convent, at which it was resolved to send the infant Queen Mary to France. At the Reformation the number of nuns in the convent was 18; and its revenues amounted to £308, 17s. 6d., besides various contributions paid in kind. The lands were conferred by Mary on her secretary, William Maitland of Lethington; and afterwards they were converted into a temporal lordship in favour of John, Master of Lauderdale. -A public school, with accommodation for 282 children, had (1881) an average attendance of 278, and a grant of £228, 15s. 8d. Valuation, excluding burgh, (1872) £28,061, 4s., (1879) £25.950, 10s., (1883) £22, 888, 6s. Pop. of entiro parish (1801) 4049, (183l) 5883, (1841) 5452, (1871) 5735, (1881) 5660.Ord. Sur., sh. 33, 1863. The Established presbytery of Haddington comprises the parishes of Aberlady, Athelstaneford, Bolton, Dirleton, Garvald, Gladsmuir, Haddington, Humbie, Morham, North Berwick, Pencaitland, Prestonpans, Salton, Tranent, and Yester, with the chapelries of St John's (Haddington) and Cockenzie. Pop. (1871) 25,545, (1881) 25,742, of whom 5718 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878. The Free Church has also a presbytery of Haddington and Dunbar, with churches at Cockburnspath, Dirleton, Dunbar, Garvald, Haddington, Humbie, Innerwick, North Berwick, Pencaitland, Prestonkirk, Salton Tranent, and Yester, which 14 together had 2449 members in 1882. See Dr Barclay's' Account of the Parish of Haddington' in Trans. Soc. Ants. Scotl. (1792); James Miller's Lamp of Lothian, or the History of Haddington (Had. 1844); an article on p. 926 of the Builder (1878); the two works cited under Craigenputtoch; James Purves's 'Tyningtown' in Fraser's Magazine (March 1881); and the chapter on 'A Typical Scotch Town' by Francis Watt, in Picturesque Scotland (Lond. 1882).
* On occasion of an effort to establish an adequate library in the town, the Athenæum of 20 Aug. 1881 gave a list of 44 of the rarer works in this bequest, including three missals of 1497, 1510, and 1529, two black-letter prayer-books of 1611 and 1637, an Aldine Pliny (1508), an Elzevir Martial (1522), Beza's Icones (1580), a large collection of Scottish pamphlets of the 7th century, etc.
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