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Glasgow

A historical perspective, drawn from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical, edited by Francis H. Groome and originally published in parts by Thomas C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works, Edinburgh between 1882 and 1885.

This edition is copyright © The Editors of the Gazetteer for Scotland, 2002-2014.

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Glasgow, the commercial and manufacturing capital of Scotland, and, in point of wealth, population, and importance, the second city of the British islands, is situated for the most part in the lower ward of Lanarkshire, but a small part of it is in the county of Renfrew. It stands on both banks of the river Clyde, 14 miles from its mouth at Dumbarton; but the larger portion of the city is on the N side of the river; latitude 55° 51' 32" N, and longitude 4° 17' 54" W. Its distance as the crow flies from John o' Groat's House is 197 miles, and from London 348. It is NW by N of London and Carlisle, SW of Aberdeen, Perth, and Stirling, SW by W of Dundee, W by S of Edinburgh, and N by W of Dumfries. By road it is 42¾ miles from Edinburgh, 23 from Greenock, 34 from Ayr, 79 from Dumfries, and 396 from London; while by railway its distance is 7 miles from Paisley, 21 from Falkirk, 23 from Greenock, 29 from Stirling, 33¾ from Kilmarnock, 40½ from Ayr, 47½ from Edinburgh, 63¼. from Perth, 104½ from Berwickon-Tweed, 105 from Carlisle, 152 from Aberdeen, 206½ from Inverness, 401½ from London by the West Coast route, 423 by the Midland, and 448½ by the East Coast route.

Site.—At no very remote time in the geological history of the country, but long before the historic period, the lower part of the valley of the Clyde formed the bottom of an estuary. This estuary opened to the sea by a narrow strait near Erskine, and embraced Loch Lomond and the valleys about on the one hand, while on the other it extended as far as Johnstone and Paisley. Narrowing at Ibrox and Pollokshields, it again widened out, and, sweeping round by the Cathkin and Cathcart Hills, formed a wide bay where Glasgow Green and Bridgeton now are. The mouth of the river was then probably about Bothwell or Rutherglen. That the estuary was marine the list of shells found in the deposits in the valley abundantly proves. That the levels of the land were much the same as at present dung the Roman occupation is shown by the termination of the Roman Wall; but that prior to this, and yet subsequent to the first appearance of man in Clydesdale, there must have been an upheaval of the land is shown by relics dug up on the present site of Glasgow. Among other remains a number of canoes have been found, some of them 300 feet distant from the modern bed of the river and 19 feet below the present surface. In the eighty years prior to 1855, no less than seventeen canoes were dug out of the silt-one in 1780 in digging the foundations of St Enoch's church, and another later near the Cross. In 1824 one was found at Stockwell Street, and another in the Drygate behind the new prison. Twelve were found on the lands of Springfield, on the S side, and two at Clydehaugh in 1852. Of all these, one was in a vertical position, with the prow up, as if it had sunk in a storm; while another was bottom up, as if it had been capsized. Since 1855 other three at least have been found. All this points to a considerable rise within the human period, and accounts for the traces of ancient terraces that are to be seen along some portions of the higher grounds, as well as for the nature of the site of the lower part of the city, which, especially towards the E and S, is very flat, as it also is on the N along the side of the river. Nowhere in these districts is it more than a few feet above the level of spring tides. The ground on the N side of the river beyond the flat strip and to the W is variable and undulating, there being a number of elliptical ridges mostly with their longer axes parallel to the course of the river, but in the W trending somewhat more in a N and S direction. They rise with considerable rapidity to heights of from 100 to 0 feet, the principal being Blythswood Hill (13d), Woodlands Hill (153), Hillhead (157), Garnet Hill (176), the Observatory site (179), the Necropolis (225), and Garngad Hill (252). The city is intersected and divided into two unequal portions by the river Clyde, which has within it a course of about 6 miles, following the windings from the E at Dalmarnock Bridge to a point on the W nearly opposite Govan. The Molendinar Burn swept round the NE, passed between the Cathedral and the Necropolis in a deep ravine, and afterwards crossed the low ground to the Clyde; but it has now become a dirty underground sewer, though the ravine still partially remains. The river Kelvin approaches from the NW through a picturesque and wellwooded dell, skirts the base of the height on which the Botanic Gardens are laid out, and, sweeping to the southward, forms the boundary between Hillhead and Glasgow. In its onward course it passes through the West End or Kelvingrove Park, between the high grounds to the E of the Park and Gilmore Hill on the W, and then, bending to the SW, enters the Clyde opposite Govan at Govan ferry. Glasgow has about its. site none of the picturesque features that give such beauty and well-marked character to Edinburgh. The features of the views within all the low parts of the city, and even in the suburbs, are mainly architectural, and always distinctly modified by the smoke and turmoil of a great seat of commerce and manufacture. From a few of the higher spots-particularly from Sighthill Cemetery, Garngad Hill, the Necropolis, Blythswood Hill, Garnet Hill, the upper part of Kelvingrove Park, and Gilmore Hill in front of the new University buildings-there are, however, in clear states of the atmosphere, views of considerable picturesqueness, the foreground of the city, with its streets and buildings and bustle, being backed by glimpses of the country and shut in by distant hills.

Extent.—The exact extent of Glasgow is somewhat difficult to define, as the districts to be embraced by the name are variously understood. The compact central portion of it measures about 2¼. miles by 1½; the area covered by buildings, but exclusive of detached parts and straggling outskirts, measures about 4 miles from E to W and about 2 from N to S. The area comprehended in the returns of population includes, besides the separate burghs of Hillhead, Partick, Maryhill, Govan, Crosshill, Kinning Park, Govanhill, and Pollokshields, the detached suburbs of Strathbungo, Crossmyloof, Langside, Tollcross, Shettleston, and Ibrox, and comprises 21,336¾ acres, of which 1209½ acres are in Renfrewshire. It measures about 9¼. miles from E to W, and about 5¼. from N to S. The royal burgh lies all on the right bank of the Clyde, and comprises 988½ acres. The old royalty also lies all on the right bank of the river, and includes the royal burgh as well as very considerable suburbs and some tracts of open country; it comprises 2336½ acres. Prior to 1872 the municipal and parliamentary burgh excluded much of the old royalty, but included tracts beyond it both N and S of the Clyde, and comprised 5034½ acres. By an act of parliament passed in 1872 the boundaries were largely extended to the N and W. Of the sixteen wards into which the city is divided, the third, fifth, tenth, and eleventh were considerably affected. The third ward is now bounded on the N and E by the old royalty line, and on the W by Springburn Road. It takes in the St Rollox malleable iron works, the Caledonian Railway Company's engineering works, the Sighthill railway station, and the new Alexandra Park, together with intermediate places. The fifth ward is now bounded on the N by the old royalty line, on the E by Craighall Road, and on the W by Springburn Road. It includes a considerable part of the large detached suburb of Springburn, Sighthill Cemetery, Cowlairs railway station, and Keppoch Hill hamlet, together with intervening places. The tenth ward now includes the district extending from the Forth and Clyde Canal to the royalty boundary, and from Craighall Road to Keppoch Row. The eleventh ward now includes a portion of Kelvingrove Park formerly outside the municipal burgh, and, crossing the Kelvin, takes in the lands of Gilmore Hill with the new University buildings. Starting from a point on the Monkland Canal at the NE corner of Alexandra Park, the parliamentary and municipal boundary line skirts the E side of the park till near the SE corner, and then turns in a straight line SE for more than a mile to a point near Shettleston Sheddings, E of Parkhead. From this it turns SW, and runs in a straight line for a mile to the river Clyde at the W corner of the corporation reservoirs, from which it proceeds down the middle of the river to the mouth of the Malls Mire Burn, on the S side of the river, opposite the middle of the S end of Glasgow Green. There it turns up the burn for about 1000 yards till it reaches the boundary line between the counties of Lanark and Renfrew, near Eastfield. It follows this boundary to a point lying to the S of the S corner of the Southern Necropolis, and then passes straight W to the E end of Butterbiggins Road, and then along this road in a line W by S, and, still keeping in a straight line, crosses Victoria Road and on to the county boundary, where it passes into Renfrewshire near Eglinton Saw-mills. Here it turns to the NW, and runs in a straight line to Shields Road near the Shields Road station, from which it strikes NW by N in a straight line to a point in the river Clyde opposite Finnieston Quay. Passing down the Clyde to the mouth of the Kelvin it turns up the latter stream to the Dumbarton Road, the line of which it follows for a short distance W, till it turns northward along the W side of the Western Infirmary grounds as far as University Avenue. Turning eastward along this street, it proceeds in a straight line past the S end of Anderston Free church to the river Kelvin, and again follows the course of that stream to a point directly N of Glasgow Academy, whence it passes in a straight line NE, till it reaches the Glasgow branch of the Forth and Clyde Canal at Firhill Saw-mills. From this the centre of the canal is the line of boundary to near Napiershall, whence the line passes eastward somewhat irregularly to Cowlairs. There it passes through the North British engine works northward to the E end of Hawthorn Street, and then curves along through Springburn, past the gateway of the Barony Poorhouse, and on to a point on the Monkland Canal E of Blochairn steel-works, whence it proceeds along the N side of the Alexandra Park to the point first mentioned. Its total length is about 17 miles; while the length of the municipal burgh, from Hawthorn Street on the N to Butterbiggins Road on the S, is in a straight line about 3½ miles; and from Shettleston Sheddings on the E to the mouth of the Kelvin on the W about 5 miles. There are nearly 900 streets within the boundary line, the total length of which must exceed 100 miles. Very little of the area within the municipality is now unbuilt on, and so much is the city hemmed in by its suburban neighbours, that extension of the boundary is well nigh impossible except by annexing the surrounding burghs, a proceeding to which the latter always show strong aversion. The mother city made a vigorous attempt in the 'No Man's Land' bill in 1875 to begin this swallowing-up process; but the successful resistance then made by Crossbill will probably prevent, for a long time to come, any effort to renew the trial.

Appearance.—A stranger entering Glasgow by any of the ordinary routes is not likely to be favourably impressed by it. By the Edinburgh and Glasgow branch of the North British system and by the northern branch of the Caledonian, he enters through dark and smoky tunnels. By the Bathgate branch of the North British, he enters through dingy suburbs and streets of a decidedly unpleasant aspect; while, by the southern branch of the Caledonian, the approach lies through murky mineral fields, amid the blaze of iron-works. By the Glasgow and South-Western line, he approaches amid houses of an inferior description. If the visitor come by road—excepting the approach by the Great Western Road through Billhead—it is much the same; while, if he come by the river, long ere reaching the city he has left the beauties of the Clyde behind, and finds himself moving slowly along a river which is not at all pure or sweet, amid a motley array of shipbuilding yards and engineering establishments resounding to the rattling of many hammers. No sooner, however, does he reach the centre of the city than he finds a vast difference in the character of the streets and in the surroundings, and sees on every hand buildings displaying both beauty and taste. Few exterior views of the city or of parts of it are interesting; and from the fact that no exterior view of it as a whole can be got, it is difficult to carry away from Glasgow any general impression. The best of the exterior views is from the Cathkin Hills, and they are too far off (3 miles) to allow of a distinct idea.

Lines of Street and Districts.—The city had its origin on the high ground adjoining the western side of the Molendinar Burn ravine, nearly a mile N of the Clyde; and as any extension immediately eastward was impracticable in consequence of the opposite side of the ravine being flanked by steep rising ground, the earliest enlargements took place over rapid slopes to the SE and SW to the flat ground towards the bank of the river. From this the extensions, which, till the latter part of last century, constituted the main bulk of the city, passed southward to an ancient bridge across the Clyde on the site of the present Victoria Bridge. The central line of thoroughfare through these extensions was the Bell o' the Brae (High Street NE of its intersection with George Street), leading to the flat ground, and then continuously High Street, Saltmarket, and Bridgegate to the bridge. This was intersected at the S end of High Street at the Cross by a transverse line of streets running E and W, Gallowgate striking off to the E and Trongate to the W. The principal extensions of the latter part of last century and the early part of the present century went westward, along the plain over all the space between the high ground and the river, the main thoroughfares being George Street, along the base of the high ground; Argyle Street, a continuation of the Trongate westward; and a number of transverse streets running in a direction nearly parallel to High Street and Saltmarket. Other extensions of contemporary date went eastward along the sides of the Gallowgate, and thence spread still farther to the E and SE, forming suburbs; while a small suburb of ancient date, at the S end of the bridge across the Clyde, spread rapidly E and S and W. The more recent extensions which have taken place to the N and NE, very largely to the S, and most of all to the W, have been very wide, so much so indeed that they have not only taken in outlying suburbs of some antiquity, but have also created new ones of considerable size; while the lines of streets exhibit an amount of imposing architecture in public buildings, works, warehouses, and private houses of much greater account than that of all the previous portions of the city. The westward extension on the N bank of the river reaches from about the line of Hope Street to a line fully a mile W of the Kelvin, and measures more than 2 miles in length by a mile in mean breadth. This is the finest of all the extensions, and, consisting mainly of elegant private residences, with places of business and public buildings interspersed, constitutes on the whole a West End somewhat similar to the West End of London. Some parts of it are still of a somewhat straggling character, but it is expected, with good reason, to be fully occupied with the exception of the open ornamental areas. This portion of the city has the great advantage of including the heights at Blythswood Square and Garnet Hill, the high grounds to the E of Kelvingrove Park and Gilmore Hill, with the reaches of the Kelvin between; and is comparatively free from the smoke and turmoil that prevail in most of the other parts of the city. It offers indeed, along with the suburban districts, so many advantages for residence that probably ere long, out of business hours, the central portion of Glasgow will be as little inhabited as the city in London, and the whole area given over to business purposes.

From the outline of the growth of the streets of Glasgow just given, it will be evident that the older and more irregular part of the city, with the usual closes and narrow and crooked streets, will lie to the E of the Cross, while the districts to the W, N, and S show greater regularity of plan, the streets in most cases intersecting at right angles, though the branching of some of the main roads causes in many places minor deviations by the formation of triangular and irregularly shaped blocks. As might be expected from the course of the river Clyde, the main lines of thoroughfare run in a direction more or less from E to W, with cross streets from N to S; but this regularity is best marked in the districts on the S side and between Argyle Street and George Street and Argyle Street and Sauchiehall Street.

In the south-eastern suburbs, extending for fully a mile in length and with an average breadth of 2½ furlongs, is the public park of Glasgow Green, all that now remains of the old common ground. It is bounded on the N partly by mean dingy streets, with murky factories, and partly by neat terraces. The streets leading westward are spacious, and for more than ½ mile are not encumbered by buildings on the river bank. Beyond this they are harbour approaches. The areas at the College Station E of High Street, and of George and St Enoch's Squares, break in this district the prevailing density of the street masses. The great West End district displays a fine assemblage of handsome streets, terraces, and crescents, intermixed with open ground and spaces laid out with shrubs. The great lines of thoroughfare from N to S are by Springburn Road, Castle Street, High Street, Saltmarket, Crown Street, and Cathcart Road in the E; and by Garscube or New City Road, Cowcaddens, Renfield Street, Union Street, Jamaica Street, Glasgow Bridge, Bridge Street, and Eglinton Street in the centre and towards the W; and subsidiary lines are by Port Dundas Road and Buchanan Street, and by Glassford Street, Stockwell Street, Victoria Bridge, Main Street (Gorbals), and Pollokshaws Road. The main line of thoroughfare from E to W is by Great Eastern Road, Gallowgate, Trongate, Argyle Street, Main Street (Anderston), and Dumbarton Road. There are also subsidiary lines along both banks of the river, and by Stirling Road, Cathedral Street, Bath Street; by Parliamentary Road and Sauchiehall Street; and by Duke Street, George Street, St Vincent Place, Renfield Street, Cowcaddens, and Great Western Road. The great part of the streets on the S side are, as will be seen from the historical section, much more modern than the central part of the city. The compact districts of the city and the continuous suburbs on the outskirts have separate names, and were either originally separate villages or took their names from separate estates. On the N are Cowcaddens-which takes its name from being the part of the common land which was set apart for the feeding of the town's cattle-Port Dundas, St Rollox-a corruption of St Roche, who had in the district a chapel noticed in the historical section-and Dennistoun; on the E Caltonan old barony-Camlachie, Mile-End, and Bridgeton; on the S Gorbals (an old barony), which has various subdivisions. The lands were left in 1650 by Sir George Douglas in trust to the magistrates, one-half for Hutcheson's Hospital, one-fourth for the Trades House, and one-fourth for the city. The lands were divided in 1789, and the part acquired by the hospital was called Hutchesontown; what fell to the Trades House, Tradeston. Lauriston was built on the hospital ground in the beginning of the present century, and Kingston about the same time on the part belonging to the council. On the W are Blythswoodholm-from the ancient barony of Blythswood; Anderston-from Mr Anderson, who was proprietor of the Stobcross lands in 1725, and laid out the plan of the original village; Finniestonnamed after Mr Finnie, a tutor in the family of Mr Orr, who had bought the estate of Anderston, and who laid out a plan for a village about 1765; Sandyford, Kelvinhaugh, and Woodside. Anderston, Finnieston, Gorbals, Hutchesontown, Tradeston, and Kingston were quite recently detached country villages. The suburban villages and burghs still only connected with the main part of the city by chains of houses or by partly open road, are, on the NW, Maryhill and Keppoch Hill; on the N, Springburn; on the E, Shettleston, Eastmuir, Hogganfield, Provanhall, Tollcross, Parkhead, and Barrochine; on the S, Crosshill, Strathbungo, and Pollokshields; on the WSW, Kinning Park, Govan, Govanhill, and Whiteinch; and on the W, Partick and Hillhead.

Streets and Street Architecture.—The city is in general remarkably well built. The building material is a fine light coloured sandstone, the masonry substantial, and the frontages in most parts lofty and good, though there is often a tendency towards too profuse ornamentation and to a rather factory-like arrangement of windows. The older districts are mostly squalid, and have little or none of the picturesqueness of the older Scotch architecture which gives such a characteristic and quaint aspect to the older portions of other of the old towns of Scotland. Most of the other districts are plain in style, and with nothing to distinguish the appearance of the houses from that of dwellings in any of the other stone-built towns in Britain, though the newer districts show more ornament, some of it running to heaviness and in questionable taste. The older districts about Drygate, High Street, Gallowgate, Bridgeton, Saltmarket, Bridgegate, Trongate, the Wynds, Gorbals, and Calton have been much altered and improved between 1866 and the present time. The operations of the City of Glasgow Union railway and still more of the City lmprovement Trust, acting under an act obtained in 1866, have removed altogether or greatly altered and improved a number of narrow and dirty courts, lanes, and streets that were in their old state mere hotbeds of disease and crime, and defied alike the efforts of sanitary inspector and police to improve them. The newest districts of all are ambitious and showy; some parts in very tasteful Italian; others abounding in pillared porches, projecting or divided windows, balconies, and balustrades; while the grand front range on the crown of the hill overlooking the West End Park is in the French style. A strong fondness is shown for pillar decoration even up to the Corinthian and composite, but the type adopted is often poor. The great number of new buildings erected along the principal streets since about 1840 shows a desire for variety of style and profusion of ornament which sometimes lead to rather striking results. While edifices of Norman, Italian, Flemish, and Scottish styles stand side by side with one another and with old plain buildings, a strong lofty ornate iron shell often replaces stonework, and sometimes efforts are made to replace the absence of decoration by glaring effects in paint. These last features are, however, exceptional, and, while no doubt pleasing to the eye of many, they considerably mar the general effect to an eye of even not very severe taste. High Street, Rotten Row, and Drygate retain but few signs of their former grandeur, though the last was once filled with the mansions of the aristocracy of the West. Alas, how are the mighty fallen! One of the best buildings in it now is a well-planned lodging-house erected by the City Improvement Trust, and containing accommodation for 200 persons. Rotten Row (originally routine and rue, as it was the usual road of the church dignitaries to the Cathedral ?) used formerly to contain the residences of several of the prebendaries of the Cathedral. The city gas-works were removed from it in 1872. Bell o' the Brae, the upper part of High Street, has been removed by the Improvement Trust, and the slope of the street lessened. The old name was derived from a bell placed in a small turret at its top, and always tolled at funerals. Duke's Place, adjacent to Drygate, contained an ancient house at one time belonging to the Earl of Lennox, and afterwards to the Duke of Montrose, where Darnley's illness took place, and where Queen Mary visited him. It was removed in 1853. Its connection with the Duke gave name to Duke Street. John Knox Street, extending across the Drygate to Argyle Street, was formed by the City Improvement Trust in 1872. It replaced a cluster of wretched houses called the Rookery, and is overlooked from the brow of the neighbouring Necropolis by John Knox's Monument. Ladywell Street, in the same neighbourhood, contains a small restored structure over a well, anciently dedicated to the Virgin. Duke Street, a continuation of George Street eastwards to the suburbs, has to the N the district of Dennistoun with pleasant villas. It is not entirely built, and contains the North Prison and the Cattle Market. A road branching off on the left leads to the Alexandra Park. George Street is in line with Duke Street to the W. It is a straight well-built street, and contains the buildings of the Andersonian University. High Street has been very much altered by the action of the Improvement Trust, but still contains in itself and the neighbouring courts a crowded population of the lowest class. A number of buildings densely populated and nearly opposite the station have been pulled down, and their site is now occupied by Canon Street.

Saltmarket, extending about 2 furlongs S in a line with High Street to the river and to the South Prison at Albert Bridge, was once the place of residence of the magnates of Glasgow-the Bailie Nicol Jarvies of their time, and gave lodging to James, Duke of York (afterwards James VII.), when he visited Glasgow. It became the rag fair of the city, and, with some of the streets leading from it, was the abode of people in a condition of the most squalid poverty. Prior to 1822 it contained some old houses, but in that year extensive reconstruction took place with a view to the improvement of the condition of the inhabitants. The effort failed, and no improvement was effected till the operations of the Improvement Trust and the Union railway cut off many of its closes, and almost revolutionised it. On the E side at the N corner of Steel Street was a house where Oliver Cromwell lived when he was in Glasgow. Bridgegate, leading westward from the S part of Saltmarket, also was once a place of high note. It contained the mansions of several noble families, an d afterwards the only banks of the city, the Merchants' Hall, and the Assembly Rooms where the Duchess of Douglas used to lead off the Glasgow civic balls in the last century. Here also the Union railway and the Improvement Trust have effected great improvements. St Andrew Square, 120 yards E of Saltmarket, and connected with it by St Andrew Street, was built in the latter part of last century as an aristocratic quarter, and it shows a symmetry worthy of its importance and purpose, an appearance enhanced by St Andrew's Church in the centre. It soon fell into disrepute, and is now hugged on every side by squalid alleys. London Street, extending ESE from the head of Saltmarket, a straight, open, well-built street, was formed at a comparatively recent period. It was intended as a convenient outlet to the SE suburbs to which it leads, partly by the line of Great Hamilton Street, partly by Monteith Row and Glasgow Green. The south-eastern suburbs are Bridgeton, Barrowfield, Mile-End, and Calton. These have mostly a dingy appearance, and contain a considerable number of factories-cotton, linen, jute-and chemical and iron works. They have been improved by the construction of two spacious streets under the Improvement Act. Gallowgate, striking off eastwards from the Cross at an acute angle with London Street, leads to the suburb of Camlachie. It was formerly the principal outlet on the E, but now has little to attract attention except here and there some dwarfish old dwelling almost hidden by the neighbouring houses. About 3 furlongs eastward from the Cross stand the old Barrack buildings, superseded in 1876 by new barracks near Maryhill. Near the Cross it was formerly very disagreeable and even offensive, but the widening and levelling of the street, and the demolition of a number of unsightly tenements at the point where it is crossed by the Union railway, have vastly improved it, as has also the formation of Watson Street. Trongate, the early state of which is noticed in the historical section, was the seat of all the main business of the city so late as the time of the tobacco trade in the latter part of last century. It has everywhere a width of 60 feet or upwards. The buildings are stately, though some of them are old. It contains the Cross Steeple (the tower of the old Tolbooth) the Tontine buildings, the equestrian statue of William III., the Tron Steeple, and an imposing block of buildings (1858) in the Scottish Baronial style which occupies the site of a house where Sir John Moore was born. Trongate and its continuation westward, Argyle Street, are the busiest thoroughfares in Glasgow. Candleriggs, at right angles to Trongate, on the N, is an old street (1722), but it has been thoroughly modernised. It has on the E side the City Hall, and St David's church is at the top. Hutcheson Street and Glassford Street, parallel to Candleriggs, are handsome open streets. The former is named from Hutcheson's Hospital, which stands at its top. It contains also the County Buildings and the City Chambers. Glassford Street (1792) is named from a distinguished merchant of the times of the tobacco trade mentioned by Smollett in his Humphrey Clinker. On the W side is the Trades Hall. Stockwell Street, going S to Victoria Bridge, is older, and was long the SW verge of the city.

Argyle Street—mentioned under the name of West Street (as leading from the West Port) in the early part of the 18th century, and under its present name as early as 1777-extends from Trongate westward to Anderston, and is as spacious and stately as Trongate. The centre dates from the beginning of this century, and the western part is subsequent to 1820. The older part has been almost entirely reconstructed. It is a very crowded thoroughfare, and as a seat of business is scarcely surpassed by any street in Europe. Virginia Street (N) was formed in 1753, and was then occupied by mansionhouses. It takes its name from a house called Virginia House, which belonged to a Virginia merchant named Buchanan, and stood on the site now occupied by the Union Bank. Miller Street (N) was opened in 1771, and got its name from the proprietor of the ground. It was also intended for mansions, and Mr Buchanan in his Desultory Sketches of Glasgow tells how when it was first laid out no feus were taken off for some time, as it was considered too far out of town, a statement that gives a far better idea of the increase in size of Glasgow within the last century than pages of description. Dunlop Street (S) had at its head of old the Buck's Head Hotel, long a place of high city note. From 1840 to 1868 the Theatre Royal was also here. Queen Street (N) is on the line of the Cow Loan, by which the cows of the inhabitants (kept in a common byre on the site presently occupied by the Royal Exchange) passed to the public pastures at Cowcaddens. It was constructed in the end of last century, and is now one of the best streets in the city. It contains the Inland Revenue Office, the offices of the National Bank, the old Stock Exchange, and the Royal Exchange. At the N end is the station of the North British railway. Buchanan Street (N) is parallel to Queen Street. It was opened in 1778, and took its name from the owner of the ground. At first it was not intended to connect it with Argyle Street, but the plan was afterwards changed. The situation is described in an advertisement as being ' rural and agreeable. ' Even so late as 1816 it was the western street of the city. It was occupied by villas, and was so quiet that grass grew abundantly on the carriageway. It is now lined with fine shops and lofty and elegant business tenements. It contains the Western Club, the new Stock Exchange, St George's Church, and the original terminus of the Caledonian railway. The Argyle Arcade passes E from Buchanan Street, and then, turning off at right angles, enters Argyle Street. The block of buildings in Venetian style at the corner of Buchanan Street and Argyle Street was erected in 1873 at a cost of £20, 000. St Enoch's Square (S) was originally an aristocratic quarter, with villas, and in the centre were shrubberies. It was gradually given up to business, and about 1850 the open central space was appropriated for a cab stand. At the S side is St Enoch's Church. On the E side is St Enoch's railway station and Hotel. Union Street (N) is, though short, architecturally one of the finest streets in Glasgow, the E side being largely occupied by magnificent and tasteful warehouses, some in the Grecian style, others with quasi-Egyptian features. Jamaica Street (S) was formed about 1760, and was then in the country. Now it is almost as busy as Argyle Street, and thronged with people and machines passing and repassing to Glasgow Bridge. W of Union Street and Jamaica Street the cross streets are uniform in character and without any special features. Anderston, to the W of Argyle Street, was founded in 1725, and at first occupied by weavers. It afterwards became the chief seat of the marine steam-engine establishments, and of other manufactures. It is a crowded malodorous sooty place, with very inferior houses.

Ingram Street striking eastward from Queen Street opposite the Royal Exchange, was formed in 1777 on the line of the Back Cow Loan. It contains the British Linen Company's Bank, the Union Bank, the Athenæum, Hutcheson's Hospital, the N frontage of the County Buildings, and St David's Church. On the E are Campbell's warehouses completed in 1858, and exhibiting turrets, dormers, and other features of the Scottish Baronial style. Between Ingram Street and George Square is South Hanover Street, which contains a range of fine Italian warehouses built for the Macdonalds, a great firm of muslin manufacturers, but lost to them in the monetary crisis of 1857. George Square (1782) was originally surrounded by aristocratic private residences, with a spacious garden in the centre. It became in course of time the centre of crowded thoroughfares, and, in 1865, it was stripped of its central trees, and crossed by numerous paths. The whole space is now open, and there are a number of monuments of those whom the city delights to honour. The post office is on the S side; the Queen Street station of the North British railway on part of the N. On the W side are the offices of the Bank of Scotland and the new Merchants' Hall, while the E side, which is at present occupied by a range of half ruined houses, is by-and-by to be adorned with the new Municipal Buildings.

St Vincent Place, which runs W from the SW corner of George Square, is spacious and open with fine build ings. It contains the main front of the Bank of Scotland, the New Clydesdale Bank, and a very handsome insurance office. St Vincent Street, a continuation of the Place westward, was one of the first of the new western streets, and outstripping the others passed over Blythswood Hill to Anderston. It was originally dwelling-houses, but the E half is now given up for business premises. At its highest point is the St Vincent Street United Presbyterian church. West George Street, parallel to St Vincent Street to the N, has the fine ornamental range of Stirling's warehouses and the Gartsherrie offices, erected about 1860. At the E end is St George's Church. Regent Street, parallel to West George Street, and a number of the cross streets in the same quarter, are handsome and airy and occupied by dwelling-houses. On the summit of the high ground at the W end of Regent Street is Blythswood Square, a spacious opening surrounded by dwelling-houses. There is a central enclosure of grass, and at the SW corner is St Jude's Episcopal church. Bath Street runs W from Buchanan Street. The buildings at the E end are devoted to business, but the rest of it is occupied by dwelling-houses, a number of hotels, and several churches.

Sauchiehall Street, at first parallel to Bath Street and then turning WSW to the vicinity of Kelvingrove Park, has, till 183h, a quiet narrow suburban thoroughfare called Sauchiehall Road. The eastern part is now a plain spacious business street with some fine shops. The western part comprises a fine series of villas, terraces, and crescents, with lawns and shrubberies in front. It stands to Argyle Street very much in the same relation as Oxford Street in London does to the Strand. The square blocks of buildings to the S in Renfield Street, Nile Street, and West Regent Street are known as Victoria Buildings. The style is an imposing combination of the old Scottish and Flemish styles. The buildings which are 241 feet in length and 92 in height, and contain upwards of 420 windows, were erected in 1860 by Archibald Orr Ewing, Esq., and contain warehouses, shops, counting-rooms, and public offices. On the S side of the street, near the centre of the business part, are Caledonian Buildings, a picturesque erection in rich Italian style, and here also stands the Institute of the Fine Arts where are held the Glasgow Art Exhibitions. It is a building in the Greek style, plain but dignified. At the E end are the Royalty and Gaiety Theatres. From the N side of Sauchiehall Street, opposite Wellington Street, there is communication with Cowcaddens by a series of arcades called the Wellington Arcade. They are much the same as the Argyle Arcade, but not quite in such good style. Cowcaddens was, as has been already mentioned, the common pasture for the cattle belonging to the citizens. It is now a compactly built and densely populated district. It contains the Theatre Royal, the Grand Theatre, and the Free Church Normal School. N of Cowcaddens on an elevated ridge is Port Dundas, where is the harbour of the Forth and Clyde and the Monkland Canals. The appearance of the lines of boats amid lofty houses on the crest of a ridge some 60 feet above the adjacent level is somewhat peculiar. Port Dundas is mainly a place of commerce and manufacture, and has large warehouses and granaries. There are here a very large distillery and grain, flour, and saw mills. Garnet Hill, flanking the N side of Sauchiehall Street, near the centre, rises so steeply in some parts as to be very inconvenient for carriages and traffic, but is nevertheless covered with streets of a genteel class. It commands views of the city and south-western suburbs better and more extensive than even those from Blythswood Square. The western part of Sauchiehall Street and the districts round are known collectively as the Crescents. The district measures about 5 furlongs by 3, and contains numerous terraces which are well and uniformly built with houses of good style, mostly varieties of Italian, set off by the lawns and shrubs. On the higher ground near Park Circus, and overlooking the whole district, rise the tower of Park church and the campanile of the Free Church College. Sandyford lying beyond, and occupying the district between the Clyde and the Kelvin, has a number of genteel streets.

From Cowcaddens the line of street is extended westward by the New City Road and the Great Western Road. The tract to the N of this was till 1830 quite open, but it is now largely built on. Across the Kelvin lies the separate burgh of Hillhead, the whole of which is of quite recent structure. It covers an area of about 5 by 4 furlongs. The streets are wide and airy, and most of them have good houses; while there are a number of terraces, with grass plots and trees in front. The Botanic Gardens are in Hillhead, on the N side of the Great Western Road. SW of this is the burgh of Partick, extending towards the Clyde. It is large enough and populous enough to outrival many a provincial town that plumes itself on its importance. The part towards the river is occupied by densely-populated streets, the denizens of which are somewhat noted for their rough character; but on the rising-ground to the N are immense numbers of detached or semi-detached villas, which render this district one of the prettiest and pleasantest about Glasgow. Govan, on the S side of the Clyde opposite Partick, was once almost a rival of Glasgow. It is about a mile in length by 2 furlongs in breadth, and lies along the bank of the river. The older parts of it show plain cottages, now somewhat dingy; the newer parts show well-built streets and neat villas. The bank of the river is occupied by shipbuilding yards, and the place has also a silk factory and a fine church steeple, modelled after that of Stratfordon-Avon. Gorbals, which lies E of Govan along the S bank of the Clyde, is the largest and most populous district in the city, and is indeed large enough of itself to rival Aberdeen or Dundee. It might in every way be described as the Southwark of Glasgow. It measures about 2 miles by 1 mile, and has, in connection with new manufactures, with railway works, and with harbour works, spread rapidly and widely between 1835 and the present time. It comprises the districts of Plantation, Kinning Park, Kingston, Tradeston, Laurieston, and Hutchesontown. Some idea of the rapid growth of these districts may be gathered from the fact that, between 1861 and 1871, the population of Kinning Park increased from 651 to 7217. The streets are mostly regular, but vary very much in style. Some of them, leading to Pollokshields, Crosshill, and Mount Pleasant, are handsome and good. Eglinton Street and Victoria Road, leading from Glasgow Bridge to Queen's Park, is a fine line of thoroughfare. Crosshill, close to the Queen's Park, not long since a mere village, is rapidly becoming a thriving town of villas.

Gorbals proper is a name sometimes given to the parts of Laurieston and Hutchesontown adjoining the Clyde near Victoria Bridge. Its chief thoroughfare used to be a wretched old, narrow, and tortuous street called Main Street, ribbed with closes of the most squalid and dismal order, every house in which was overcrowded to an alarming extent. At that time it was such a hotbed of quarrels and disturbance that it was known as ' Little Ireland. ' The City Improvement Trust has, however, driven a new street with a width of 70 feet straight over the old site of Main Street and its closes, and it has also formed a series of new streets from Kingston Dock to the E end of Hutchesontown. At the intersection of this line with Main Street a sort of square has been formed, measuring about 200 by 180 feet, and known as Gorbals Cross. Hutchesontown farther E still is about 6 by 4 furlongs, and has of late years been very much modified by the operations of the City Union railway, which passes through the western part of it. It contains a number of cotton factories and an iron-work, with blast furnaces that send up a continuous glare.

History.—Unlike many of the populous and enterprising towns of the present day, Glasgow can boast of a history which proves that, even in those remote times when trade and commerce were unknown, it was a place of considerable importance. The name Glasgow does not appear till the 12th century, but there were two villages called Deschu and Cathures on the same site. These names, however, bore so little resemblance to the present form, that the connection was difficult to trace. M 'Ure, the earliest historian of Glasgow, says that ' it is called Glasgow because in the Highland or Irish language Glasgow signifies a grayhound or a gray-smith. ' The new Statistical takes graysmith or dark glen, the latter referring to the ravine at the Molendinar Burn. Wade, in his History of Glasgow, gives Welsh glas, ' green, ' and coed, ' a wood,the green wood. But Mr Macgeorge, in his Old Glasgow, seems to have solved the difficulty. He suggests that the transcribers of the old MSS. mistook cl for d, and so wrote Deschu instead of Cleschu, from which comes Gleschu, and hence Glasgu and Glasgow (Glas, ' green, ' and ghu, ' beloved, ' the name being therefore the beloved green place). In the early part of the Christian era we find the district inhabited by a tribe called the Damnonii, who were, during the time the Romans held the Wall of Antoninus, under Roman rule within the province of Valentia. This wall, in its course from Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde to Blackness, passed a short distance to the N of Glasgow; and there are also the remains of a large camp, said to be Roman, on the lands of Camphill, near the battle-ground of Langside, about 2 miles S of the city. Probably there were Roman garrisons at stations scattered among the conquered tribes behind the wall, and of these one is said to have been at Glasgow; but nothing except the vague tradition of its existence is known, not even its name. When the Romans retired, the district became part of the Cumbrian British kingdom of Strathclyde; but the important place in this connection is Dumbarton, then the chief town, and called Alclyde or the Rock of the Clyde. St Ninian-who was trained at Rome, and founded the church of Whithorn in 397-according to the 12th century Life of St Kentigern by Jocelyn of Furness, established a primitive church and consecrated a burial-ground at a place called Cathures, where Glasgow Cathedral now stands. This was about the beginning of the 5th century, but his influence seems to have passed away with himself; and when Deschu next emerges from obscurity, it is in connection with its later and locally more famous saint, Kentigern or Mungo, who made his appearance in the district somewhere near the middle of the 6th century, and probably about 543 A.D.St Kentigern or Mungo was the son of Ewen ap Urien or Eugenius, a prince of the Britons of Strathclyde-according to some the King of Cumbria-and Thenew, daughter of Loth, King of Northumbria, or, according to others, King of the Lothians, to which he is supposed to have given name. Though Loth was ' a man half pagan, ' his daughter had become a convert to Christianity, and, according to the legend, in her zeal for her new faith, became desirous of rivalling the virginal honour and maternal blessedness of the Virgin Mary. In carrying out her purpose she scorned all suitors, Prince Eugenius, who had her father's influence to back him, among the rest. To escape from farther trouble, she at last fled to a remote part of the kingdom, and concealed herself in the lowly guise of a swineherd. Prince Eugenius, however, followed her and found her, and she returned to her father's court, only to be relentlessly condemned to death on account of her condition. Though she denied all crime, her father refused to listen to her prayers for life, and handed her over to the executioners to be stoned to death. They preferred the easier plan of casting her over a precipice, Dumpender or Traprain Law, but she escaped unhurt. This was considered clear proof of sorcery, and she was put into a corade, which was taken down the Forth to the Isle of May and there set adrift; but this was no more fatal to her than the former attempt, for a shoal of fishes made their appearance at this opportune moment and carried the boat on their backs to the shallow water at Culross, on the N side of the Firth of Forth. Here Thenew landed and gave birth to a son, and both mother and child were brought by some of the country people to St Serf or Servanus, a disciple of St Palladius, who had here established a little monastery.* He received them into his household, where the infant received his nurture, and was taught the rudiments of his faith. The boy, named Kentigern (Welsh cyn, ' chief,' and teyrn, ' lord '), turned out so well as he grew up, that he became a great favourite with the aged Serf, who gave him the pet name of Munghu (Welsh mwyn, ' amiable, ' and cu, ' dear '), whence came the second name of ' Mungo, ' by which the saint is now probably better known than by the name of Kentigern. As he grew in years and knowledge, he displayed a faculty for working miracles which soon attracted attention. He restored to life a robin-redbreast whose head had been cut off; one winter night when the fire was quenched by his enemies, he kindled it again with a frozen branch which he blew into a flame; during harvest the cook died and there was no one to provide food for the reapers, whereupon St Serf himself came and enjoined his Mungo either to restore the cook to life or to fill his place, a command which he obeyed by bringing the cook to life again. Obeying a monition of the Spirit, he secretly left Culross to devote himself to work in other places, and went southward, the waters of the Forth opening to allow him to pass. He was followed by St Serf, who, looking forward to him as his successor, begged him to return; but feeling his duty to lie elsewhere, he would not go back. Journeying westward, he found, at a place called Kernach, an aged Christian named Fergus, to whom it had been revealed that he should not die until he had seen one who was to bring back the district to the faith of St Ninian, and who almost as soon as he saw St Mungo, fell dead on the ground. Taking the body with him in a cart drawn by two wild bulls, the saint proceeded on his journey till he reached Deschu and Cathures on the banks of the Clyde, and here, in the churchyard consecrated by St Ninian, he buried Fergus. His fame must have either gone before him or must have spread very rapidly, for he was almost immediately visited by the king and the leading men of Strathclyde, who begged him to become their religious guide. The saint, who was only twenty-five, pleaded his youth as an excuse; but they were determined to have him, and he was consecrated by a bishop brought from Ireland for the purpose. His habits were very ascetic, for he is said to have been in the habit of often rising in the middle of the night and rushing into the Molendinar Burn, where he remained in the water, no matter what the season or the weather, till he had recited the whole of the Psalms of David. He still retained miraculous power. A young man who scoffed at him was killed suddenly by a falling weight; he sowed sand and a crop of fine grain grew; he ploughed a field with a team consisting of a wolf and a stag. At length, however, he became involved in a quarrel with the king -Morken-because in answer to a mocking taunt of his majesty he had actually caused the Clyde to sweep the contents of the king's barns at Cathures up the Molendinar Burn to Deschu. Morken shortly after, using violence to the saint, was killed by being flung from his horse, and the saint, to escape the vengeance of the king's relatives, had to flee to Wales. Here, after remaining for a time with St David, he founded a monastery, and gathered about him a band of disciples at the place now known, from the most celebrated of his followers, as St Asaph's. The victory of Arthuret (573) placed Rydderch Hael on the throne of Strathclyde, and he at once despatched an embassy to Wales to St Mungo to urge him to return to his old abode on the banks of the Clyde, and, the effort succeeding, the saint's power became greater than before. His miraculous gift continued, and was exemplified in a very wonderful way in connection with the queen. This lady, named Langueth, had received from her husband at their marriage a peculiar ring, of which she was not so careful as she should have been, and which she had entrusted to the keeping of a soldier with whom she was in some way connected. The king one day found the soldier sleeping, and noticed the ring on his finger, and, his anger being roused at the small value the queen thus seemed to set upon the jewel, he took it from the man's finger, and casting it into the river, went straightway to the queen and told her he wished for the ring. She urged delay, and sent at once for it, but it was, of course, not to be found; and her majesty in great dismay applied to the saint, who forthwith came to her rescue. He told her to cause a fishingline to be cast into the Clyde, when the first fish that was caught would be found to have the ring either in its mouth or in its stomach. This turned out exactly as he had said, and the ring being thus restored the jealous monarch was satisfied.

* The anachronism involved in this portion of the legend has been already noticed under Culross.

This incident has given the city the main features of its armorial bearings, while other incidents in St Mungo's life have supplied the whole. The arms, as settled by the Lord Lyon, King of Arms, and described in his patent granted at Edinburgh on 25 Oct. 1866, are -'Argent, on a mount in base vert an oak tree proper, the stem at the base thereof surmounted by a salmon on its back, also proper, with a signet ring in its mouth, or; on the top of the tree a redbreast, and on the sinister fess point an ancient hand-bell, both also proper. Above the shield is to be placed a suitable helmet, with a mantling gules, doubled argent, and issuing out of a wreath of the proper liveries is to be set for crest the half-length figure of S. Kentigern, affronté, vested and mitred, his right hand raised in the act of benediction, and having in his left hand a crozier, all proper: in a compartment below the shield are to be placed for supporters two salmon proper, each holding in its mouth a signet ring, or; and in the escrol entwined with the compartment this motto, " Let Glasgow flourish." ' The salmon and the ring are connected with the foregoing story; the tree is the branch with which the monastery fire was lighted; the bird is the robin that was miraculously restored to life; and the bell is the consecrated one that was brought from Rome by St Mungo when ho visited the sacred city in his later years, and which was placed in the college buildings, and preserved in Glasgow till the Reformation, or perhaps to a later date. It was called St Mungo's Bell, and was tolled through the city to warn the inhabitants to pray for the repose of a departed soul. These tokens appear on the seals of the bishops of Glasgow in the 12th and 13th centuries, from which they were transferred to the common seal of the city in the beginning of the 14th. This at least seems a probable explanation, and as such it is now accepted in preference to the fanciful theory propounded by Cleland in his Rise and Progress of Glasgow, where he says, ' The tree is emblematical of the spreading of the Gospel: its leaves being represented as for the healing of the nations. The bird is also typical of that glorious event, so beautifully described under the similitude of the winter being passed, and the rain over and gone, the time of the singing of birds being come, and the voice of the turtle heard in our land. Bells for calling the faithful to prayers, and other holy ordinances of the Church, have been considered so important in Roman Catholic countries, that for several centuries past the right of consecration has been conferred on them by the dignitaries of the Church. That religion might not absorb the whole insignia of the town, the trade, which at that time was confined to fishing and curing salmon, came in for its share, and this circumstance gave rise to the idea of giving the salmon a place in the arms of the city.' The motto, which is said to have been in its original form ' Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word,' traditionally takes its origin from a mound which the saint raised miraculously at the Dovehill E of the Cross, to enable him to get an elevation from which to preach to the crowd. Glasgow was to rise and Hourish as this mound had done. The motto does not, however, seem to have been in use previous to 1699.

The rest of the saint's life is little more than a record of the miracles he performed, not only in Strathclyde, but all over the country, his travels being widely extended, and on more than one occasion reaching as far as Rome, where he was kindly received by the Pope and confirmed in his bishopric. The one historic event of his later years appears to be his visit from Columba on the banks of the Molendinar about the year 584, when the saints interchanged their pastoral staves. His death took place probably in 612, and he was buried, according to the monkish chronicler, at the right hand side of the high altar of the cathedral. See the two Lives of St Kentigern edited by Bishop Forbes in vol. v. of The Historians of Scotland (Edinb. 1874), and vol. ii., pp. 197-198, of Dr Skene's Celtic Scotland (Edinb. 1877).

The successors of St Mungo are involved in obscurity, though no doubt the sanctity pertaining to the restingplace of the bones of so holy a man would for a time keep his establishment together, and help to increase the size of the village close by. It must have suffered, however, in the struggle against the supremacy of the Roman Church, and probably also in the commotions and strife produced by the incursions of the Danes, as well as in the contest in which the kingdom of Strathclyde disappeared and the country passed under the sway of the king of the Scots. Whatever the cause, so at least it was; and, just as in the case of Lichfield, the records of the see of Glasgow disappear for full 500 years. 'After St Mungo,' says M'Ure, a quaint early historian of Glasgow, ' for many ages the Episcopal see was overrun with heathenism and barbarity till the reign of Alexander I. ' When Alexander succeeded to the throne in 1107, he bestowed on his younger brother David, Prince of Cumbria, all the territory S of the Forth except the Lothians; and as David inherited all his mother's zeal for religion, he set himself to look after the spiritual condition of his subjects as vigorously as after their temporal welfare. The saintly character of St Mungo, and his connection with Glasgow, very soon attracted David's attention, and in 1115 he restored the see, and appointed his tutor and chaplain John (commonly called Achaius) the first of the new line of bishops. John, who was a man of learning and ability, as well as with considerable knowledge of the world, for he had travelled extensively on the Continent, was at first somewhat unwilling to accept the proffered promotion, but at last yielded to the prince's wishes, and was consecrated by Pope Paschal II., to whom he was well known. An inquisition ' concerning the lands belonging to the church of Glasgow, ' a copy of which exists in the chartulary of Glasgow, was made in 1120. In this it is set forth that ' various disturbances, everywhere arising, ' had ' not only destroyed the church and her possessions, but, wasting the whole country, driven the inhabitants into exile; ' and that the inhabitants, thus left to themselves, had followed the manners of the Gentiles and lived ' like brutes; ' but that now ' God sent unto them David as their prince,' who was to set this scandalous state of matters right, and who for that purpose had appointed John as their bishop. John, it goes on to say, was frightened at their barbarity and their abominable sins, but had been constrained by the Pope to enter upon the burdensome charge; and so the Prince had caused all the lands formerly belonging to the church of Glasgow to be found out and made over to the new bishop, that he might have sinews for his struggle with the wrong. The bishop had more trouble, too, than what merely arose from the condition of his see, for he got involved in a quarrel about church supremacy with the Archbishop of York, who claimed to be metropolitan of Scotland, and adduced in support of that claim a record (strongly, and with good cause, suspected of being a forgery) of three bishops of Glasgow consecrated at York in the 11th century. John resisted the York claims, and was so sorely tried that he quitted his see for the purpose of proceeding to the Holy Land. The Pope, however, ordered him to return, and 1124 found the good bishop not only settled again, but beginning to replace the primitive church of St Mungo by a statelier erection, of which some parts were of stone. The new cathedral was consecrated in presence of his royal patron, who was now King of Scotland, on 7 July 1136. The Prince had, on his accession to the throne, made large donations to the establishment, and he now further conferred on it the lands of Perdeyc [Partick], which still form part of the episcopal belongings, though they have passed into the hands of the University. According to the Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, ' the king, David I., gave to the church the land of Perdeyc [Partick], which was soon afterwards erected, along with the church of Guvan [Govan]. into a prebend of the cathedral. In addition to the long list of possessions* restored to Glasgow upon the verdict of the assize of inquest, this saintly King granted to the bishop the church of Renfrew; Guvan, with its church; the church of Cadihou [Cadzow]; the tithe of his cane or duties paid in cattle and swine throughout Strathgrif, Cuningham, Kyle, and Carrick; and the eighth penny of all pleas of court throughout Cumbria (which included the greater part of Scotland S of the Forth and Clyde, as well as the English county of Cumberland). The bishop also acquired the church of Lochorwort, near Borthwick in Lothian, from the Bishop of St Andrews, the King and Prince present and consenting.' David, the sainted son of St Margaret, was the greatest benefactor known in the annals of the see of Glasgow, and this is only one example of that liberality in gifting royal possessions to the Church which earned him from James VI. the character of 'ane sair sanct for the croon.' At the time of the consecration of the cathedral, ' the diocese was divided into two archdeaconries of Glasgow and Teviotdale, and for the first time there were appointed a dean, sub-dean, chancellor, treasurer, sacrist, chanter, and sub-chanter, all of whom had prebends settled upon them out of the gifts received from the King.' Bishop John died on 28 May 1147, after having held the see for the long period of thirty-two years. He was succeeded by Bishop Herbert, in whose time the strife with York was finally ended by Pope Alexander III., who decided that the only controlling power over the Church of Scotland was the see of Rome. He died in 1164, in which year also Malcolm IV. made proclamation that tithes were to be paid in the bishopric of Glasgow just as elsewhere. Herbert was succeeded by Ingram, who died in 1174; and was in turn succeeded by Joceline, abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Melrose, who was consecrated at Clairvaux, in France, on 1 June 1175, by Esceline, the Pope's legate. He is reputed on all hands to have been a worthy and liberal-minded prelate, and his actions prove him to have been one of the greatest, if not the greatest, of the occupants of the episcopal throne of Glasgow. Above all others ought he to be held in happy remembrance by the citizens of Glasgow, for, by a charter obtained from William the Lyon about 1180, the first start was given to the growth of Deschu into something more than a village. By this charter Glasgow was constituted a burgh of barony, holding of the bishop; and the King granted and confirmed ' to God and St Kentigern, and Joceline, Bishop of Glasgow, and all his successors for ever, that they shall hold a burgh at Glasgow, with a weekly market on Thursday, fully and freely, with all freedoms, liberties, and customs which any of my burghs throughout the whole of my kingdom enjoy.' Subsequently, about 1190, the bishop obtained for his burgh the further privilege of ' a fair to be kept at Glasgow, and to be held every year for ever, from the octave of the Apostles Peter and Paul, for the space of eight days complete, with ' the King's ' full protection, and with every freedom and all other liberties belonging and granted to fairs throughout the whole of ' his ' dominions, as fully and freely as all fairs are or ought to be held in any of' his ' dominions.' The octave of St Peter and St Paul fell on 6 July, and on that date the fair is still kept up with unfailing regularity, the only difference from the olden time being, that, instead of being held for business purposes, it is now characterised by the total want of it, Glasgow Fair being in those days the annual holidays, when labour is suspended and the industrious thousands enjoy a few days' recreation. While thus mindful of the temporal benefit of those under his charge, he was no less diligent in matters relating to their spiritual care. In 1192 the church built by Bishop John was burned, and so complete was the destruction that it is evident the greater portion must have been constructed of wood, though, judging from the fragments of Norman architecture that have since been dug up, some part at least was of stone. Joceline at once set himself to the task of rearing a new and more substantial edifice. He obtained a royal edict from his ever-ready patron, King William, which expressed the King's sympathy with the ruined condition of the church, which ' consumed by fire,' required ' the most ample expenditure for its repairs,' and charged all his servants throughout the kingdom to give what help they could to the 'fraternity' (a committee for gathering subscriptions ?) appointed by the bishop. Aid was invoked from the pious all over Europe; and Joceline's appeal was so generously answered, that the present beautiful crypt known by his name was consecrated in 1197, on the octave of St Peter and St Paul, other two bishops besides Joceline himself taking part in the ceremony. In the crypt a tomb was erected, with a votive altar, dedicated to St Mungo. The merit has also been assigned to Joceline of having built the superincumbent choir and lady chapel; but it seems now proved that these were only commenced by him, and were completed by his successors. Still the honour belongs to him of being the founder of the existing magnificent and venerable structure, for it is certain that no part of the church built by Bishop John now remains above ground. After having held office for twenty-four years, Joceline died on 17 March 1199, and was buried on the right side of the choir. The next three bishops seem to have done little or nothing for the rising burgh; but in the time of the next bishop, Walter, a contest took place with Dumbarton and Rutherglen, both by that time royal burghs, with regard to tolls and customs. A royal charter had granted exemption to the bishop and his people from the dues levied by these places, and this the royal burghs resented and opposed as an infringement of their privileges; but, notwithstanding all their efforts, the bishop was powerful enough to obtain an edict declaring that his burgesses ' were entitled to trade in Lennox and Argyll as freely as the men of Dumbarton, ' and Rutherglen was prohibited from levying toll or custom nearer Glasgow than the cross of Shettlestone. Bishop Walter died in 1232, and was succeeded by William de Bondington, who pushed on the building of the cathedral, and in whose time the choir was either altogether or almost finished. A special canon was passed at a provincial council of the clergy, commending the work to the benevolence of the faithful, and promising certain indulgences to all who should contribute. This Bishop William, who also held the .office of chancellor to King Alexander II. during the latter half of his reign, was a munificent prelate, and, besides his exertions on behalf of the cathedral, he aided, in 1246, in establishing at Glasgow a monastery of friars of the order of St Dominic (Black Friars). Their church, which is said to have rivalled the cathedral itself, was dedicated to the blessed Virgin and St John the Evangelist; and when the building commenced, Pope Innocent IV. issued a bull of forty days' indulgence to all who should contribute to its completion. The church stood on the E side of High Street, and must have been a fine old building. M'Ure declares that it was ' the ancientest building of Gothic kind of work that could be seen in the whole kingdom, as was observed by Mr Miln, the architect to King Charles I., who, when he surveyed it in 1638, declared that it had not its parallel in all Scotland, except Whittairn in Galloway. ' Even in 1638, however, it must have lost some of its old grandeur, for at the time of the Reformation it was deserted and probably injured; and on 24 April 1574 it was ' statute, thocht gude, and ordainit, be the provest, baillies, and counsale that the westir ruinous gavill of the Blackfreir kirk and the stanes thereof be tain doun ' and sold, and the proceeds applied to mending the windows and the minister's seat ' in the said kirk. ' The latter building survived till 1670, when, having been struck by lightning, it was taken down and replaced by the old College or Blackfriars church, which is now also gone. The adjoining ' place ' or monastery of the friars was largely and richly endowed. When King Edward I. of England remained in Glasgow for a fortnight in the autumn of 1301, he was lodged in the monastery of the Friars Preachers, from which it may be inferred that it was the only building in the town capable of accommodating the monarch and his train. Although his residence was with the friars, however, Edward, as became one desirous of being reputed a pious king, was constant in his offerings at the high altar and the shrine of St Mungo. The accounts of Edward's wardrobe show that he requited the hospitality of the brethren with a payment of six shillings. No vestiges of the monastery now remain. It occupied the site of the old university, near the place nov. occupied by the Midland Railway Company's offices.

* Viz.:—Carievien. Camcaw, Camcahethyn, Lengartheyn, Pathel, Asserhe, Canclut, Chefernenuat, Carnetheyn, Carvil, Quendal, Abercarf, Meeheyn, Planmichel, Stobo, Penteiacob, Alnerumba, Keveronum, Lilleseliva, Hodelm, Edyngahum, Abermele, Drivesdale, Colchtam, Kevertrole, Aschib, Brumeseheyd, Keversgyrt; in Peeblis, one carucate of land and a church; in Kincayrd, one carucate of land and a church; in Mereboda, one carucate of land and a church.

Bishop William died in 1258, and his two successors are of very little importance or influence, one of them being indeed so obnoxious to his flock that he resided at Rome. In 1273, however, Robert Wishart or Wischard, a man of eminence and a member of the council of Alexander III., became bishop. Unlike his predecessors his services were of a national rather than of a local nature. Being, after the death of the king, appointed one of the lords of regency, he took a vigorous part in the struggle for national independence; and in these perilous times no man exerted himself with more ardour or a purer patriotism towards the preservation of the independence of his country from the assaults of Edward I. It was in Glasgow during his episcopate that Wallace was captured on 5 Aug. l305 by Sir Alexander Monteith, and carried off to Dumbarton, thence a week later to be taken to London for trial and execution; and Wishart himself, although imprisoned by the English, and so cruelly treated that he became blind, yet lived to see the cause for which he had struggled entirely successful, and Robert the Bruce firmly seated on the Scottish throne. ' The affectionate sympathy expressed by the King (Robert the Bruce) for the bishop would serve to give us some insight into his character, even if the history of Robert Wischard were not so well known. It was a time when strong oppression on the one side made the other almost forget the laws of good faith and humanity. Our bishop did homage to the Suzerain and transgressed it; he swore fidelity over and over again to the King of England, and as often broke his oath. He kept no faith with Edward. He preached against him; and when the occasion offered, he buckled on his armour like a Scotch baron an d fought against him. But let it not be said that he changed sides as fortune changed. When the weak Baliol renounced his allegiance to h is overlord, the bishop, who knew both, must have divined to which side victory would incline, and yet he opposed Edward. When Wallace, almost single-handed, set up the standard of revolt against the all-powerful Edward, the Bishop of Glasgow immediately joined him. When Robert Bruce, friendless and a fugitive, raised the old war-cry of Scotland, the bishop supported him. Bruce was proscribed by Edward and under the anathema of the Church. The bishop assoilzied him for the sacrilegious slaughter of Comyn (in the Greyfriars' Church at Dumfries), and prepared the robes and royal banner for his coronation. Wischard was taken prisoner in the castle of Cupar, which he had held against the English in 1306, and was not liberated till after Bannockburn. . . . The bishop had grown blind in prison. ' Notwithstanding his activity in national matters he took also an interest in his cathedral, for he seems to have made arrangements for a supply of timber for the erection of a steeple, and part of this, curiously, he had procured from Edward himself; indeed one of the charges preferred by the English king against the bishop was 'that he had used timber which he [Edward] had allowed him for building a steeple to his cathedral, in constructing engines of war against the King's castles, and especially the castle of Kirkintilloch' So greatly was Edward's anger roused against the patriotic bishop that, had not fear of exciting the ire and resentment of the Pope restrained his hand, he would probably have put him to death. Wischard was, along with Bruce's queen and daughter, exchanged for the Earl of Hereford, who had been captured in Bothwell Castle by Edward Bruce immediately after the Battle of Bannockburn. The severity of his treatment, however, had proved too much for him, and he died in Nov. 1316, and was buried in the cathedral between the altars of St Peter and St Andrew. During the earlier part of the national strife, an English garrison was quartered in the bishop's castle near the cathedral, and many of the older historians, following Blind Harry, make Glasgow the scene, in 1300, of a desperate conflict between the English and the Scots. However much the details may be open to question, there is probably some foundation of fact for the incident, though the blind bard has undoubtedly indulged his usual tendency to such exaggeration as would magnify the exploits of his hero. Edward, it is stated, had appointed one of his creatures named Anthony Beck or Beik Bishop of Glasgow during the captivity of Robert Wishart, and a large English force, under Earl Percy, was stationed in the neighbourhood of the cathedral, both for the purpose of supporting the bishop in his new dignity and of overawing the discontented inhabitants of the western shires. Wallace, who was in possession of Ayr, after the burning of the barns, gathered his men and addressed them,

'Ye knaw that thar wes set
Sic law as this now into Glaskow toune
Be byschope Beik and Persye off renoun,
Tharfor I will in haist we thidder fair.'

He first summoned the men of Ayr,

'And gaiff commaund in generall to thaim aw.
In Keepyng thai suld tak the houss off Ayr.
And hald it haill quhill tyme that we her mayr.'

And that place being thus left safe, started with his company of 300 and made in hot haste for Glasgow. They pushed on so fast that they by

'Glaskow bryg that byggyt was off tree,
weyll passit our or Sotheroun mycht thaim se.'

After crossing the bridge Wallace divided his followers into two bodies, one of which, led by himself, marched by the High Street; while the other, under the Laird of Auchinleck, 'for he the passage kend,'went by St Mungo's Lane and the Drygate. Percy had a force of 1000 men, and with these between Bell o' the Brae and the site of the old university he met the body under Wallace. While the battle was doubtful the other body came rushing on from the Drygate, Percy being cut down by Wallace himself. The English were seized with a panic, and fled in all directions, notwithstanding that they were 'gud men off wer' like 'all Northummyrland.'

The three bishops who held the see from 1317 to 1336 need merely a passing mention, but the next bishop, William Rae, who held office from 1337 to 1367, has the honour of having erected the first bridge of Glasgow. From Blind Harry's account of the Battle of Bell o' the Brae, it would seem that there was a wooden bridge across the river; but this Bishop Rae was able, notwithstanding the impoverished condition of the diocese, between 1345 and 1350, to replace by a stone bridge of eight arches, which, though only 12 feet wide, was long looked on as a marvel of architectural skill. A pious lady of the family of Lochow, who had some property in the burgh, bore the expense of one arch, and besides erected a leper's hospital, afterwards known as St Ninian's Hospital, in the Gorbals district. The bridge, known as Stockwell Bridge, remained till 1777, when it was repaired and widened to 22 feet, and it was again repaired in 1821, but it had become so shaky and unsuitable that in 1845 it was condemned, and in 1847 was replaced by Victoria Bridge. The bishop who succeeded Rae was Walter Wardlaw, who died in 1387. He was followed by Matthew Glendinning, in whose time the wooden spire of the cathedral was struck by lightning and destroyed. He made preparations for the erection of a new stone spire, but died before anything was done. He died in 1408, and left the carrying out of the work to the new bishop, William Lauder. The spire, as then constructed up to the first battlement, still remains, and forms a magnificent and fitting monument of the taste and skill with which it was designed and carried out. Lauder also laid the foundation of the chapter-house. He died in 1425, and was succeeded by Bishop John Cameron (supposed to be of the family of Lochiel), then Provost of Lincluden and secretary to the King. On his appointment to the bishopric he was promoted to the chancellorship, which he held till 1440. His generosity and large expenditure in connection with his see won for him the title off 'the Magnificent,' and he seems to have deserved it, though, according to Pitscottie, he was by no means an amiable man; for by this writer the bishop is. described as ' the principal ruler of the prince and court to all mischief and innocent slaughter done in thir troublous times.. For he counselled them to exercise all such scaithing and oppression upon the realm as he had done himself upon the poor tenants of Glasgow.' He resumed the building of the chapterhouse, and either extended or completed various other portions of the cathedral (including the spire), as may be seen by the carvings of his arms still existing on several portions of the structure. Cameron also built the ' great tower ' of the bishop's palace in Glasgow. During his incumbency the episcopal see was in the zenith of its temporal glory and power. The prebendaries, originally seven, now numbered thirty-two, and the revenues were very large. With a view of adding dignity to the episcopal court, he ordained that the prebendaries should reside in the neighbourhood of the cathedral church, and in consequence that portion of the city was extended and adorned by their comfortable mansions and orchards. A number of their houses remained in good condition till the close of the last century, and a few even later, though in a dingy and dilapidated condition. By contemporary writers the court of Bishop Cameron is spoken of as almost rivalling that of the monarch himself, from the great number of dignified ecclesiastics and noblemen of the first consideration whom he drew around him. 'He was,' says Pagan, ' fond of celebrating the great festivals of the Church' and on these occasions he entered the choir through the nave by the great western door (recently opened up), preceded by many high officials, one of whom bore his silver crozier or pastoral staff, and the others carried costly maces and other emblems. These were followed by the members of the chapter, and the procession moved on amidst the ringing of bells, the pealing of the great organ, and the vocal swell of the choristers, who were gorgeously arrayed in vestments of high price; the Te Deum was then sung and high mass celebrated. On certain highly solemn occasions it pleased the prelate to cause the holy relics belonging to the church to be exhibited for the edification of the faithful. These, according to the chartulary, principally consisted of the following objects of veneration:-(1st), The image of our Saviour in gold; (2d), the images of the twelve apostles in silver; (3d), a silver cross, adorned with precious stones and a small piece of wood of the cross of our Saviour; (4th), another cross of smaller dimensions, adorned with precious stones; (5th), one silver casket, gilt, containing some of the hairs of the blessed Virgin; (6th), in a square silver coffer, part of the scourges of St Kentigern and St Thomas of Canterbury, and part of the hair garment made use of by St Kentigern our patron; (7th), in another silver casket, gilded, part of St Bartholomew the Apostle; (8th), in a silver casket, gilded, a bone of St Ninian; (9th), in another silver casket, gilded, part of the girdle of the blessed Virgin Mary; (10th), in a crystal case a bone of some unknown saint, and of St Magdalene; (11th), in a small phial of crystal part of the milk of the blessed Virgin Mary, and part of the manger of our Lord; (12th), in a small phial a liquor of the colour of saffron, which flowed of old from the tomb of St Kentigern; (13th), one other silver phial with some bones of Dt Eugene and St Blaze; (14th), in another silver phial part of the tomb of St Catherine the Virgin; (15th), one small hide, with a part of St Martin's cloak; (16th), one precious hide with-a part of the bones of St Kentigern and St Thomas of -Canterbury; (17th), four other hides with bones of saints and other relics; (18th), a wooden chest with many small relics; (19th), two linen bags with the bones of St Kentigern and St Thenew and other deceased saints. Undeed the paraphernalia of the see had about this time extended so greatly that a new officer was appointed as keeper of the church vestments and furniture treasured within the "Gemma doors entering the choir. 'Cameron died on Christmas Eve 1446 at Lochwood, a rural retreat belonging to the bishops in the parish of Old Monkland, about six miles eastward of Glasgow. A number of the older writers hint that his magnificence was carried out by money extorted in cruel fashion from his people. Pitscottie's opinion of him has been already referred to, and Buchanan and Spottiswoode both speak of his death as fearful. Pitscottie describes minutely, how,'on Yuleeven, when he was sleeping, there came a thunder and a voice out of heaven crying and summoning him to the extreme judgment of God, where he should give an account and reckoning of all his cruel offences without further delay. " Through this he wakened forth of his sleep, and took fear of the novelty of such things unknown to him before; but yet he believed this to be no other but a dream, and no true warning for amendment of his cursed life; yet he called for his chamberchiels, and caused them to light candles and to remain a while beside him till he recovered the fear and dreadour that he had taken in his sleep and dreaming. But by he had taken a book and read a little while the same voice and words were heard with no less fear and dreadour than was before, which made them that were present at that time about him to be in dread, so that none of them had a word to speak to another, thinking no less than sudden mischief hastily to befal them all; and, from hand, the third time, the same words were more ugsomely cried than before. This bishop rendered his spirit hastily at the pleasure of God, and shot out his tongue most wildly as he had been hanged upon a gallows. A terrible sight to all cruel oppressors and murderers of the poor. '

To Cameron succeeded William Turnbull, archdeacon of St Andrews and keeper of the privy seal, whose name will ever be held in honoured remembrance as the founder of the University of Glasgow. King James II. seems to have been the prime mover in the matter, and at his instigation a bull was obtained from Pope Nicholas V. in 1450, erecting a university at Glasgow after the model of the university at Bologna, 'Glasgow being a place well suited and adapted to that purpose on account of the healthiness of the climate, the abundance of victuals, and of every thing necessary for the use of man.' The university was opened for teaching in 1451, and on 20 April 1453 James himself granted a charter excepting all connected with the university save the bishop, ' from all tributes, services, exactions, taxations, collections, watchings, wardings, and all dues whatever.' Acting on this Bishop Turnbull granted to the members of the university the privilege of trading within the city without payment of customs, and also the power of jurisdiction in all but very important matters, a power which was claimed and exercised even in serious cases down to the beginning of the 18th century. Passing the episcopate of Muirhead, Laing, and Carmichael, important changes took place in the time of Bishop Robert Blackadder, who was consecrated in 1484. In 1488, by the exertions of the king, a bull was obtained from Pope Alexander VI., erecting the see of Glasgow into an archbishopric, and the erection was confirmed by Act of Parliament. Its suffragans were the Bishops of Dunkeld, Dunblane, Galloway, and Argyll. James IV., whose piety in early youth took an enthusiastic turn, had become a canon of the chapter of Glasgow, and loved to show favour to the cathedral of which he was a member. In the first year of his reign it was, 'concludit and ordainit be our soverane lord and his three estatis that for the honour and public gud of the realme the sege of Glasgow be erecit in ane Arehbishoprick with sic previlegis as accordis of law and siclick as the Archbishoprick of York has in all dignities, emunities, and previlegis, and besides, the king renewed and extended the privileges and exemptions and much valued civil jurisdiction of the bishop, with expressions that slow both his attachment to Glasgow, and the commencement of that high character of its chapter, which afterwards drew to the archbishop's court of Glasgow a great proportion of civil business. 'Blackadder was the last of the prelates who lent a kindly hand to the extension and adornment of the cathedral, which had now been more than 370 years in existence since its foundation by Bishop John.'He founded,' says M 'Ure, 'several altarages in the choir, and caused place his arms above them in the roof of the lower area, illuminate in a small escutcheon, three cinquefoils on a bend with out either a mytre or a crosier, and above it in large capital letters Robertus Archiepiscopus He raised the ascents on each side of the church by steps from the nave to the floor of fin e work, with effigies, as I take it, of the apostles, neatly engraved; and in the descent, on both sides, you will see the archbishop's arms, in several places at large, with his mytre and other pontificalia with the initials of his name. He likewise founded the great isle to the south of the church, of curious work, corresponding to the other parts of this most magnificent structure.' Though this southern aisle, known as Blackadder's crypt, remains unfinished, enough has been done to show the rudiments of a beautiful design. He is also believed to have erected the organ screen. According to Leslie the archbishop undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre in his old age, and died on 28 July 1508 when almost in sight of the Syrian shore.

Blackadder was succeeded by James Beaton, who in 1524 was translated to St Andrews, and was followed by Gavin Dunbar, tutor to King James V., who was consecrated in 1525. The spread of new doctrines had begun to show itself in Blackadder's time, for we find that, in 1503, thirty persons from the districts of Kyle and Cunninghame were tried in the chapter-house of the cathedral on a charge of heresy, but were dismissed, ' with an admonition to take heed of new doctrines, and content themselves with the faith of the Church. ' By the time of Dunbar, however, matters had gone farther, and the infallibility of the Church, the purity of the Romish faith, and the morals and precepts of the clergy began to be freely and boldly questioned. In the attempt to suppress these doctrines which caused the clergy to tremble, many pious persons suffered death at St Andrews and Edinburgh; and to such an extent had such heresies spread in the West-then, as ever after, a stronghold of the reformed doctrine-that it was at last deemed necessary to make an example in Glasgow, in order to intimidate the heretics, but the very means which were intended to crush the Reformation, namely, the martyrdom of Russel and Kennedy, greatly aided its progress in the West of Scotland. Dunbar, a man of kindly disposition and of sufficient good seuse to know that the spirit of inquiry was not to be stilled, nor conscientious belief changed, by lacerating the flesh, recommended moderate measures; but the high powers of the Church thought otherwise, and accordingly, in 1538, a deputation, consisting of John Lawder, Andrew Oliphant, and Friar Maltman, was sent from Edinburgh to Glasgow to stimulate the archbishop, and assist in crushing the advancing Reformation by the help of stake and faggot. The victims were Jerom Russel, said to have been one of the Grey Friars in Glasgow, and noted for his learning and talent; and John Kennedy, a young man from Ayr, not more than 18 years of age. After a mock trial in which ' Mr Russel reasoned long, and learnedly confuted his accusers, ' they were handed over-much against the will of Dunbar, who affirmed ' that these rigorous proceedings did hurt the cause of the Church more than in his opinion could be well thought of '-to the secular power for execution, and suffered martyrdom at a stake which had been erected near the E end of the cathedral. These were the only martyrs who suffered at Glasgow during the progress of the Reformation. Though gentle in spirit, Dunbar seems yet to have been tinctured with some of the bigotry of his order, for, when in March 1542 Lord Maxwell brought into the Scottish Parliament a bill for the purpose of authorising the reading of the Bible in the vulgar tongue, he led the opposition, and when to the credit of the legislature the bill passed he protested ' for himself and in name and behalf of all ye prelatis of yis realme,' and 'dissassentit thereto simple; and opponit yame yairto unto ye tyme yat ane provinciall counsell myt be had of all ye clerge of yis realme, to avyss and conclude yairupon. ' He died in 1547, and was buried in the choir of the cathedral in a stately tomb which he had caused to be built for himself, but which was entirely swept away when the Reformers obtained the mastery, and-when the cathedral itself so narrowly escaped the fate of the other beautiful ecclesiastical structures, which for ages had adorned the kingdom.

In the midst of the civil and ecclesiastical turmoil that then disturbed the kingdom, it was some time before the vacant office of archbishop was filled up, but at last James Beaton, nephew of the cardinal, was consecrated at Rome in 1541. With this prelate came the crisis and the close. He was the last of the long line of spiritual princes who had held sway in Glasgow for so many centuries. The Reformation had now acquired an irresistible momentum, of which the archbishop .speedily became fully conscious. He accordingly removed into the castle or palace all the portable valuables which the church contained, and summoned around him the gentlemen of the neighbourhood still attached to the old doctrines, who, by means of their servants and adherents, guarded the church and palace from any sudden onslaught on the part of the Reformers. As the Lennox family, who had long been strong supporters of the diocese, had gone over to the Protestants, he entered into an agreement in 1558 with ' James duke of Chatelrault, erle of Arran, lord Hamiltoune' to defend him and all the cathedral possessions ' againis quhatsomever person or personis within yis realme, except ye queans grace, prince or Kingis grace, ' which bond the Duke did not long keep, for in the following year he passed over to the side of the Reformers, and not only caused ' all the images, altars, and relics within the church to be destroyed, but he also attacked and took possession of the palace of the archbishop, from which he was with difficulty expelled by a body of the QueenRegent's French troops. It is believed that at this time the leaden roofing was stripped from the cathedral., The defection of the Duke of Chatelherault seems to have convinced Beaton that further struggle was hopeless, and he quietly retired from the contest, and passed into France in 1560 escorted by some troops of that nation, probably those who had assisted in the expulsion of the Duke. The archbishop carried with him all the treasures and costly ornaments, chalices, and images of gold and silver, including the relics and their cases formerly mentioned, and what is of much greater importance, from a modern point of view, he also carried away all the valuable records of the see from the earliest period to his own time. These he deposited partly in the archives of the Scots Collége, and partly in the Chartreuse at Paris, where, at the time of the French Revolution, they were, along with other valuable MSS., saved by the patriotic exertions of Abbé Macpherson, one of the members of the college, and transmitted to Scotland. In 1843 they were arranged and printed under the superintendence of Mr Cosmo Innes, for the Bannatyne Club, at the expense of the late Mr Ewing of Strathleven. Long previous, however, to that date authenticated and notarial transcripts of the chartulary and other documents had been procured by the University of Glasgow (in 1738 and subsequent years); and the Magistrates of Glasgow, in 1739, obtained authenticated copies of the writs that were considered of most importance to the city. When the archbishop settled in France he was constituted ambassador to that court from his sovereign the unfor tunate Mary, whom he served with unshaken fidelity throughout her chequered career and till her death at Fotheringay. Her son, James VI., respecting his fidelity, employed him and obtained for him, by special act of parliament in 1600, the restoration of the temporalities of the see which he had abandoned, ' notwithstanding,' as the act says, ' that he hes never maid confession of his faith, and hes never acknowledgeit the religion profest within this realme. ' His closing days were, therefore, affluent and easy, and he died on 24 April 1603, at the advanced age of 86. By his will he ordained that the archives and relics of the cathedral, which he had carried away, should be restored to Glasgow so soon as the inhabitants should return to the communion of the Church of Rome- ' Which, ' says M 'Ure, ' I hope in God shall never be, but that His Church is so established here that neither the gates of Rome or hell shall ever be able to prevail against it. ' In its prime the see of Glasgow was endowed with magnificent temporal possessions which fully warranted its title of the ' Spiritual Dukedom, ' and at its final overthrow it may be fairly assumed that the anticipated scramble for the fair domains of the ancient church quickened the conversion of many of the Scottish nobles to the doctrines of the Reformation. The archbishops held the lordships of the royalty and baronies of Glasgow, and, besides, of 18 baronies of lands within the sheriffdoms of Lanark, Dumbarton, Ayr, Renfrew, Peebles, Selkirk, Roxburgh, Dumfries, and the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. ' It is impossible, ' says Cosmo Innes, ' for a student of ecclesiastical antiquities not to look back with fond regret to the lordly and ruined church which we have traced from its cradle to its grave, not stopping to question its doctrines, and throwing into a friendly shade its errors of practice. And yet if we consider it more deeply we may be satisfied that the gorgeous fabric fell not till it had completed its work and was no longer useful. Institutions, like mortal bodies, die, and are reproduced. Nations pass away, and the worthy live again in their colonies.. In this view it was not unworthy of that splendid hierarchy, which arose out of the humble family of St Kentigern, to have given life and vigour to such a city as Glasgow, and a school of learning like her University.'

During the alternate rule of Episcopacy and Presbyterianism there were 15 Protestant archbishops, but, compared with their predecessors, they are by no means important. They and their doctrines were alien to the genius of the people among whom they were placed, and though some of them, like the amiable and virtuous Leighton (1670-74), were able and excellent men, others (numbered among the 'Tulchans') 'were the mere nominees of noble lay patrons, with whom, by a Simoniacal arrangement, they divided the temporalities of the see. None of them did anything to extend or beautify the cathedral which had so happily and miraculously survived the storms of the Reformation. Possibly little blame is attachable to the Protestant prelates for this seeming remissness. Their means were limited, and they might foresee that the decorations put up during an episcopalian reign would be shorn off when the Presbyterians came to rule the house.. Only two of the prelates put their hands to the fabric of the cathedral. Archbishop Spottiswood, the eminent church historian, commenced to renew the roof which had been stripped of its lead during the Reformation troubles, and had only been imperfectly repaired afterwards, and this work was completed after Spottiswood's translation to the Primacy of St Andrews in 1615. '

During the civil and religious troubles of the time of Queen Mary and the early years of King James VI., Glasgow was concerned in some of the numerous conflicts that were then so common all over the country. The most important were the ' Battle of the Butts ' and the Battle of Langside. During the minority of Queen Mary, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, then heir-presumptive to the throne, and the ancestor of the ducal house of Hamilton, was appointed regent of the kingdom, but his appointment was strongly repugnant to the Earl of Lennox and the Queen-Dowager, and the hostile feeling at last became so strong that both parties resorted to arms. In 154 4 Lennox garrisoned the bishop's palace in Glasgow, and retired himself to the stronghold of Dumbarton, and the Regent, having gathered together a numerous army at Stirling, marched to Glasgow and be sieged the palace or castle with the aid of cannon. After the siege had lasted for ten days, the garrison agreed to surrender on condition of receiving quarter; but no sooner had they laid down their arms than all were massacred, with the exception of two only who escaped. Lennox determined to revenge this treachery and their loss by striking a desperate blow, and, having associated with himself the Earl of Glencairn, at first determined to march into Clydesdale, and there desolate the lands of the Hamiltons by fire and sword. The Regent, however, was timeously apprised of the scheme, and resolved to counteract it by taking possession of Glasgow. Glencairn was, however, beforehand with him, and when Arran approached, the other had his forces already drawn out, amounting to 800 men, partly composed of his own vassals, and partly of the citizens of Glasgow. The armies met at the ' Butts,' the place where the ' weaponshaw ' exercises were held, and now the site of the old infantry barracks. The onset of Glencairn was so furious that he beat back the first rank upon the second and captured the Regent's cannon, but, in the heat of the battle, while victory yet wavered, Robert Boyd, of the Kilmarnock family, suddenly arrived with a small party of horse and turned the scale in Hamilton's favour, for Glencairn's men, thinking that a new army had come against them, fled with great precipitation. Considering the comparatively small numbers engaged on both sides, the conflict must have been unusually sanguinary, for it is recorded that 300 men were slain or wounded on both sides, one of Glencairn's sons being among the slain. ' The Regent immediately entered the city, and in revenge for the part the citizens had acted, gave the place up to plunder; and so completely was it harried that the very doors and windows of many dwelling-houses were carried away, in fact they only spared the city in so far as they did not commit it to the flames.'

Glasgow is also closely connected with the decisive event of the times—the Battle of Langside, 13 May 1568-which, though it ' lasted but for three-fourths of an hour, ' and was, from ' the number engaged and the nature of the contest, ' more of the character of a skirmish than anything else, was yet, from the conditions under which it was fought, of a most decisive character, settling the fate of Scotland, affecting the future of England, and exerting an influence all over Europe. The Regent Murray was holding a court of Glasgow in the city when the startling intelligence reached him of the Queen's escape from Lochleven and of the assembling of her friends at Hamilton. ' The news whereof being brought to Glasgow (which is only 8 miles distant), it was scarce at first believed; but within two hours or less, being assured, a strong alteration might have been observed in the minds of those who were attending. The reports of the Queen's forces made divers slide away; others sent quietly to beg pardon for what they had done, resolving not to enter in the cause farther, but to govern themselves as the event should lead and direct them; and there were not a few who made open desertion, and not of the meaner sort, amongst whom my Lord Boyd was specially noted, and in the mouths of all men; for that being very inward with the Regent, and admitted to his most secret counsels, when he saw matters like to turn he withdrew himself and went to the Queen. ' Though Murray was surprised by the rapid and unexpected course of events, which had not only rescued Mary from a prison but placed her at the head of an army, he was not dismayed; and having gained a breathing time by listening to overtures of accommodation from the Queen's party, he in the meantime sent word to his own friends and those of the young King, and was joined by the Earls of Glencairn, Montrose, Mar, and Monteith, the Lords Semple, Home, and Lindsay, by Kirkaldy of G range, a soldier of great ability and skill, and many other gentlemen, in addition to a large body of the citizens of Glasgow, which placed him at the head of an army of upwards of 4000 men. With this force he encamped on the Burgh Muir (which extended along the E from the Green by Borrowfield towards the cathedral), and there awaited the approach of the Queen's forces, as it was believed that her followers intended to place her Majesty in safety in the strong fortress of Dumbarton, which was then held by Lord Fleming. This was her own desire, as, once there, she hoped ' to regain by degrees her influence over her nobility and her people. ' Murray was thus in a favourable position for intercepting the Queen's troops had they proceeded towards Dumbarton by the N bank of the Clyde; but news came that the royalists were marching W by the S bank of the river, intending to cross at Renfrew, and so reach the castle. Both sides were keenly alive to the importance of occupying Langside Hill, an eminence 1½ mile S of Glasgow, and directly on the line of Mary's march from Rutherglen; but while Murray promptly moved forward, his cavalry being sent across the Clyde by a ford (each horseman with a foot soldier behind him), and his infantry following by the bridge, the Queen's forces were delayed by the illness of their chief commander, the Earl of Argyll; and. when, therefore, they reached Langside, they found it already occupied by the Regent's cavalry and the hagbutters they had carried with them, who, disposed among the houses and along the hedges, poured a heavy fire into the Queen's troops as they advanced. The vanguard, however, confident in their numbers, pressed on, but were exhausted by the time they reached the top of the hill, and so but little fit to cope with Murray's first line which there awaited them, and which was composed of excellent pikemen. Notwithstanding this, the fighting was severe, ' and Sir James Melvil [of Halhill, who was present, and from whose account of the battle all subsequent accounts have been derived] describes the long pikes as so closely crossed and interlaced, that when the soldiers behind discharged their pistols, and threw them or the staves of their shattered weapons in the faces of their enemies, they never reached the ground, but remained lying on the spears. ' The battle was wavering, and Murray's right wing beginning to give way, when Kirkaldy at the critical moment brought up the reserves, and such was the impetuosity of the new attack that the Queen's forces gave way, and the flight immediately became general. Three hundred of her followers perished, while the Regent's loss is set down as one man. On seeing the rout of her army, Mary, who had been watching the conflict from a hill near Cathcart House, about 1½ mile in the rear, fled in such a state of terror that she never stopped till she reached Sanquhar, 60 miles from the field of battle, thence going on to Terregles, and thence crossing over to England.

The Regent ' returned in great pomp to the city, where, after going to church and thanking Almighty God in a solemn manner for the victory, he was entertained by the magistrates and a great many of the town council very splendidly, suitable to his quality, at which time the Regent expressed himself very affectionately towards the city and citizens of Glasgow; and for their kind offices and assistance done to him and his army, he promised to grant to the magistrates or any incorporation in the city any favour they should reasonably demand. ' Several requests were in consequence made and granted to the incorporations. The deacon of the incorporation of bakers was at the time Matthew Fauside, and he, being ' a very judicious and projecting man, who had an extraordinary concern for the good and advancement of the incorporations, ' took occasion to say that, as the mills at Partick, which were formerly the property of the archbishop, now belonged to the crown, and the tacksman exacted such exorbitant multures that it raised the price of bread to the community, a grant of these mills to the corporation would be regarded as a public benefit; and, moreover, the bakers were not altogether undeserving of favour in another respect, as they had liberally supplied the army with bread while it remained in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. Fauside's well-timed address had the desired effect, and the five flour-mills at Partick, on the banks of the Kelvin, are possessed by the incorporation of bakers till this day. The citizens have, however, never been able to discover that in virtue of this gift bread is to be had cheaper in Glasgow than elsewhere.

In May 1570 the Hamiltons, with others of the Queen's supporters, had again mustered sufficient force to attack the castle or bishop's palace at Glasgow, which was now held for the Earl of Lennox, who had become Regent after the murder of Murray at Linlithgow by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. They first attempted a surprise, and when that failed they opened fire with cannon to make a breach, so that the position might be stormed. The garrison, though it numbered only twenty-four, and had no head, as the governor was absent, held out so bravely, however, that the besiegers failed, and, after losing a number of men, were forced to retire. Probably they had not much heart left, and they may besides have been alarmed by the approach of the troops sent to avenge the murder of Murray on the Hamiltons. These, under Lennox and Sir William Drury, reached Glasgow two or three days after the attack, and says Tytler, ' commenced a pitiless devastation of Clydesdale and Linlithgowshire, razing their [the Hamiltons'] castles, destroying their villages, and making a desert of the whole territory.' Hamilton Palace, Linlithgow and Kinneil Castles, and the estates and houses of the Duke's kindred, were completely wasted. ' In these days, ' says Pagan, ' the citizens of Glasgow looked upon the castigation of the Hamiltons with no small satisfaction, for they had not forgotten the grievous ills which the town had suffered from their party at the Battle of the "Butts," and the remembrance of their slaughtered kinsmen and plundered homes nerved many a stout arm against the party of the Hamiltons and the Queen at the field of Langside.'

Up to the Reformation the progress and prosperity of Glasgow had been solely dependent on the progress and power of the see, and, no doubt, to some extent on the personal character of its ecclesiastical head for the time being, and as the overthrow of the Roman Catholic system thus forms a great break in the history of the city, it may be well here to depart from strict chronological order and go back and trace the development of the place in its proper municipal aspect. Mention has been already made of the privileges granted to Glasgow when it was constituted a burgh of barony by William the Lyon in or about 1180, and in 1242 another advance was made, and the burgesses and men of the bishop became as free to trade in Lennox and Argyll as the men of Dumbarton. In 1450, in the time of Bishop Turnbull, James II. granted a charter raising the burgh to one of regality, with all the increased privileges thereto belonging. In return for this grant, the bishop and his successors were to give ' a red rose upon the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed John the Baptist at Glasgow in name of Blanchfarm, if asked only, and the assistance of their prayers. ' The bishop was permitted to appoint a sergeant for making arrestments and executing the edicts of his court, and this officer was to bear a silver staff having the royal arms blazoned on the upper end, and the arms of the bishop at the other. Previous to the regality privileges, and the foundation of the university, the village of ' Deschu ' had grown so that it reached from the cathedral on the N to the Blackfriars' monastery on the S, and from Drygate on the E to near the site of the modern Balmano Street on the W, but the two changes just mentioned soon brought considerable increase in size to the place, as the accommodation was insufficient for the 200 students who soon gathered, and also for the growing numbers who flocked into it in order to engage in trade. One extension, therefore, took place southward from the Blackfriars' monastery to the cross along the line of High Street, and another eastward over the Gallow Muir in the line of the Gallowgate, while, to the W, streets were extended as far as the Tron. The town was not walled, but it had ports at the ends of the principal streets. These seem to have been shifted from time to time. The Stable Green Port was near the castle, and on the opposite side was the Castle Port, the site of which is now occupied by part of the Barony Church. There was a port ' between the Gyrtheburn and the street called the Dregate, ' a port known as the Subdean Port, and there was also one at the E end of the Drygate, one at the Gallowgate, one at the foot of the Saltmarket, and others elsewhere at later dates. Of the bishop's palace or castle which stood near the Stable Green Port, not far from the western entrance to the cathedral, no trace now remains. The original castle was very old, for it is mentioned in 1290, and it seems to have been extended and strengthened from time to time. Bishop Cameron is said to have added a tower to, and otherwise improved, it. Archbishop Beaton strengthened it with a stone wall, with a bastion at one angle, and a tower with battlements on the angle facing High Kirk Street. In 1515 it must have been a place of importance, for it seems to have been the depot for the King's cannon. When Arran and others broke out in rebellion against Albany's rule, it was stormed and plundered by Mure of Caldwell, but Albany compelled him to give it up. In 1554 Archbishop Dunbar added a stately and handsome gatehouse and an arched gateway with his arms on it. In 1570 the castle again underwent a siege as is told elsewhere, and after this under the poor Protestant archbishops it seems to have begun to fall into decay. It was partially restored in 1611 by Archbishop Spottiswoode, but Sir William Brereton, who was there in 1634, describes it as a ' poor and mean place, ' while, on the other hand, Ray, whose notions were probably not so high-flown, says it was ' a goodly building. ' It must, however, have been ruinous, for Morer, in his Short Account of Scotland (1689), speaks of it as ' formerly without doubt a very magnificent structure, but now in ruins.' In 1720, Robert Thomson, a merchant in Glasgow, represented to the Barons of the Exchequer that ' bad men ' were carrying off stones, timber, etc., from the ruins, but no action seems to have been taken, and a drawing of it, made about 1750, shows part of it in a very ruinous condition. The magistrates themselves showed their barbarity, for when the Saracen's Head Inn was erected in the Gallowgate in 1755, they allowed the contractor to take stones from the archbishop's castle. In 1778 part of it was again removed to widen Castle Street, but, judging from a drawing made in 1783, the fine square tower was almost entire. The crowning act of Vandalism of the long series was committed in 1792, when the last of the remains of it were cleared away to make room for the foundations of the Royal Infirmary.

To the N, on the burgh muir at the modern St Rollox, was a little chapel dedicated to St Roche the Confessor. It was founded about 1508 by Thomas Muirhead, one of the canons of Glasgow. The burying-ground which surrounded it was, during a pestilence in 1647, used for the reception of the infected poor, who were placed there in wooden huts. The houses of the canons were about the cathedral from the Stable Green Port round by the Molendinar, High Kirk Street, the Drygate, Rotten Row, and Balmano Street. The Drygate contained the mint, which seems to have dated at least from the time of Alexander II., for coins of his struck here exist, and M 'Ure describes some coins of Robert III. struck here as having a representation of the King crowned, but without a sceptre, with the motto Robertus Dei Gratia Rex Scotorum, and, on the other, on an inner circle, Villa de Glasgow, and on an outer Dominus Protector. The site is now occupied by part of the North Prison buildings. Not far from Stable Green, on the W side of Castle Street, stood St Nicholas' Hospital, which was founded by Bishop Muirhead about 1460, and which was pulled down in 1808. Originally it was endowed for twelve indigent old men, and a priest to perform divine service at the canonical hours, and Archbishop Leighton subsequently, in 1677, bequeathed £150 for its further endowment. In Brown's History of Glasgow, in 1795, the chapel of the hospital is mentioned as existing, but in ruins, and converted into a cow-house! Farther N was the Back Almshouse, erected by Roland Blackadder, subdean of Glasgow, as a sort of casual ward, which seems to have been afterwards united to St Nicholas' Hospital. In 1590 John Painter, master. of the Sang school, left £3 to the twelve poor men in St Nicholas' Hospital, and 20s. to the four poor men in the Back Almshouse. Of the revenues of these, only £380 of capital, and £15 per annum from grain and ground rents, now remain to be administered by the magistrates and town council.

The Cross stood at the junction of Rotten Row, Drygate, and High Street. In the latter street were the buildings and church of Blackfriars' Monastery, the seminary of the canons regular, and a small building belonging to the Grey Friars. The new cross was at the junction of High Street and the Gallowgate beyond the Saltmarket Port. There was a road by the Saltmarket (the Fuller's Gate) and Bridgegate to Bishop Rae's bridge, near which, at the lower end of the present Stockwell Street, were a number of fishermen's huts. These were called the Fishergate. The modern name is taken from a well in the district called the Stok Well, which is mentioned in 1478. On the other side of the river was the leper hospital already mentioned. Part of Glasgow Green was covered with wood, and known as the Bishop's Forest. It is difficult to arrive at any idea of the population of the city at this time. The presence of the plague twice within the preceding century would tend probably somewhat to diminish it, but, allowing for this, an estimate has been made that it might number about 2000, of which from two to three hundred would be connected with the University. Fish seem to have been exported, and the name Fuller's Gate points at the manufacture of cloth, but the trade was still so small that, practically, by far the greater part of the inhabitants were dependent on church and churchmen for their means of making a living. In the time intervening between this and the Reformation the burgh of regality had gone on thriving notwithstanding temporary drawbacks. Mr Macgeorge estimates the population in the middle of the 16th century as about 4500, which shows that the place was still growing, but all on the lines already laid down, and, no doubt, in a great part along further extensions of those main streets. It still had no more than the one principal street and the five or six lesser ones. High Street, occupying in the main the same line as it did till recent years, stretched in an irregular line downwards to the Cross from whence it was continued by the Waulker or Fuller's Gate (now the Saltmarket) to the Bridgegate. From the Market Cross the Gallowgate, opened early in the 14th century, went E, and the Trongate (both now more closely built than in 1450) went W. On the N side of the Gallowgate stood the church or chapel of St Mungo's-in-the-Field or Little St Mungo's, built and endowed about 1500 by David Cunningham, provost of the collegiate church of Hamilton. It was surrounded by a cemetery-all traces of which have long vanished, although the site is still known-and close by it stood certain trees bearing the name of St Mungo. The Trongate was then better known by its original name of St Thenew's Gate. It got this title from its leading to the well and chapel of St Tanew or Thenew (the mother of St Mungo) which stood in the region outside the West Port, now occupied by St Enoch's Square, the name Enoch being merely a corruption of the older one, after a passage through the intermediate stage of St Tennoch's. Both well and chapel were near the site of the present church.

The chapel marked the spot where Thenew was supposed to have been buried, and contained her tomb. In Oct. 1475 James III., by a charter, granted to the cathedral church of Glasgow half a stone of wax from the lands of ' Odingstoune ' in the lordship of Bothwell for lights to be burned at the tomb of ' St Tenew ' in the chapel where her bones are buried. The chapel was entire in 1597, and some traces of it remained in the beginning of last century. The name of Trongate was just beginning to come into use, the term being derived -from the ' trone ' or weighing-machine having been erected in it near the end of the 15th century. The first public mention of it is in a deed of seisin of 30 May 1545, where a tenement is described as being in 'le Troyne Gait.' On the S side of the Trongate stood the collegiate church of the blessed Virgin Mary and St Ann, founded prior to 1528 by James Houston, subdean of Glasgow. Round it there was a large buryingground, which, after the Reformation, was used as a market for grass and straw. No memorial of the old building (upon the site of which the Tron Church now stands) has been preserved, and the burying-ground has long since been built over, the property which was held in trust by the Corporation having been parted with in 1588 in a time of need. To the W of the collegiate church was the Song School, which was taught by one of the prebendaries of the church, who was required to be a good organist, and capable of training the youth ' in plain song and descant.' The church lay empty and unused for a long time after the Reformation, but about 1592 it began to be resorted to as a place of Presbyterian worship, and continued to be used as such with the status of a parish church till 1793, when it was destroyed by fire. In the Trongate stood also two other chapels, one called our Lady Chapel, on the N side of the street, not far from the Cross, founded as early as the year 1293; the other dedicated to St Thomas-àBecket, which seems to have been endowed in 1320 by Sir Walter Fitz Gilbert, the progenitor of the Hamiltons. Except, then, for its ecclesiastical connection, Glasgow was as yet a place of no very great importance; and indeed, in the taxation of royal burghs in the time of Queen Mary, it is rated only as the eleventh; but the successful outcome of the Reformation, by depriving the citizens of their former great mainstay, turned their industry into the new, permanent, and more profitable channels that were to lead to future greatness.

The first outlook, however, was far from promising, for the loss of the clergy and of the university students and the confusion of the times brought ruin and suffering to many in Glasgow, especially of the middle and lower classes, and caused much distress. The burgh records for 1563 state that ' there was a grit dearth approaching to a famine, ' and that all the necessaries of life were more than treble their ordinary value. The magistrates tried to regulate prices and weights, but probably they were not very successful. In 1576 a humble supplication was presented to the King and parliament by the freemen and other indwellers of the city of Glasgow above the Greyfriars' Wynd thereof, and makes mention that ' whereas that part of the said city that afore the Reformation of the religion was entertained and upholden by the resort of the bishops, pastors, and others of the clergy for the time, is now becoming ruinous, and for the maist part altogether decayit, and the heritors and possessors thereof greatly depauperit, wanting the means not only to uphold the same, but for the entertainment of themselves, theirwyffis, bairnies, and families.. And seeing that part of the said city above the Greyfriars' Wynd is the only ornament and decoration thereof, by reason of the great and sumptuous buildings of great antiquity very proper and meet for the receipt of his highness and nobility at such times as they shall repair thereto, ' and so on, and generally claiming some amelioration of their condition. Commissioners were accordingly appointed to take measures for the relief of their necessity, and as one of the complaints had been that there was ' ane great confusion and multitude of markets togidder in ane place about the croce,' they ordered the markets to be removed farther up the street for the benefit of the petitioners. There is no reason to believe that the shifting of the markets compensated for the banishment of the Roman Catholic clergy, and the desired amelioration took place only when the inhabitants, learning to rely on themselves, began to direct their industry into new channels. It is indeed somewhat remarkable to find that, even thus early, and while the place was still so poor and so limited, Glasgow began to possess the germs of commercial eminence in so far as it was not destitute of shipping, for there is an order of the Privy Council to the effect that vessels belonging to Glasgow should not annoy those belonging to Henry VIII., the Queen's grand-uncle.

Subsequent to the Reformation the glimpses of the social and moral condition of the people, which previously were drawn mostly from the archives of the see, come to be taken from the records of the presbytery, kirk-session, and town council, and the picture they present is certainly very curious, though fresh and truthful. There is no doubt that, notwithstanding the amount of suffering caused by the change, the citizens adhered firmly to the doctrines they had embraced with such cordiality and sincerity, for in 1581 the negative Confession of Faith, with the National Covenant annexed, was signed at Glasgow by 2250 persons, men as well as women-a total which, considering the probable number of the population, must have included almost every one above the condition of childhood. As the old bishops and archbishops had never been legally divested of their temporalities, it became necessary to employ a legal fiction in order to get possession of the revenues; and for this purpose the bishops known as the ' Tulchans, -since they were employed merely as dummy calves, while the court favourites or the great officers of state milked the benefices-were appointed. In 1581 the king promoted Robert Montgomery, minister at Stirling, to be Protestant Archbishop of Glasgow, on the understanding that the larger portion of the temporalities were to be paid to the Lennox family, an appointment and arrangement in the highest degree distasteful to the people. It was resolved to oppose his induction by sending Mr Howie, one of the Presbyterian preachers, to take prior occupation of the pulpit of the cathedral. Howie went, but while he was, on the day set apart for the induction of the prelate, engaged in the ordinary service of the day, Sir Matthew Stewart of Minto, provost of the city, determined to enforce the royal warrant, pulled him out of the pulpit, and in the course of the struggle a handful of hair was torn from the minister's beard, some of his teeth were knocked out, and his blood was shed. This assault was regarded by the citizens of Glasgow as a most sacrilegious one; and as Mr Howie denounced the judgment of God upon Sir Matthew and his family, it was remarked that in seventy years this once potent race had been reduced to impoverished circumstances in the city in which for many generations they had been lords. How much of this was due to Mr Howie's curse it is unnecessary to inquire, but it may be remarked in passing that this was the first sign of that stubborn opposition to Episcopacy which the western shires afterwards so strongly exhibited. Montgomery was forced to resign, and he afterwards became minister of the parish of Stewarton, where he died, but his retirement did not prevent the appointment of other episcopal prelates in due season. The power of the Presbyterian clergy having been meantime fairly established, they proceeded to exercise a system of discipline which no w -a-days would be considered of a very stringent and oppressive character, but, considering the superstition and looseness which marked the former papal rule, there is no doubt that it was necessary for the regeneration of the people, especially those of what were termed ' the meaner sort., If the sacerdotal power were supreme before the Reformation the Church power, cleric and lay, now became equally so, and even if possible still more so. There are cases of Church interference and discipline which might hardly be credited had we not the records before us, and curiously enough we find the general kirksession-a body appointed in 1572, and possessing a power as despotic and secret as that of the Venetian Council-so powerful as often to set presbytery and corporation alike at defiance. In perusing the ecclesiastical injunctions and sentences, the large. number of cases in which jurisdiction usually belonging to the civil power was exercised by the Church courts is very remarkable. In 1582 it was ordered that ' the booth doors of merchants and traffickers were to be steaked [shut] on Wednesdays and Fridays in the hour of sermon, and the masters of booths were enjoined to keep the hour of preaching under the penalty of twenty pounds Scots, with out a lawful cause admitted by the session. ' On 26 Dec. five persons were appointed to make repentance, because they kept the superstitious day called Yuil [Christmas]. ' The baxters [bakers] to be inquired at, to whom they baked Yuil bread. ' In 1587 the session laid down the following tariff in Scots money to meet cases of immorality:- ' Servant women, for a single breach of chastity, twenty pounds for her relief from cross and steeple; men servants, thirty pounds, or else to be put in prison eight days and fed on bread and water, thereafter to be put in the jugs [stocks]. ' As for the richer sort of servants, the fines were to be exacted at the arbitrement of the Kirk. ' This act not to extend to honest men's sons and daughters, but they to be punished as the kirk shall prescribe. ' The Kirk could, however, afford to be tender when it had to deal with a transgressor whose rank was above the common sort; for in 1608 the laird of Minto, a late provost, was in trouble by reason of a breach of chastity, but it was resolved to pass him over with a reprimand. Harlots were to be carted through the e town, ducked in the Clyde, and put in the jougs at the cross on a market-day. The punishment for adultery was to ' satisfy six Sabbaths on the cuckstool at the pillar, bare footed and barlegged, in sackcloth, then to be carted through the town and ducked in the Clyde from a pulley fixed in the bridge. ' The presbytery enjoined the ministers to be serious in their deportment and modest in their apparel, ' not vain with long ruffles and gaudy toys in their clothes. ' The session directed that the drum should go through the town to intimate that there must be no bickerings or plays on Sundays, either by young or old. Games-golf, alley-bowls, etc. -were forbidden on Sundays, and it was enjoined that no person should go to Rutherglen to see the plays on Sunday. Parents who had children to be baptized were to repeat the commandments distinctly, the articles of faith, and the Lord's Prayer, or to be declared ignorant, and some other godly person present their bairn, with further punishment as the Church shall see fit. In 1588 the session intimated to the presbytery that, the latter body could not hold ' exercise ' in Blackfriars' church on Friday, as it interfered with the regular Friday sermon, and the presbytery had to yield. The time of assembling on the Sabbaths of the communion was four o'clock in the morning, and it must have been rather hard on the magistrates who had to ' attend the tables, ' and keep order. The collectors assembled on these occasions in the High Kirk at three o'clock in the morning. On 3 March 1608 the session enacted that there should be no meetings of women on the Sabbath in time of sermon, and that no hostler should sell spirits, wine, or ale in time of sermon, under pain of twenty pounds, and that there should be no buying of timber on the Sabbath at the Water of Clyde from sunrise to sunset. In 1588 a number of ash trees in the High Kirk churchyard were ordered to be cut down to make forms for the folk to sit on in the church. Women were not permitted to sit on these, but were directed to bring stools with them. It was also intimated that ' no woman, married or unmarried, should come within the kirk door to preachings or prayers with their plaids about their heads, neither to lie down in the kirk on their faces in time of prayer, with certification that their plaids be drawn down, or they be raised by the beadle. ' The beadles were to have ' staves for keeping quietness in the kirk and comely order; ' for each marriage they were to get 4d., and for each baptism 2d. On 9 March 1640 the session intimated that all masters of families should give an account of those in their families who have not the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, Creed, etc., and that every family should have prayers and psalms morning and evening; and some of the fittest men were appointed to assist the elders in promoting this work. On 13 July 1643 the kirk-session appointed some of their number to go through the town on the market-day to take order with banners, swearers, etc. (till the magistrates provide one for that office); swearers were to pay twelve pence, and, along with blasphemers and mockers of piety, were to be, for the second offence, rebuked at the bench in front of the pulpit; and for the third at the pillar, over and above the fine. Swearing seems to have been hard to eradicate, for it had been attracting attention from the time of the Reformation onward; and the women were as bad as, or even worse than, the men. In 1589 there was a special meeting of the town council to consider blasphemies and evil words used by 'sindrie wemen,' and the result was that 'one pair joges'was set up. Morality, too, was still poor; for on 5 Aug. 1643 it was found necessary again to make enactments about offenders against the seventh commandment, and it was decreed that they should be imprisoned, and then drawn through the town in a cart with a paper on their face; thereafter to stand three hours in the jougs and be whipped; and the punishment seems to have been by no means rarely inflicted.

The magistrates and town councillors were no less zealous in the good work of encouraging piety and purity of morals (to which, indeed, they were often stirred up by requests, which had all the force of commands, from the kirk-session), in promoting order and cleanliness in the town (which from the records would seem to have been much in want of improvement), in practising charity and hospitality now and then, and in keeping up a martial spirit amongst the people by means of 'wappon-shaws' or periodical training in the use of arms. Some of their decisions are very curious, and, from a modern point of view, decidedly ultra vires. One of the most remarkable illustrations of the extent of their authority is a composition for the slaughter of one of the burgesses, which is entered on the books of the burgh as having the 'strength of ane decreit of the provest and baillies.' In this their authority is interponed to an agreement, by which the widow and representatives of a murdered man agree to pass from any criminal action against the murderer on condition of his making 'repentance' within the High church, and paying the 'sowme of three hundred merkis money in name of kynbute' or reparation. In 1547 the bailies and council ordained 'every buythhalder to have in reddiness within the buyth ane halbert, jak, and steel bonnet, for eschewing of sick inconvenients as may happen.' And again, in 1 577-78, we find the following: -'Quhilk day it is condescendit be the provest, baillies, counsale, and dekynes, that the act maid anent the hagbuttis be renewit; that every ane substantious and habill men sall have ane hagbutt with graitht, halder, and bullet effeiring thairto; and that every utheris nocht beand habill thairfoir sall have ane lang speir, by [besides] jakkis, steilbonetis, sword, and bukler. 'On 28 Oct. 1588 it is' statut and ordainit be the baillies and counsall, in consideratioun of the pest now in Paislay, that no person, indweller within the town, because of the markets of Paisley and Kilmacolm approaching, shall pass furth of the town thereto, under the pain of five pounds, to be taken of every person repairing thereto, and banished furth of the said town for a year and a day, without leif askit and gevin be the baillies. 'On 1 June 1589 the council met to consider the King's letter, charging this burgh and all others to arm men to go to the North on his Majesty's service; and, considering that his Majesty was' then at Hamilton, directed the three bailies, the treasurer, and a deputation of the citizens to proceed thither and speak to the King and the chancellor, with the view that they may 'get ane licent of his grace to abyd fra this present raid'-i.e., to be allowed to abstain from sending men to form part of the King's army then mustering against the popish earls in the North. The appeal was, however, unsuccessful, for at a subsequent meeting of council it was resolved to send 'fyftie hagbutteris to await on his Majesties service in the north.' In the same year, 1589, it is ordained that 'na middingis [dunghills] be laid upon the hiegate, nor in the meil or flesche mercattis. And that na flescheowris teme uschavis [empty offal] in the said places under the pane of xvj s. 'It is also ordained that' na breiding of flesche nor blawing of muttoun be under the pane of xvj s. 'The magistrates of these times appear to have regulated the price of commodities, and enactments are made fixing the price of ale, candles, and viands, and vivers generally. Candlemakers are enjoined to sell either pounds or halfpounds and to sell penny or twopenny candles. On 26 July 1612,' Matthew Thomesoun, hielandman fiddler,, is apprehended on suspicion of assaulting 'ane young damesell, named Jonet M 'Quhirrie.' It appears that the charge was 'denyit be him and hard to be verefeit;' but the bailies did not give the fiddler the benefit of the insufficiency of evidence, for, 'finding him ane idill vagabound,' they ordered him to be put in the stocks until the evening, and thereafter to be put out of the town at the West Port and banished for ever, and should he afterwards be found in the town of his own consent, he was to be 'hangit but [without] ane assyze.' In the treasurer's accounts for 1609, various queer items are given under the heads of charity, entertainments, etc. Sums are paid to sundry persons in the town 'for vyne desart, sukar, and fruitis, and other expenses made and wairit upon the Duke of Wirtinbrig and James, Master of Blantyre, for his welcum furth of Inglind; 'to two puir Inglismen at command of the baillies;' 'pulder and lead,' supplied to the men of war who were sent to the Isles; 'to schipbrokin Inglismen, puire Polians, Inlandmen;' to 'ane pure crippill man that come out of Paslay;' and also to 'ane pure man that geid on his kneis.' In 1643 a sum is given for James Bogle, a burgess' son, to help to pay his ransom, 'being taken with the Turks.' A gift is made to 'Johne Lyoun's wyf in Greenock, to help to cut ane bairne of the stone.' On 21 March 1661, the council agrees to pay yearly to Evir M'Neil, 'that cuts the stone,' one hundred merks Scots for cutting 'all the poor for that frielie.' Various presents of wine and herrings are given to the town's friends; and so late as 20 April 1695 the council 'appoints the treasurer to have allowance in his hands of two hundreth merks payed out be him as the price of ane hogsheid of wyne given to a friend of this toune, whom it is not fitt to name.'

There are various entries regarding the meeting of the celebrated General Assembly of 1638; and, during the civil troubles in the reign of Charles I. and subsequently, 'wappon-shaws' are ordered for the training of the people in arms, and munitions are purchased, for the price of which the inhabitants are assessed, and 150 men are ordered to the border 'for the common defence.' George Porterfield was to be captain, and the Glasgow men were to march in Lord Montgomery's regiment. On 25 April 1646, the Treasurer is ordered to' pay to Daniel Brown, surgeon, twelve pounds money, for helping and curing certain poor soldiers hurt at Kilsyth, at command of the late magistrates. 'On 18 June 1660, 'ane congratulatioune' is kept on account of the happy return of ' our dread sovereign the King's majestie.' In 1663 the Dean of Guild and convener are ordered to appoint some of their number as they think convenient 'to taist the seck now cellered be Mr Campsie,' preparatory to the 'toune's denner' then about to take place. On 20 June 1674, it was represented to the council that Mrs Cumming, mistress of manners, was about to leave the town on account of the small employment which she had found within it, 'quhilk they fund to be prejudiciall to this place, and, in particular, to theis who hes young women to bried therin,' and, therefore, for the further encouragement of Mrs Cumming, if she will stay, she was to be paid 'one hundred merks yearly' so long as she keeps a school and teaches children as formerly. On 1 Feb. 1690, the council ordains 'ane proclamation to be sent throw the toune prohibiting and dischargeing the haill inhabitants and others residing within this burgh, that they, nor nane of them, drink in any tavern after ten o'clock at night on the week days, under the paine of fourtie shillings Scots to be payed be the furnisher of the drink, and twentie shillings Scots be the drinker, for each failzie toties quoties, whereof the one-half to the informer, and the other to be applied to the use of the poor.' Sabbath was to be strictly observed. By a minute of the Session, on 14 April 1642, the magistrates and ministers were directed to search the streets on Sabbath night for persons who absented themselves from church, and, by another, they were to disperse all jovial companies, even in private houses, late on Saturday night, and on Sunday they were to watch the streets during service time, and compel those who were out to go to church. At a later date the Sunday walkers had the choice of going home. The watchers had the power of arresting offenders, and 'this practice,' says Mr Macgeorge, 'was continued till so late as the middle of last century, when the searchers having taken into custody Mr Peter Blackburn, father of Mr Blackburn of Killearn, for walking on the Green one Sunday, he prosecuted the magistrates, and succeeded in his suit. This caused the practice to be abandoned.'.

The town appears, in early times, to have been sadly afflicted with a class of diseased unfortunates called lepers. Reference has been already made to the hospital erected for them by Lady Lochow, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany, and mother of Colin, first Earl of Argyll, and it is further recorded that on 7 Oct. 1589 there were six lepers in her lepers' house at Gorbals. In 1610 the council ordained that the lepers of the hospital should go up the causewayside near the gutter, and should have 'clapperis' in their hands to warn the people to keep away, and a cloth upon their mouth and face, and should stand afar off while they received alms, under the penalty of being banished from the town and hospital. In 1635 the magistrates purchased from the Earl of Glencairn the manse of the prebendary of Cambuslang, which had been gifted to him after the Reformation, which they fitted up as a house of correction for dissolute women, and the Kirk Session was cruel enough to enjoin that the poor creatures there confined should be 'whipped every day during pleasure.'

Glasgow had its full share of those trials and calamities which began in the time of Charles I., and only terminated on the accession of William III. One of the leading events in connection with this period was the meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at Glasgow in 1638, an assembly of the very highest national interest and importance, and which throughout its meetings exhibited a degree of independence and determination not exceeded by the Long Parliament of England in the most vigorous period of its existence. Externally, the Church of Scotland was at this period regulated by the Episcopal form of Government, but the mass of the people, and a great majority of the nobility and gentry, were devoutly attached to the Presbyterian principles that had been introduced among them by Knox and the early Reformers. The country tolerated Episcopacy, but neither acquiesced in it nor loved it. When the King, Charles I., therefore, in 1637, ordered a new service book to be used in the Scottish churches, and a report spread abroad that this book was tinctured by the mass, the people exclaimed that this was neither more nor less than an attempt to insinuate Popery amongst them under the shallow disguise of a Protestant ritual; and the long smothered dislike to 'prelacy' burst forth into a storm of opposition which eventually became destructive to the whole system, and fatal to the King. The attempt to introduce Laud's liturgy was followed by a closer and more hearty bond of union among the Scottish Presbyterians, who exerted themselves towards the calling together of a General Assembly to consider the state of the Church, and, the King's reluctant assent having been obtained, the Assembly was finally summoned to meet at Glasgow on 21 Nov. 1638. The service book had already produced commotion in Glasgow, for, one day in 1637, 'at the outgoing of the church about thirty or forty of our honestest women in one voice before the bishop and magistrates fell a railing, cursing, scolding with -clamours on Mr William Aunan' (who had, before the synod of Glasgow, preached a sermon in defence of the liturgy), and the same night, while he was walking in the dark, 'some hundreds of enraged women of all qualities are about him, with neaves, staves, and peats, but [to their credit be it said] no stones. They beat him sore; his cloak, ruff, and hat were rent,' and though he escaped all 'bloody wounds' he was in danger of being killed. 'Some two of the meanest' of those who had been engaged in the disturbance in the earlier part of the day were put in prison, but the other 'tumult was so great that it was not thought meet to search either the plotters or actors of it, for numbers of the best quality would have been found guilty.' Next day the poor man had the further misfiretune to fall with his horse above him in 'very foul mire' in presence of an angry crowd of women, who, no doubt, showed their exultation at the accident, so that his seermon cost him a good deal of grief. With the citizens in a temper like this, and considering the weighty and vexed questions to be debated, it is not surprising that the magistrates looked forward to the convocation of the Assembly with some anxiety. They passed a number of wholesome regulations, ordaining, among other things, that 'no inhabitant expect more rent for their houses, chambers, beds, and stables, than shall be appointed by the provost, bialys, and council, and ordains the same to be intimated by sound of drum, that no person may plead ignorance. 'They also purchased muskets with 'stalls and bandoleers,' pikes, powder, and match, with which to arm 'Ane gaird of men keepit' to mount guard day and night while the town was filled with strangers. The council representative too was ordered not to give his vote on any important matter without first deliberating with his fellow councillors. The Assembly accordingly met on the day appointed, in the nave of the cathedral, which had been fitted up for the occasion, the 'vaults' or narrow galleries above being set apart for ladies and persons of humble degree, while one was reserved for young nobleman, not members of the house. The majority of the aristocracy of the country were present either in the capacity of officers of the crown, or as elders and assessors from the burghs-'Rothes, Wemyss, Balmerino, Lindsay, Yester, Eglinton, Loudon, and many others, whose sole word was still law for large districts of Scotland.' From each of the four universities there were three representatives, and 'thair cam out of ilk presbitrie within the Kingdome to this assemblie, ane, tua, or thrie of ablest covenanting ministeris, with ane, tua, or thrie reulling elderis, who sould voice as they voiced. 'There were altogether present' 140 ministers, 2 professors, not ministers, and 98 ruling elders from presbyteries and burghs. Of these ruling elders, 17 were noblemen, 9 were knights, 25 were landed proprietors, and 47 were burgesses-all men of some consideration.' The great crowd, however, that had gathered to Glasgow consisted of the traius or 'following' of the nobles, which were made very large on the pretext that as there might be an inroad of Highland robbers, a strong guard of armed men was absolutely necessary. This immense crowd of retainers caused great confusion, pressure, and unseemly scenes, which have been caustically described by Robert Baillie, afterwards Principal of the University of Glasgow, who was a member of the Assembly. 'Our rascals,' says he, in his 'Letters and Journals,' without shame in great numbers make such din and clamour in the house of the true God, that if they 'minted' to use the like behaviour in my chamber, I would not be contented till they were down the stairs. 'Burnet in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton says it was the greatest gathering that had ever met in these parts, and that the Marquis of Hamilton, who was the royal commissioner,' judged it was a sad sight to see such an assembly, for not a gown was among them all, but many had swords and daggers about them,' so that there was more of an armed conference than anything else. Mr John Bell of the Laigh Kirk, 'the most auncient preicher of the toune,' preached the opening sermon, and after some preliminary quarrelling about the conduct of business, Mr Alexander Henderson, minister of Leuchars, was appointed moderator, and thereafter several days were spent in keen discussion as to the constitution of and powers vested in the Assembly; and it soon became pretty evident that the court was determined to remodel the whole government of the Church. The commissioner, a man of steady judgment and sharp and clear wit, did his best to stop what he deemed a high handed and unauthorised proceeding; but he had arrayed against him all the best men of the time, for whom single-handed he was no match in argument, and at length, on Wednesday, 28 Nov., at the seventh sitting, when the members were about to vote on the question whether the Assembly was competent to judge the bishops, the marquis, declaring that he could not give his countenance to their proceedings, produced the King's instructions and warrant to dissolve the Assembly, which he accordingly did, and left the Assembly accompanied by his assessors and a few of the members, and 'immediatelie causes ane herald to go to the Cross of Glasgow in his cot armes, with ane proclamation maid wp be him and the lordis of secreit counsall and subscrivit with there handis and givin wnder his Majesteis signet, daitit the 29th of November, and be sound of trumpet dischargeit the said gcnerall assemblie and in his Hines name commandit the said pretendit moderatour, commissioneris, reulling elderis, and all uther memberis thairof, not to treat, consult, or conclude any farder in the said assemblie wnder the pane of tressoun, and that they should ryss wp and dissolue out of the toune of Glasgow within 24 houris.' The General Assembly held at Glasgow in 1610 had declared that all general meetings of the Church were unlawful without the licence of the King, but the men of 1638 were of different mind and in another temper. While the commissioner was leaving the meeting, instruments were being taken and a protest read declaring that the werk of the Assembly would not be interrupted; and protest was again made at the Cross against the proclamation, claiming that the Assembly being once convened -could not be dissolved without its own consent. The loss of the royal representative was considered to be compensated for by the adherence and encouragement of the Earl of Argyll, who now definitely cast in his lot with the Covenanters; and so the Presbyterians, left to themselves. proceeded with earnestness and devoted courage to do the work for which they had assembled. 'They passed an act declaring the Assemblies of 1606, 1608, 1616, 1617, and 1618 to have been so vitiated by kingly interference as to be null and void.' They condemned 'the service book, the book of canons, the book of ordination, and the Court of High Commission. They abjured Episcopacy and the five articles of Perth, 'and then proceeded to the trial and deposition of the bishops and some other ministers besides for professing the doctrines of Arminianism, Popery, and Atheism; for urging the use of the liturgy, bowing to the altar, and wearing the cope and rochet; for declining the Assembly, and for being guilty of simony, avarice, profanity, adultery, drunkenness, and other crimes. The Bishop of St Andrews, for instance, was found guilty of riding through the country on the Lord's Day, of carding and dicing during the time of divine service, of tippling in taverns till midnight, of falsifying the acts of Assembly, of slandering the Covenant, and of adultery, incest, sacrilege, and simony! It is difficult to believe all this of a venerable man like Spottiswoode, and probably his real fault was that he was a bishop. Thomas Foster, minister of Melrose, was deposed on the charge 'that he used to sit at preaching and prayer, baptise in his own house; that he made a way through the church for his kine and sheep; that he made a waggon of the old communion table to lead his peats in; that he took in his corn, and said it was lawful to work, on the Sabbath; and that he affirmed the Reformers had brought more damage to the Church in one age than the Pope and his faction had done in a thousand years. 'One of the counts against the Bishop of Orkney was 'that he was a curler on the ice on the Sabbath day;' while the Bishop of Moray was convicted of all 'the ordinary faults of a bishop,' and was besides charged by Mr Andrew Cant with having danced in his nightshirt at his daughter's wedding! And so the Archbishops of St Andrews and Glasgow, and the Bishops of Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Galloway, Ross, Brechin, Dunblane, Dunkeld, Moray, Orkney, Lismore, and the isles, were deposed and excommunicated; the Covenant was ordered to be signed by all classes of the people; and thus 'the whole fabric which James and Charles in a long course of years had been rearing with so much care and policy fell at once to the ground.' The government of the Church by kirk sessions, presbyteries, and synods was restored; and the work of the Assembly being over, it adjourned on 20 Dec., having held eighteen meetings after the commissioner retired, and the last day is stated to have been a 'blithe day to all.' As to the part the Glasgow representative took there can be no doubt, for it is recorded that, after duly consulting the council as he had been ordered, he was instructed to vote for all the resolutions put and carried:

Soon after the meeting of the Assembly the great civil war broke out, and the Earl of Montrose, having abandoned the Covenanting party and attached himself to the cause of the King, raised an army in the North, and, after defeating the troops of the Covenanters at a number of battles, marched southwards to Kilsyth, a few miles from Glasgow, where, on 15 Aug. 1645, he inflicted a decisive defeat on General Baillie at the head of 7000 Covenanters. The authorities in Glasgow heard of the triumph of Montrose with no small uneasiness, but, though strong Covenanters, and opposed therefore to the cause for which the marquis had fought and conquered, they were men of policy; and so, making a virtue of necessity, they sent a deputation, consisting of Sir Robert Douglas of Blackerston and Archibald Fleming, Commissary of the City, to Kilsyth to invite Montrose, in the name of Provost Bell and the magistrates, to honour the city by his presence and to partake of their hospitality. The marquis accepted the invitation, and marched to Glasgow, where he and his army were welcomed with much solemnity and outward respect, his lordship and his officers being sumptuously entertained by the magistrates and higher classes of the inhabitants at a banquet, during which their apologies for their former want of loyalty were tendered and received in good part. A 'pest' then prevailed in the city, however, and Montrose left it on the second day and moved to Bothwell; not, however, without leaving a memorial of his visit in a forced loan to assist in carrying on the war on the King's behalf to the extent of £50, 000 Scots, which was, of course, never repaid. Within a month after, Montrose was surprised and defeated at Philliphaugh by General Leslie, who, in his turn, visited Glasgow, where the town council had meanwhile got into difficulties over their conduct towards Montrose, the Earl of Lanark having, in virtue of a warrant from the committee of the estates, suspended the whole council, and the estates themselves having selected a new one, which was accepted, though not Without protest against such an invasion of the privileges of the burgh. Leslie was very civil, and even moderate, but, with a very grim joke about money being necessary to pay the interest of the loan to Montrose, he also borrowed from them £20,000 Scots, so that the city probably lost more than it Would have done if it had left the matter alone. Montrose, as the King's lieutenant, had summoned a parliament to meet at Glasgow on 20 Oct., but now, instead of the bustle of a meeting of the estates, the citizens had the spectacle of an execution, for three of the prisoners taken at Philliphaugh-Sir William Rollock, Sir Philip Nisbet, and Alexander Ogilvie of Inverquharity-were put to death within the city, Rollock on 28, and his two companions on 29 Oct. That the spectacle of the execution of these unfortunate royalists was a pleasing one to a large number of the citizens there can be no reason to doubt, and some idea may be obtained of the bitter feeling of the contending parties, When we remember the remark of so presumably pious a man as the Glasgow Professor of Divinity for the time being,-Mr David Dickson, who, When He heard of the executions, exclaimed, 'The work gangs bonnily on,' a saying which became proverbial, and was long significantly used in Glasgow. Montrose, with a small force he had succeeded in collecting, made a demonstration on Glasgow at the time in the hope of averting the fate of his unhappy friends, but he had not sufficient strength to accomplish anything, and after a few days retreated to Athole.

After Charles had surrendered to the Scots and had been handed over to the English army, Scotland became, when too late, frightened at the triumph of the ambitious and uncompromising Independents of England, and the consequent danger to its beloved Presbyterianism. To meet the supposed danger, levies were ordered by the Scottish parliament; but Glasgow, influenced by the clergy, many of whom preferred the unknown danger of the ascendency of the Independents to the known danger of the royal power, was found amongst the number of those contumacious burghs which declined to furnish their quota. Provost Stewart, with the other magistrates and members of council, were in consequence summoned before parliament, imprisoned for several days, and deprived of their offices. But a heavier infliction still awaited them, inasmuch as five regiments of horse and foot were sent to the town, with orders that they should be quartered exclusively on the magistrates, members of council, ministers, members of the kirk-session, and their friends. Some of these gentlemen were burdened with 10, 20, and 30 soldiers each, who not only lived on the best the place could afford in the way of meat, brandy, and wine, but exacted from their compulsory entertainers their daily pay into the bargain. During the short period these five regiments 'sorned' upon the inhabitants, the latter sustained a loss of £40,000 Scots; and Principal Baillie pathetically remarks that their 'loss and danger was not so great by James Graham.' The failure of the expedition and the defeat at Dunbar are matters of history. Shortly after the latter battle the Protector took possession of Edinburgh, and thence marched to Glasgow by way of Kilsyth. On his arrival he took up his residence at Silvercraigs House, which stood till about twenty years ago (though Oliver's levee chamber had latterly degenerated into a furniture sale-room), on the S side of the Saltmarket at the N corner of Steel Street, and nearly opposite the Bridgegate. Finding the magistrates had all fled, he sent for Patrick Gillespie, the influential minister of the Outer High church, and subsequently principal of the university, whom he hospitably entertained, and then treated to such a long and fervent prayer, that the worthy minister, quite overcome, gave out among the townsfolks that 'surely he must be one of the elect.' On the following Sunday Cromwell made a formal procession to the cathedral to hear sermon. Zachary Boyd, so well known in connection with his paraphrases, minister of the Barony parish (who was one of those courageous enough to remain), occupied the pulpit in the forenoon, and, in his preaching, boldly and severely inveighed against Cromwell and the Independents. The Protector himself bore it patiently, but his followers were angry. 'Shall I pistol the scoundrel ?' whispered his secretary Thurloe. 'No, no,' replied Cromwell, 'we will manage him another way.' And so he invited the bold divine to sup with him, and concluded the entertainment with a prayer of some hours' duration, which is said by contemporary chroniclers to have lasted till three o'clock in the morning, and Boyd left rather pleased, no doubt, than otherwise. He remained in Glasgow for only a few days, but visited it again on 18 April 1651, when he had a more friendly reception, and, along with General Lambert, discussed matters with Mr James Guthrie and Mr Patrick Gillespie. This time he remained ten days. On both occasions his conduct was distinguished by a great degree of moderation, and testimony is borne to this by those not otherwise inclined to speak favourably of him. His visit to Glasgow was, indeed, beneficial in more ways than one, for some of his soldiers, tradesmen who had been called away from their peaceful callings by the frenzy and enthusiasm of the times, ultimately settled in Glasgow, and contri buted to foster the spirit of trade and to introduce improvements in some of the handicrafts.

In its previous history Glasgow had more than once suffered by fire, privation, and pestilence; but on Thursday, 17 June 1652, a conflagration broke out, which exceeded all former visitations of the kind in its extent and in its painful effects upon the citizens. It began about two o'clock in the afternoon on the E side of High Street. While everybody was busy there, some sparks, carried by the wind, set fire to houses on the W side of the Saltmarket, where the conflagration ran from house to house with great rapidity, spreading to both sides of the street and into the Tron gate, Gallowgate, and Bridgegate. It burned for about eighteen hours, and on the following Sunday it again broke out in the Trongate, and burned for about five hours. It is said to have been caused by intense heat; and Law, in his Memorials, says that the great spread was caused by the frequent changes of wind that took place during its progress. About a third of the city was destroyed ('fourscore bye-lanes and alleys, with all the shops, besides eighty warehouses,' according to the council report); 1000 persons were burned out; and, from the destruction of property and the loss of furniture by fire or by theft, many previously in comfortable circumstances were cast destitute on the world. The wretched inhabitants-some through necessity, others through fear-were, for many days and nights, compelled to encamp in the open fields, and, altogether, the calamity was the worst that had ever befallen Glasgow. The loss was estimated at £100, 000, a very large sum in those days, and contributions were made for the sufferers from all parts of the country. Like London, however, under a similar affliction, Glasgow rose from her ashes purified and beautified, and the ruined houses. which had been built or faced with wood, were replaced by substantial stone edifices, which were constructed in a more open and commodious manner than the buildings they replaced. It is recorded that after this fire the magistrates ordered the church doors to be opened, not to give the unfortunate people shelter, but for the convenience of those who had no chambers to retire to 'for making of their devotions.' In 167 7 another great fire took place in Glasgow, which destroyed 136 houses, and rendered between 500 and 600 families homeless. It originated at the head of the Saltmarket, near the Cross, and was caused by a smith's apprentice, who had been beaten by his master, and who, in revenge, set fire to his smith y during the night. Law, in his Memorials, says, 'The heat was so great that it fyred the horoledge of the tolbooth,' the present Cross steeple. There were some prisoners in it at the time-among others the laird of Kersland, who had been concerned in the Pentland rising; but they were rescued by the people, who broke open the tolbooth doors and set them free.

The restoration of Charles II., in 1660, was celebrated in Glasgow with a good deal of outward respect and enthusiasm; but it is pretty certain that most of the people rejoiced 'that the King had come to his own again' simply because it was fashionable to do so, and because the absence of health-drinking and bonfires might give a character of disaffection to the place. With a full remembrance of the troubles and desolations of the time of the first Charles, the citizens were well contented with the order and security which the Protector had established among them, and would by no means have been disinclined to a continuance of the government upon similar principles. The Presbyterians had therefore no high expectations from the new order of things, and they were ere long confirmed in their misgivings. It soon became apparent that the policy of Charles II. would be similar to that of his father in his efforts to force Episcopacy upon an unwilling people; and, as Glasgow was the headquarters of the Presbyterians in the West, the city shared in all the pains and persecutions of that iron time. The King having appointed Mr Andrew Fairfoul, minister of Duns, to be archbishop of Glasgow, he arrived in Edinburgh in April 1662, having been previously consecrated in Westminster Abbey. Despite his efforts, and notwithstanding the civil power with which he was armed, the existing clergy and laity in Glasgow, with trifling exceptions, refused to conform to the new order of things, and the Earl of Middleton came to Glasgow, on 26 Sept. 1662, with a committee of the Scottish Privy Council to enforce Episcopacy. They were well received, and proceeded to investigate the complaint of the archbishop-that none of the ministers who had entered the Church since 1649 had acknowledged his authority as bishop, and his prayer that the council should issue and enforce an act and proclamation banishing all those clergymen from their houses, parishes, and presbyteries, unless they should, before a certain date, appear and receive collation from him as their bishop. The matter was considered at a meeting of the Privy Council, held in the fore-hall of the college on 1 Oct., and it was resolved-Sir James Lockhart of Lee dissenting, and declaring that the act would desolate the land and excite to fever heat the dislike and indignation with which the prelates had already begun to be regarded-that all such ministers were to remove from their parishes within a month, and the people were not to acknowledge them as their ministers, nor to repair to hear their sermons. The meeting was, according to Wodrow, known as 'the drunken meeting at Glasgow, and it was affirmed that all present were flustered with drink save Sir James Lockhart of Lee.' In their subsequent visits to the other towns of the West, they were not much better, for it is recorded that in one of their debauches they drank the devil's health at midnight at the Cross of Ayr; yet to such debauchees was entrusted a task that resulted in more than 400 Presbyterian ministers being ejected from their parishes, and led to all the wild work of persecution that followed.

Early in 1678 the committee of council returned to Glasgow, and had a sederunt of ten days. They were accompanied by a band of Highlanders, about 5000 in number, who came to be known as the Highland Host, and whose presence was intended to enforce the wishes of the committee. They arrived in Glasgow on 13 Jan. 1678 in the time of public worship, and were quartered on the inhabitants. Their presence was only to be got rid of by the subscription of a bond by which the heritors, and the better classes of the community, bound themselves that they, their wives, families, and servants, with their tenants, cottars, etc., would not be present at any of the field preachings, or hold any communication with the 'outed' ministers. Though this made men in prominent stations responsible for the doings of hundreds of people over whom they had no control, yet such was the desire to get rid of the plundering and extortionate Highland Host, that the bond was subscribed by the provost, bailies, members of council, and the leading men of the city to the number of 153. After their ten days' stay in Glasgow they passed on to Ayrshire, where damage to the amount of £137, 499 Scots was done, and then as the Covenanters would not rise to give colour to a charge of rebellion, nor yet sign the bond, except in very insignificant numbers, the plunderers were sent to their homes. 'When the Highlanders,' says Sir Walter Scott in his Tales of a Grandfather, 'went back to their hills, which was in Feb. 1678, they appeared as if returning from the sack of some besieged town. They carried with them plate, merchantgoods, webs of linen and of cloth, quantities of wearing apparel and household furniture, and a good number of horses to bear their plunder.' As they were returning, the Glasgow people had, however, an opportunity of revenge, for about 2000 of the Highlanders had to return by way of Glasgow, and when they arrived on the S, or Gorbals side, the Clyde was so swollen that it was unfordable. Thus favoured by chance, the students of the college, and many of the inhabitants, who, either by themselves or friends, had suffered from the former ravages of the host, blocked the bridge, and opposed their passage. Only 40 of the Celts were allowed to pass at a time, and these were led along and dismissed by the West Port, after they had been deprived of their plunder. A building near the bridge is said to have been nearly filled with the 'pots, pans, bed-cloths, wearing clothes, coats, cloaks, etc., that were taken.

After the victory of the Covenanters at Drumclog a party of them marched to Glasgow, and attempted to take it from Graham of Claverhouse, who, with the Royal forces, had retired thither. In anticipation of an attack the streets had been barricaded, and though the Covenanters, attacking by the Gallowgate and Vennel, fought bravely, they were repulsed. Their dead were most inhumanly left lying in the streets, it is said, by Claverhouse' express orders. After the battle of Bothwell Brig, the Duke of Monmouth was eagerly pressed by some of his officers to burn Glasgow, or at least to give it up to three hours' plunder, but he would sanction neither, and thus Glasgow escaped what meant utter ruin. In March 1684 a number of Covenanting martyrs suffered death at the Cross, their heads being afterwards cut off and placed on the tolbooth. They were buried on the N side of the cathedral. Some others suffered at the foot of the Howgate, where the martyrs' fountain stands. The tolbooth was so crowded with prisoners at the time, that they had to sleep by turns, and a great many of the poor people, convicted without evidence, were banished to the plantations. When James II. succeeded to the throne, the Council sent to the King their expressions of 'sincere joy,' and, when late in the end of Oct. 1688 he was in difficulties, a body of 1200 men was raised for his assistance; but these, refusing to obey the magistrates, never left the city, and had to be disbanded in January 1689. On the 24th of the same month, a loyal address was prepared to Prince William of Orange, and, still later, a body of 500 men (the foundation of the regiment now known as the Cameronians) embodied according to tradition in one day, was placed under the command of the Earl of Argyll, and sent to Edinburghh to assist in guarding the Estates then engaged in deliberating upon the settlement of the Crown in favour of William and Mary.

After William's accession, when the Darien scheme was projected, Glasgow, which had already experienced to some extent the advantages of commerce, entered into the speculation with great alacrity. The Council, on behalf of the burgh, took stock to the value of £3000 sterling; the citizens subscribed largely of their means -many of them their all; and not a few embarked personally in the expedition. The last of these sailed from Rothesay Bay on 14 Sept. 1699, the four frigates that went carrying 1200 emigrants, among whom was the last of the old family of Stewart of Minto, once the municipal chiefs of Glasgow, and whose decay has al ready been referred to. The unhappy sacrifice of the scheme to English jealousy, and William's faithlessness are well known. Of all the emigrants, but a score or two of broken down and beggared men ever reached their native land again, and hundreds of families at home, who had been in affluent circumstances, were ruined. The news reached Glasgow about the middle of 1700, and so severely did the city suffer from the shock, that it was not till 18 years after that her merchants again possessed ships of their own.

Here, on the eve of the Union of the two kingdoms, which, disastrous as it was in its first results, has since tended to promote so greatly the prosperity of the country, we may again pause and consider the progress that Glasgow had made since the time of the Reformation, and that notwithstanding the famine, fires, plagues, and disasters that we have recounted. The city seems not to have extended its limits very far beyond the earlier bounds, though, from the great increase in population, the old parts must have been much more closely built, and spaces formerly open covered with houses. The Dictionnaire Geographique, published at Paris in 1705, says it 'was large enough, but thinly peopled,' and Clelland asserts that at the Union, Glasgow had not extended beyond its old ports, viz.:-on the E, the Gallowgate Port, near St Mungo's Lane; on the W, the West Port, at the head of Stockwell Street; on the S, the Water Port, near the old bridge; on the N, the Stable Green Port, at the Bishops' Palace; on the NW, Rottenrow Port; while all the adjoining ground now occupied by Bell Street, Candleriggs, King Street, and Princes Street was occupied by corn-fields R but yet, notwithstanding this, there had been a very marked change in its position and condition. As we have seen, it was, at the time of the Reformation, eleventh on the roll of Scottish burghs, and was stented for £13, 10s. Scots; in 1695 it stood second (Edinburgh being its only superior), and was stented for £1800 Scots. The population, which at the Reformation was about 4500, had, by 1600, become about 7000. In 1660 this had grown to 14, 678, but the troubles of the next 28 years had such an injurious effect that, in 1688, this had decreased to 11, 948. In 1701 there were 9994 'examinable persons' recorded in the city, and this name must have applied apparently to younger people than would now be termed adults, for a little later (1708) the total population is returned at 12,766. A new tolbooth had been erected near the Cross in 1626, superseding the old one at the foot of the High Street. It was a fine picturesque building, is described by a contemporary writer as 'a very sumptuous, regulated, uniform fabric, large and lofty, most industriously and artificially carved from the very foundation to the superstructure, to the great admiration of strangers,' and as, 'without exception, the paragon of beauty in the west.' All that now remains of both structures is the Cross steeple, which has been happily preserved from the destruction that has overtaken so many of the old buildings of Glasgow, though, in 1814, it had a narrow escape, and such a fate was only averted by a majority of votes in the council of the day. The Cross itself, which had replaced the older one at the end of Rotten Row, was removed in 1659 as 'altogether defaced,' and all trace of it is lost. The houses along the streets leading from the Cross had piazzas. Defoe, writing of Glasgow, in 1723, says 'The City consists of Four principal Streets in the Form of a Cross, with the Town-House and Market Place in the Middle, where as you walk you see the whole Town at once. The Houses are of Free Stone, of an Equal height, and supported with Pillars, and the Streets being spacious and well pav'd, add to the Beauty of the Place.' He also adds that 'this City is strictly Presbyterian, and is the best affected to the Government of any in Scotland.'

It is a somewhat curious contrast to the present state of affairs that in the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries Glasgow was noted for its beauty. One of Cromwell's soldiers describes it, in 1650, as 'not so big or rich yet,' to all 'a much sweeter and more delyghtful place than Edinburgh.' Another English traveller named Franck, whose opinion of the tolbooth has been already given, and who visited the city a little later, speaks in high terms of 'the spleudour and dignity of this city of Glasgow, which surpasseth most, if not all, the corporations in Scotland,' and also mentions with approval 'the exact decorum in every society.' This praise may be accepted with the less hesitation when we consider that the writer was not on the whole favourably impressed with Scotland, and did not hesitate to say so. 'A satirist,' says Sir Walter Scott, 'with regard to every other place Franck describes Glasgow as the' 'nonsuch of Scotland,' where an 'English florist may pick up a posie.' 'Morer, who wrote in 1689, says, in the work already quoted, that 'Glasgow has the reputation of the finest town in Scotland, not excepting Edinburgh;' and Defoe, in his Journey Through Scotland, published in 1723, says almost enthusiastically, 'Glasgow is the beautifullest little City I have seen in Britain; it stands deliciously on the banks of the river Clyde, over which there is a fair Stone Bridge of Eight Arches' And in a subsequent edition he says still more in its praise, 'the four principal streets are the fairest for breadth and the finest built that I have ever seen in one city together. The houses are all of stone, and generally uniform in height as well as in front. The lower stories for the most part stand on vast square Doric columns with arches which open into the shops, adding to the strength as well as beauty of the building. In a word, 'tis one of the cleanliest, most beautiful, and best built cities in Great Britain.' Defoe's description is later than the Union, and about the time when it was beginning to bear fruit, but the others are earlier, and yet alike they give us a picture of Glasgow still rural, but beginning to have the germs of its future greatness in its increasing trade, which was, in Defoe's time, quickly outgrowing the little commencement that had, in the beginning of the 18th century, been made in the manufacture of tobacco, the refining of sugar, and the making of soap.

The growing importance of the city is evident from the fact that in 1702 the provost, Hugh Montgomerie of Busby, was one of the commissioners appointed to go to London to carry on negotiations for a treaty of Union, and the council agreed that the city should bear the expense of his journey. Notwithstanding this little mark of attention, the Union proposal was received by the inhabitants of Glasgow; particularly by the lower orders, with as much bitterness as elsewhere throughout the country. The populace of Glasgow, with a pet grievance of their own because, instead of returning a member of parliament for themselves, they were in future only to share one with Dumbarton, Renfrew, and Rutherglen, became so much excited that the magistrates deemed it necessary to issue a proclamation that not more than three persons should assemble together after sunset. A most injudicious and inflammatory sermon, preached by the Rev. James Clark, minister of the Tron Church, on 7 Nov. 1706, a sacramental Fastday, was regarded as a direct encouragement and injunction to insurrection, and caused the murmurs of discontent, to which the opposition had been hitherto con fined, to rise into open violence. Within two hours after the sermon drums were beat through the streets, and the people, gathering in immense numbers, fairly overturned the authority of the magistrates. Finding that the magistrates and council refused their request to present a remonstrance to parliament on the subject of the Union, they attacked the council-house and the residence of the provost, Mr Aird. After a short lull there was a fresh outbreak, when the mob disarmed the town-guard, stormed the tolbooth, and seized the town's arms, which consisted of 250 halberts. With these they marched about the streets, forcing their way into the houses of those supposed to be favourable to the Union, searching for arms, and plundering at the same time. The house of the provost was rifled, and he himself, attacked on the street, only escaped with his life by timely concealment and subsequent flight to Edinburgh. The rioters, who had adopted a sort of rude military system, then formed the bold resolution of marching to the capital and dispersing the parliament, and they actually set out for this purpose under the leadership of a Jacobite publican named Finlay. Starting with a body of men by no means numerous, Finlay was met at Kilsyth by the intelligence that cavalry and infantry were already on their way from Edinburgh to put down the riot. At first, nothing dismayed, he determined to fight, and sent to Glasgow for 4 00 men who had been left behind; but as they did not come, the disappointed leader and his companions returned to Glasgow, and, laying down their arms, separated. This was the end of disturbances that had lasted for four weeks, and the publican and some of the other leaders were arrested immediately after and carried to Edinburgh. Technically they had forfeited their lives, as being guilty of high treason; and it says much for the strength and moderation of Queen Anne's government that shortly after the Union Act passed into law, they were all liberated without further punishment than their temporary imprisonment. Had there been competent leaders the insurrection might have proved formidable, but no man of mark and influence in the W of Scotland had any connection with it, and but a very short time elapsed before the Glasgow citizens became fully alive to the advantages the Union had brought them in the opening of the American trade, etc.; in fact we may almost say that it was at this time that Glasgow entered upon that successful career of industry and enterprise which, in due course, rendered it the chief seat of the commerce and manufactures of Scotland.

The rebellion of 1715 did not much affect Glasgow, excepting in so far as it gave the city an opportunity of displaying its liberality and loyalty and its sincere attachment to the principles of the revolution of 1688. The citizens raised a regiment of 600 men, which they drilled and maintained at their own expense, paying the common men at the rate of 8d. per day. This regiment was placed at the disposal of the government, and it rendered good service by performing the important duty of guarding Stirling Castle, town, and bridge, while the Duke of Argyll marched northward to meet the Highlanders under the Earl of Mar at Sheriffmuir. In the meantime the inhabitants had zealously provided for the safety of the city by constructing rude fortifications, protected by a ditch 12 feet wide and 6 deep. The town's accounts at the time contain numerous entries of payment to artificers and labourers, who were employed in the operations of forming the trenches and barricades, of planting the guns which they already possessed, of the freight of eight great guns from Port Glasgow, etc. On 5 Dec. the Duke of Argyll came to Glasgow and took up his lodgings with Mr Campbell of Shawfield, and on the following day, accompanied by the magistrates and several of the nobility and gentry, he reviewed the troops then lying in the town and inspected the defensive preparations made by the inhabitants. Although the war did not come to their own doors, the rebellion was nevertheless a costly affair to the citizens; and amongst other grievances we find the magistrates complaining to the Duke of Argyll that they had to maintain and guard 353 rebel prisoners, 'who are lying in the town' hand and in custody in the castle prison '(the old bishop's palace, which could not have been a very secure prison, for they required a guard of about 100 men). Notwithstanding, however, all the' heavy charges to which it was subjected, the city could afford to be grateful to those who had assisted it in time of trial. In 1716, on the suppression of the rebellion, an order was made that 'a silver tankard, weighting fortyeight unce, thirteen drop, at 7s. sterling per unce; and a sett of suggar boxes, weighting nineteen uncc, fourteen drop, at 8s. per unce; and a server wing, weighting thirty-one unce and twelve drop, at 6s. 4d. per unce,' be presented to Colonel William Maxwell of Cardonald 'as a mark of the town's favour and respect towards him for his good service in taking upon him the regulation and ma management of all the guards that were kept in the city during the rebellion and confusions in the neighbourhood.'

Within a few years after the rebellion, viz., in 1725, a riot broke out in the city, which was so painful and fatal in its consequences, that for half a century after its occurrence it called up to every son of St Mungo reminiscences of the most bitter and exciting kind. This disturbance was caused by the imposition of the first malt tax. As most of the people then drank beer, the new duty was by no means very popular; and in Glasgow, on 23 June, the day on which the operation of the tax began, the mob arose, obstructed the excisemen, and assumed such a threatening attitude, that on the evening of the next day Captain Bushell entered the town with two companies of Lord Deloraine's regiment of foot. This did not, however, prevent the mob from assailing the house of Daniel Campbell of Shawfield, who was then M. P. for the Glasgow district of burghs, and who had rendered himself particularly obnoxious in connection with the matter by his support of the tax. The house stood in the Trongate on the site of Glassford Street, and was by far the finest in the city, but the rioters completely dismantled it and destroyed the furniture. The magistrates, not dreading such acts of violence, had retired to a tavern to spend the evening, when about eleven o'clock p.m. tidings were brought them of the work of havoc and demolition then in progress, while at the same time a sergeant came from Bushell to inquire if he should beat to arms; but the provost, who appears to have been either a timid man or one averse to proceed to extremities, declined the proffered military aid. Next day the mob was still in a very excited state, and so annoyed Bushell's sentinels by throwing stones at them, that the captain ordered out all his men and formed a hollow square in the vicinity of the guardhouse, at the SW corner of Candleriggs. This movement was followed by another shower of stones directed against the soldiers, and Captain Bushell, without any authority from the civil power, ordered his men to fire, when two persons in the crowd were killed on the spot and others wounded. This so roused the inhabitants that, thirsting for vengeance, they assailed the town-house magazine, carried forth the arms, and rang the fire-bell to arouse the city. The provost- Miller-being alarmed at the probable results of a further collision between the military and the people, requested Bushell to remove his soldiers, which he accordingly did in the direction of Dumbarton Castle. This did not, however, avert further catastrophe, for the mob, still excited and inflamed, followed on the line of retreat in great force, and by-and-by began to act upon the offensive, when the captain again ordered his men to fire, and several persons fell. In all there were nine persons killed and seventeen wounded in this unfortunate affair, and as usually happens in such cases it was not merely the assailants or rabble who suffered, but many respectable persons were shot down who happened to be in the crowd or its neighbourhood either accidentally or from motives of curiosity. The military reached the castle of Dumbarton in safety, with the exception of two of the soldiers who were captured by the mob, and only one of whom suffered any ill-treatment. Previous to the attack on his house Mr Campbell had removed with his family to his country-house at Woodhall, about 8 miles distant from the city, whither he had gone on 22 June. lt has been asserted that private threats or hints had reached him of the coming attack, and that, had he given this information in sufficient time to the magistrates, all the unhappy mischief might have been prevented. As soon as word of the serious nature of the disturbances reached headquarters, General Wade set out with a considerable force of horse, foot, and artillery, and took possession of the city. He was accompanied by Duncan Forbes of Culloden, the Lord Advocate, who proceeded to make an investigation into the case, the result of which was that nineteen persons were apprehended and delivered over to Captain Bushell, and by him and the two companies under his command they were taken to Edinburgh and lodged in the castle. On the same day, the 16th of July, the whole of the magistrates, from the provost down to the deacon-convener-including even some who had been absent from Glasgow during the time of the riots-were apprehended at the instance of the Lord Advocate, and imprisoned first in their own tolbooth and then in Edinburgh Castle, whither they were escorted by a considerable body of horse and foot. The charge against them was that they had favoured the riots and winked at the destruction of Campbell's house, but it is plain that the utmost that can be laid to their charge was want of due preparation and energy in repressing the disturbance. After one day's detention the Lords of Justiciary granted their application for bail, and they were liberated and set out on their return to Glasgow. Six miles from the city they were met by about 200 of the inhabitants, who escorted them home with every demonstration of respect, amid the joyous ringing of bells. The magistrates were afterwards freed from blame, but of the nineteen persons of inferior rank who had been arrested, two were banished for ever, while nine were whipped through the streets of Glasgow, and eight were liberated after considerable terms of detention. An attempt was made by the magistrates to. bring Bushell to trial for the murder of nine of the citizens, but he was screened by 'the powers that be,' for he not only got out of the difficulty, but was promoted in the service. To aggravate the already sufficiently distressing case, Campbell was, on application to parliament, granted indemnity for his loss of £6080, which the city had to pay, besides other expenses amounting to over £3000. The inhabitants long regarded this Shawfield affair with a burning sense of injustice suffered by them, and the compensation granted was universally considered as excessive. With his compensation money Mr Campbell purchased the fine estate and island of Islay, which passed from the family about thirty years ago.

The rankling recollection of the Shawfield slaughter and its heavy fines did not prevent the citizens of Glasgow from coming forward with alacrity in defence of the reigning family during the rebellion of 1745. On this occasion they raised two battalions of 600 men each for the service of the government. In Sept. 1745 Charles Edward wrote to the magistrates demanding that the sum of £15, 000 sterling, all the arms in the city, and the arrears of taxes due to the government should be forwarded to him for the use of his army. The magistrates did not comply at the time, as they had hopes of relief from the army of Sir John Cope, but the demand of the Prince was soon enforced by John Hay-formerly a Writer to the Signet, and then quarter-master in the Highland army-and the Clan MacGregor under Glengyle. The magistrates with much difficulty induced Mr Hay to accept a composition of £5000 in money and £500 in goods, with which he departed on 30 Sept., after his followers had been quartered on the city for four days. After the unfortunate march to Derby the Prince in his retreat entered Glasgow on 26 Dec., his advanced guard having arrived the day before. The necessities of the mountaineers were at this time extreme. The great majority of them were bareheaded and barefooted and their garments in rags, and these with their matted hair, long beards, and keen and famished aspect, imparted to them an appearance peculiarly savage and ferocious. At this time the volunteers equipped at the expense of the city were posted at Edinburgh for the defence of the capital. Alike to punish the city for appearing in arms against him and to clothe his naked host, the Chevalier ordered the magistrates forthwith to provide 6000 short-cloth coats, 12, 000 linen shirts, 6000 pairs of shoes, 6000 pairs of hose, 6000 waistcoats, and 6000 blue bonnets, the greater portion of which articles were by great exertions supplied in a few days. He also exacted large contributions in bestial, corn, hay, and straw. The Pretender evacuated the city on 3 Jan. 1746 after a sojourn of ten days, and took with him hostages for the supply of the remaining portion of the clothing still unfurnished, and which was afterwards duly forwarded to the rebel camp at Bannockburn.

While in Glasgow the Chevalier lodged in the house formerly belonging to Campbell of Shawfield, which, notwithstanding the treatment it had suffered during the malt-tax riots, was still the most elegant in the city, and which now belonged to Mr Glassford of Dugaldston. The Prince was conciliatory. He sat down to table twice a day accompanied by some of his officers and a few devoted Jacobite ladies, whose sympathies he was much more successful in enlisting than those of their male relatives. After his men had been got into better condition by being fed and clothed, Charles treated the inhabitants to a grand review on the Green, but they looked coldly on, and indeed so odious was his cause that almost all the principal inhabitants suspended business by closing their shops and countinghouses during his stay. He remarked with bitterness that nowhere had he made so few friends as in Glasgow, for he only procured sixty adherents during his sojourn, and these were the very scum of the place. Indeed the provost of the time-Cochrane-allows him even less, for he says the Prince's only recruit was 'ane drunken shoemaker, who must soon have fled his country for debt, if not for treason.' So keenly did Charles feel the Whiggism of the city that it is matter of tradition in Glasgow that but for the manly and generous resistance of Cameron of Lochiel the place would have been sacked [ burned. The Glasgow volunteers were engaged in the Battle of Falkirk, where they suffered severely, and seem to have behaved with some courage, for a contemporary song says, that the cavalry ran away,

'But the Glasgow militia they gave a platoon,
Which made the bold rebels come tumbling down.'

Thrown into confusion by the precipitate retreat of Gardiner's dragoons, they were severely handled by the Highlanders, who always regarded those who voluntarily took up arms against them with much stronger feelings of hostility than they evinced towards the regular troops whose proper trade was fighting. Dugald Graham, a pedlar, and afterwards bellman of Glasgow, who accompanied the Pretender's forces and published a rhyming History of the Rebellion, after narrating the defeat of Hawley's Horse, proceeds,-

'The south side being fairly won.
They faced north as had been done.
Were next stood to bide the brush
The Volunteers, who zealous
Kept firing close till near surrounded,
And by the flying horse confounded.
They suffered sair into this place;
No Highlander pity'd their case;
" Ye curs'd militia," they did swear.
" What a devil did bring you here?"'

On receipt of the news of the victory of Culloden there were great rejoicings throughout the city. Apart from their Whiggism, dome satisfaction was no doubt felt by the inhabitants in the ruin of a cause that had cost them over £14, 000, and no doubt still more was felt when Parliament, in 1749, granted £10, 000 to the city as part indemnification for the losses sustained from the rebels.

There are some interesting accounts of Glasgow towards the middle of the 18th century, which we may refer to in passing; Defoe's account of it has been already mentioned, and his sketches of its commercial condition will be further referred to in the section regarding Trade. In 1736 M'Ure's History o.f Glasgow appeared. In his time the city was 11/3 mile in length and about ¾ mile in width. There were 20 stone bridges, only one of which, however, was across the Clyde, 8 gates, 10 principal streets, and 17 wynds. There were 3 parks- the Fir park on the banks of the Molendinar Burn (now the Necropolis), the New Green (the present Green), and the Old Green to the W of it. All three had trees, the first firs, the others elms. All around were cornfields, gardens, and orchards. There were 144 shopkeepers, 5 sugar-works, a rope-work, 3 tanyards, a brewery, an iron-work, a linen manufactory, and a tobacco spinning factory. While M 'Ure thus describes the outward condition of the city, the late Rev. Dr Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk furnishes some interesting glimpses of its social condition in his Autobiography published in 1860. Carlyle attended the University in 1743 and 1744. In point of knowledge, he says Glasgow had the advantage over Edinburgh, as 'learning seemed to be an object of more importance, and the habit of application much more general,' but he considered Edinburgh superior in 'manner of living, and in those accomplishments, and that taste that belong to people of opulence and persons of education.' There were few gentry, and the manner of living was 'coarse and vulgar;' not half-a-dozen families in town had men servants, and 'some of these were kept by the professors who had boarders. The principal merchants took an early dinner with their families at home, and then resorted to the coffee-house or tavern [which explains how the magistrates came to be in a tavern at the time of the malt-tax riot] to read the newspapers which they generally did in companies of four or five in separate rooms, over a bottle of claret or a bowl of punch., Female society he does not seem to have found very enchanting, for he says that there was no teacher of French or music in the city, and that the young ladies had very ungainly manners, and nothing to recommend them but good looks and fine clothes. The aristocracy had not yet come to the conclusion that intellectual culture was only to be had in a more southern clime, for among Carlyle's fellow-students were Lord Blantyre, Lord Cassillis, and Andrew Hamilton, afterwards Earl of Selkirk, of whom the latter was so studious that Carlyle describes him as more fit for a professor than an Earl. In the New Statistical Account Mr Dugald Bannatyne has furnished some further particulars of the same nature, and applying to the same period, with one a little later. He says the first main-door houses as apart from flats were built about 1735. Living was cheap- fact noticed also by Dr Carlyle, who says it was possible to dine on roast beef, potatoes, and small beer for 4d.- and simple dinners with two courses were introduced about 1786. The people were in general religious -at least in the observance of Sunday, on which day some' did not sweep or dust the house, nor make the beds, nor allow any food to be cooked or dressed, 'while others' opened only as much of the shutters of their windows as would serve to enable the inmates to move up and down, or an individual to sit at the opening to read. 'Smollett, who was born at Bonhill in Dumbartonshire in 1721, and educated and apprenticed to a surgeon in Glasgow, has also left on record his opinions of the city in the middle of the 18th century in Roderick Random (l748), and still more in Humphry Clinker (1771). In the former it figures merely as the place of Roderick's education and apprenticeship, but from the descriptions given of it in the chapters of the books relating thereto, Smollett seems to have entertained a very poor opinion of the social and moral condition of Glasgow, and he is rather hard on the town council, for in the last chapter he makes Roderick say, 'We got notice that the magistrates intended next day to compliment us with the freedom of their town, upon which my father, considering their complaisance in the right point of view, ordered the horses to the coach early in the morning.' In Humphry Clinker the opinions are much more favourable, and Bramble describes the city as 'one of the prettiest towns in Europe,' and 'one of the most flourishing in Great Britain. In short, it is a perfect beehive in point of industry. It stands partly on a gentle declivity, but the greatest part of it is in a plain watered by the river Clyde. The streets are straight, open, airy, and well paved, and the houses lofty and well built of hewn stone. At the upper end of the town there is a venerable cathedral that may be compared with York Minster or Westminster, and about the middle of the descent from this to the Cross is the College, a respectable pile of building, with all manner of accommodation for the professors and students, including an elegant library and an observatory well provided with astronomical instruments.' The number of the inhabitants is set down as 30, 000, and notice is taken of certain defects in Glasgow matters. 'The water of their public pumps is generally hard and brackish- an imperfection the less excusable as the river Clyde runs by their doors.. And there are rivulets and springs above the Cathedral sufficient to fill a large reservoir with excellent water, which might be thence distributed to all the different parts of the city. It is of more consequence to consult the health of the inhabitants in this article than to employ so much attention in beautifying their town with new streets, squares, and churches. Another defect not so easily remedied is the shallowness of the river.. The people of Glasgow have a noble spirit of enterprise.. I became acquainted with Mr Cochran, who may be styled one of the sages of this kingdom. He was first magistrate at the time of the last rebellion. I sat as member when he was examined in the House of Commons, on which occasion Mr P[itt] observed he had never heard such a sensible evidence given at that bar. I was also introduced to Dr John Gordon,. who is the father of the linen manufacture in this place, and was the great promoter of the city workhouse, infirmary, and other works of public utility.. I moreover conversed with Mr G[lassford], whom I take to be one of the greatest merchants in Europe. In the last war he is said to have had at one time five-and-twenty ships with their cargoes his own property, and to have traded for above half a million sterling a year. The last war was a fortunate period for the commerce of Glasgow. The merchants, considering that their ships bound for America, launching out at once into the Atlantic by the north of Ireland, pursued a trade very little frequented by privateers, resolved to insure one another, and saved a very considerable sum by this resolution, as few or none of their ships were taken.' He again has a fling at the council, for Melford says that the party was at once 'complimented with the freedom of the town.' The comparative map given in Mr Macgeorge's Old Glasgow shows that about the same time, in 1773, the city extended along both sides of High Street and Saltmarket, and was closely built from Saltmarket to Stockwell Street, while buildings extended westward along Argyle Street as far as Jamaica Street; northward as far as Castle Street, about the site of the Royal Infirmary, and along Drygate, and as far as Ark Lane opening off Duke Street; eastward along Gallowgate as far as Barrack Street, and along New Street and Kirk Street; and southward along both sides of Main Street, Gorbals, and along a part of Rutherglen Loan, Norfolk Street, and Clyde Terrace.

After the '45 the next important affair in which we find the citizens of Glasgow engaged is the cordial effort which they made to assist government at the outbreak of the American war of independence. Now-a-days, however, these exertions are attributed not so much to patriotism, as to a feeling of self-interest, for Glasgow had long enjoyed a lucrative and lion's share in the tobacco trade, the very existence of which was threatened by the war that had broken out. Upon the news of the first determined stand made by the Americans at Lexington and Bunker's Hill in 1775 reaching Glasgow, the magistrates convened a meeting of the inhabitants, when it was resolved to give all support to government in its efforts to break the spirit of the colonists. A body of 1000 men was accordingly raised at an expense of more than £10, 000, and placed at the disposal of the Crown. The determination to subdue the Americans took so strong a hold on the minds of the Glasgow people, that many of the principal citizens formed themselves into a recruiting corps for the purpose of completing the numbers of the Glasgow regiment. Mr James Finlay, father of Mr K. Finlay, afterwards of Castle-Toward, played the bagpipes in the recruiting band; Mr John Wardrop. a Virginia merchant, beat a drum; and other 'citizens of credit and renown' officiated as fifers, standard bearers, etc.; Mr Spiers of Elderslie, Mr Cunningham of Lainshaw, and other merchants hired their ships as transports, but Mr Glassford of Dugaldston, who was then the most extensive foreign merchant in Glasgow, and had twenty-five ships of his own, disapproving of the coercive measures then in progress, laid up most of his vessels in the harbour of Port Glasgow.

After being at peace internally for a long time there was a fresh outburst of the mob spirit in 1779. There were two 'No-Popery' riots in January and February, in the first of which the rioters attacked the congregation of a Roman Catholic chapel in High Street and destroyed the altar piece. On the second occasion their violence was directed against Robert Bagnal, a potter, who was a Roman Catholic. His house near the Gallowgate was set on fire and burned down along with several adjoining houses, and his warehouse in King Street was wrecked. Much damage was done during the two days the city was in possession of the mob, and the community had afterwards a heavy bill to pay for the havoc which these thoughtless men committed. In the same year a demonstration of weavers against the proposal to remit the duties on French cambric was peacefully dispersed, but the same good fortune did not attend the magistrates in 1787, when the weavers, after agitating in vain for an increase of wages, tried to gain their point by force. After many acts of violence had been committed against the persons and property of the men who continued working at the old rate- webs being cut, and the contents of warehouses flung into the street to be burned-and the magistrates them selves stoned, the intervention of the military became necessary, and a detachment of the 39th regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Kellet was summoned. Near Parkhouse, in Duke Street, the soldiers were assailed with brickbats by the mob, and the Riot Act having been read they fired, killing three persons and wounding several others. The riotous spirit was fairly subdued by this painful measure, and it is a curious fact that afterwards many of the weavers enlisted into the very regiment that had inflicted punishment on their brethren. In the first quarter of the present century, and particularly during the 'Radical Times' from 1816 to 1820, Glasgow was from time to time in a somewhat threatening condition, more especially in 1819 and 1820, when the citizens were kept in a state of the most painful excitement and suspense. The working classes were in great distress and strongly imbued with a revolutionary spirit, incited, it is now well known, to a great extent by spies and informers, who of course carried their dupes to a certain point and then left them in the lurch. Nearly all who were taken prisoners at Bonnymuir were men from Glasgow, and two of them were executed at Stirling for high treason, while on 30 Aug. 1820 James Wilson, a weaver from Strathaven, was hanged and beheaded on Glasgow Green, for his share in some disturbances that took place at the same time in connection with the same movement.

From this time till 1848 the history of the city is a record of progress and gradual growth in size and trade, almost the only exciting episode being the furore attending the Disruption and the subsequent second meeting of the Free Church General Assembly in Glasgow in October 1843. The year 1848 was, however, marked by the outbreak of what was probably the most serious burst of violence that ever occurred in Glasgow, not so much on account of the events which actually took place as from the disaster and catastrophe which were threatened and prevented, and from the circumstance also that they excited for a day or two a feeling of the greatest insecurity and alarm over the whole kingdom, and were spoken of in some of the continental journals as the commencement of a political revolution in Great Britain. The public mind was at this time greatly excited over the revolutionary outbreak in France, and at the same time trade was dull, and vast numbers of work-people were unemployed and suffering, while not a few were discontented in a political sense. In the first days of the month of March so much distress existed amongst the lower orders in Glasgow, from lack of employment, that the authorities set many of the unemployed to the work of stone-breaking, and, until labour on a more extensive scale could be provided, meal was given by way of immediate relief at the City Hall to almost all who chose to apply for it, on the afternoon and evening of Saturday, 4 March. Meanwhile large meetings (ostensibly of the unemployed) were daily held on the Green, and on Sunday, 5 March, at one of these great gatherings, political harangues of a very inflammatory description were delivered by designing demagogues, who urged the people to demand food or money as a right, irrespective of any equivalent for them in the shape of labour. On Monday, the 6th, another great meeting was held on the Green, swelled by this time by all the thieves and desperadoes in the city, who, from their usual dens in the wynds, vennels, and closes, had scented the mischief that was brewing, and sallied out to originate or augment confusion and disorder that they might profit by the consequences. After some hours had been spent in making and listening to wild speeches, in which the mob were counselled to 'do a deed worthy of the name of France,' the whole multitude moved of to the City Hall to ascertain what measures the magistrates and relief committee were taking on behalf of the unemployed. The treasurer of the relief fund with his assistants had been employed all day in distributing schedules and tickets, and in making arrangements for a general supply of meal and soup to the necessitous till work could be provided. No parley could be held with such a body of clamorous people, and it was soon evident that it was neither food nor labour that was wanted. After they had overturned some of the Green Market stalls, their leaders drew them off towards the Green, where, having armed themselves with bars torn from iron railings and with bludgeons, they about four o'clock in the afternoon once more entered the city; sacked the bakers' and provision shops in London Street as they passed along; and, reaching Trongate, attacked a gunmaker's shop and took from it all the guns, pistols, and amunition. Hardware shops shared the same fate, and the mob, now partially armed, dispersed themselves in various directions, but the main body, rifling the shops as they went along, found their way by various avenues into Ingram Street, and marched along as if with the intention of taking possession of the Exchange, where, however, timely warning having been given, the doors were closed. The banks had also got sufficient notice to take similar precautions. In Exchange Square more arms were got, and firing now began in the streets, the peaceful inhabitants fleeing in terror before them. From this the mob spread all over the city, constantly receiving accessions to their numbers from all the thieves' haunts they passed, and devoting their attentions to every shop they came to where any plunder was likely to be obtained. It was emphatically a thieving raid on a most daring and majestic scale, perpetrated in the light of open day. The more experienced thieves confined themselves to gold watches, jewellery, and other valuables, and sneaked off when their pockets were full; but the scum of whatever neighbourhood the rioters approached took advantage of the general license, and men, women, and children were seen running through the streets to their own houses with cheeses, chests of tea, firkins of butter, new boots and shoes, and in short anything which came most ready to hand. Had a body of 50 or 100 policemen been led against the mob at the outset, the rioters would have been scattered, but the whole matter was so sudden that everybody was panic struck, the police officials and all. At length as the afternoon wore on dragoons, brought from the old cavalry barracks in Eglinton Street, Gorbals, made their appearance on the scene headed by the acting chief magistrate, Bailie Stewart, and Sheriff Bell, and immediately on their appearance the miscreants who had been engaged in plundering fled in all directions, throwing the guns and other articles they had stolen over the bridges, or leaving them lying on the streets. Bailie Orr had brought up the 1st Royal Regiment, and, although the plundering was at an end, the aspect of the city was extremely alarming, for thousands of that loose class which every great town contains assembled in the Saltmarket, High Street, Gallowgate, and Trongate, in the neighbourhood of the Cross, and seemed determined to persist in their career of disorder and mischief The Riot Act was read, and the cavalry cleared the street by making repeated charges, in the course of which they destroyed three barricades (formed by overturned carts) in King Street, Gallowgate, and High Street, these being the first erections of the kind which had been seen in Glasgow. The citizens hurried in hundreds to the Exchange, where they were sworn in as special constables, after which they patrolled the streets in strong parties, dispersing the rioters in all directions. The mob had broken all the lamps in that quarter of the city, and it was in total darkness, but the vigilance of the patrols prevented any further gathering, and by-and-by the infantry were withdrawn from the streets, bivouacked during the night in the Royal Exchange and the Tontine Reading Room, and were reinforced before morning by two companies of the 71st Regiment sent from Edinburgh by special train. Next morning great hordes of ragamuffins made their appearance, desiring nothing better than that the game should be played over again, and having their numbers swelled by thoughtless lads and many of that silly class who always join in a crowd to see what is going on. The military were distributed throughout the city, and strong bodies of special constables patrolled the streets, but about midday word was brought that, notwithstanding these preparations, the mob had resolved to stop the public mills and dismantle the gas-works with the intention of utterly destroying the industrial and social order of the city. A small body of veterans, aided by some special constables and some police officers, attacked a party of the mob who were assailing the silk mill of Messrs Campbell in John Street, but were unable to cope with the force against them. In their retreat along John Street they were so pressed that they at last fired, killing one man and wounding several others, of whom five subsequently died; and this volley, though fired somewhat illegally, without the presence or order of a magistrate, ended the disturbances. An exaggerated and mistaken account of the matter transmitted to London gave the rising a political and revolutionary complexion, which affected the public funds, created for a moment a panic over the whole kingdom, and gave rise to attempts at similar disturbances in London, Edinburgh, Manchester, and elsewhere. The value of property destroyed and carried away and the expenses connected with the riots amounted to £7111,9s. 5d., which was raised by assessment on the inhabitants. Besides those sentenced for minor offences in connection with the riots thirty-five were convicted at the spring circuit, and received sentences varying from eighteen years' transportation to one year's imprisonment.

In 1857 Glasgow was overwhelmed with a serious commercial disaster, by the failure of the Great Western Bank, brought about by a commercial panic in America. It suspended payment on 9 Nov., and such was the anxiety and the disturbed condition of things, that the magistrates sent to Edinburgh for additional troops which, however, were not required. The call per share was £125, and this, small as it is compared with more famous calls of recent years, was yet sufficiently heavy to ruin most of the shareholders.

In 1875, at the O'Connell celebration on 5 Aug., serious riots occurred in Partick, a procession having been attacked while passing through some of the streets. The burgh was in a disturbed state for two days, during which it was found necessary to read the Riot Act. Thought in the suppression of the disturbance there were no lives lost many persons were severely injured. In 1876 the British Association met at Glasgow under the presidency of Dr Thomas Andrews of Belfast, the meeting being a very successful one. In 1878 the greatest of Glasgow's modern misfortunes befel in the failure of the City of Glasgow Bank. The city seems always to have been stimulated to fresh exertions by any great misfortune, for in the section on Trade we shall see that as one industry declined and ruin impended another always arose to fill its place. Here there has been no exception to the rule, for, notwithstanding the unprecedented magnitude and serious consequences of the disaster, now only four years after the occurrence the evil results have, so far as the prosperity of the city is concerned, been almost entirely effaced. The ruined and desolated homes can never be repaired. The bank was established in 1839, and was-with the exception of a few days in 1857, at the time of the panic caused by the failure of the Western Bank-up almost till the very day of its failure considered to be sound and successful. Even in the mouth of June the report issued to the shareholders showed a reserve fund of £450,000 and a balance of £13,222 to be carried forward after paying a dividend of 12 per cent.; and, therefore, the announcement in the morning newspapers of 2 Oct. that the directors had decided to close their doors fell on the community with the suddenness of a thunderclap. It had, at the time, 133 branches throughout the country, and was, as the Bank of Mona, in possession of the whole business in the Isle of Man. The stoppage of the bank was followed by heavy failures. Smith, Fleming, & Co., of London, suspended payment with liabilities of £1,931,178 and assets of only £285,382, £1,752,178 being due to the City of Glasgow Bank. Potter, Wilson, & Co., Glasgow; Heugh, Balfour & Co., Manchester; and T. D. Finlay & Co. also suspended payment, with deficiencies amounting to nearly another million, most of which was also due to the bank; while, shortly after, the firms of James Morton & Co., Glasgow and London; Matthew, Buchanan, & Co., Glasgow; and Matthew & Thielman suspended with total liabilities mostly also to the bank of over £5,000,000. An investigation of the affairs showed that the balance-sheets had been fraudulent, as they should have shown, instead of a profit, a loss of over £6,000,000; the reserve gold was less than the proper amount by over £200,000; the credits were stated at £1,126,764 less than was actually the case, and the good securities held against advances were less by £926,764 than had been represented. An investigation of affairs brought out the fact that the bad debts which would have to be paid up by calls on the shareholders amounted to £7,345,359, and the first call by the liquidators of £500 per £100 of stock ruined most of the shareholders, who were in a great part widows, orphans, country clergymen, or persons of small means; and subsequent calls, bringing the whole amount to £2750 per £100 of stock, left but few solvent contributors. The directors and manager were tried at the High Court of Justiciary in Edinburgh on 20 Jan. 1879 and the eleven following days on a charge of fabricating false balance-sheets, and having been found guilty were sentenced to various periods of imprisonment, and the liquidation of the bank is now almost at an end, an Assets Company having been formed by the still solvent shareholders, for the purpose of purchasing the remaining assets of the bank for a sum which will cover all outstanding liabilities, the assets being more valuable if realised slowly. A fund of about £400,000 was raised throughout the country for the relief of ruined shareholders, and its distribution brought some comfort in many cases, but even this magnificent sum cannot repair the misery caused by the reckless financing operations in which the bank engaged.

Such a disaster in a commercial city like Glasgow caused for some time great distress among the working classes, and charitable funds to the amount of over £27,000 were expended in their relief. The suffering has now passed away, and-if we may take the building trade as a guide, and it is a pretty safe one-even the commercial depression has passed its worst.

The following table shows the details of work sanctioned by the Dean of Guild Court for the last two years 1880-81 and 1881-82 compared with 1875-76 when prosperity and the building mania was at it height. From 1876 there was a steady decrease in the number of buildings and the value of the work sanctioned. The comparison extends to Sept. 1882:—

Year. Number of
Dwelling-Houses
Authorised.
Total
Value of Work
Authorised.
Percentage
of Unoccupied
Houses.
1875-76 5741 £2125249 3
1876-77 4·9
1877-78 1·5
1878-79 7·9
1879-80 10·2
1880-81 418 307640 11·22
1881-82 512 378690 9·86

Besides the dwelling-houses sanctioned in 1881-82 there were warehouses, stores, and workshops authorised, of. the gross value of £154,755, and alterations and additions of the value of £71,670, and halls of the value of £10,065, and about a quarter of a mile has been added to the length of streets. Church building kept pace with the building mania, for in1876 and 1877 sanction was given to 21 churches worth £101,500, which is almost exactly the same as the number sanctioned from 1877 to 1882. This year (1882) 4 new churches have been sanctioned worth £11,700.

Glasgow seems once more to have started on its onward career. Long may it flourish.

Commerce.—According to M'Ure the first ' promoter and propagator ' of trade in Glasgow was William Elphinstone, a cadet of the noble family of Elphinstone, who settled in the city in the reign of King James I. of Scotland about 1420, and became a merchant. He is mentioned as a curer of salmon and herrings for the French market, for which brandy and salt were brought back in return, and fish-curing remained an important branch of trade so late as the middle of the 18th century, when Defoe tells us that they cured herrings so well, that a Glasgow herring was esteemed as good as a Dutch one. The name of Fuller s Gate, applied at an early period to the Saltmarket, seems also to imply that there was some manufacture of cloth; and a small trade in dyeing is indicated by an early prohibition of any but a burgess from dyeing cloth. The person mentioned as the second ' promoter ' of trade is Archibald Lyon, son of Lord Glamis, who, coming to Glasgow with Archibald Dunbar, ' undertook great adventures and voyages in trading to Poland, France, and Holland.' At this time, however, the foreign trade must have been of an extremely limited character; but from the occasional mention in the council records of merchants proceeding to the English markets and bringing home ' merchant waires,' it is evident that in the early part of the 17th century the inhabitants conducted a fair amount of inland traffic. In 1597 the shipping of Glasgow seems to have been 6 ships, the largest of 92 tons, and the smallest of 38 tons, the total tonnage being 296. In 1650 Franck says that the commercial transactions of the Glasgow merchants were extensive. He mentions particularly the free trade with France, and adds that ' the staple of the country consists of linens, friezes, furs, tartans, pelts, hides, tallow, skins, and various other small manufactures and commodities. ' Commissioner Thomas Tucker, in reporting to Cromwell in 1656 ' on the settlement of the Revenues of Excise and Customs in Scotland, ' says, that Glasgow was a considerable burgh both for structure and trade. With the exception of the students of the college all the inhabitants were ' traders and dealers-some for Ireland with small smiddy coals in open boats from four to ten tons, from whence they bring hoops, rungs, barrel staves, meal, oats, and butter; some for France with pladding, coals, and herring, of which there is a great fishing yearly in the western sea, for which they return salt, pepper, rosin, and prunes; some to Norway for timber; and every one, with theyr neighbours the Highlanders, who come hither from the Isles and Western parts in summer . . . into the Clwyde with pladding, dry hides, goate, kid, and deere skins which they sell, and purchase with theyr price such commodityes and provisions as they stand in neede of from time to time. There have been likewise some who have ventured as far as the Barbadoes, but the losse which they sustained by being obliged to come home late in the year has made them discontinue going thither any more. ' The mercantile genius of the people is strong, if they were not checked and kept under by the shallowness of their river, every day more and more diminishing and filling up, ' soe that noe vessel of any burden can come up nearer than within 14 miles, where they must unlade and send up theyr timber and Norway trade in rafts or floats, and all other commodities by three or foure tons of goods at a time in small cobbles or boats of three, four, or five, and none above six tonnes a boat. There is in this place a collector, a cheque, and four wayters. There are twelve vessels belonging to the merchants of the port, viz.: three of 150 tons each, one of 140, two of 100, one of 50, three of 30, one of 15, and one of 12, none of which come up to the town-total, 957 tons, ' so that in little more than half a century the shipping had increased more than three times. In 1665, during the war with the Dutch, the George of Glasgow sailed under letters of marque, and, though of little more than 60 tons, was dignified by the name of a ' friggate.' She carried 60 men, and was provided with 5 pieces of ordnance, 32 muskets, 12 half pikes, 18 pole axes, 30 s words, 3 barrels of powder, and provisions for six mouths. There seem to have been also other privateers belonging to the city, for in the London Gazette of Nov 8, 1666, it is noticed that a 'privateer of Glasgow, one Chambers, has lately brought in a Dutch caper of 8 guns, with a prize ship laden with salt.' In 1674 a company for carrying on the whale fishery and soapmaking was formed in Glasgow. The company employed five ships, and had extensive premises at Greenock for boiling blubber and curing fish, known by the name of the Royal Close. An advertisement from the company appeared in the Glasgow Courant on 11 Nov. 1715, being the first advertisement in the first newspaper published in the W of Scotland, intimating that ' any one who wants good black or speckled soap may be served by Robert Luke, Manager of the Soaperie at Glasgow, at reasonable rates. ' The soaperie then stood at the head of Candleriggs. In relating the progress of trade in Glasgow subsequent to 1668, M'Ure instances the case of Walter Gibson, who, in one year, packed and cured 300 lasts of herrings at £6 sterling per last of 12 barrels, and having freighted a Dutch ship, called the St Agatha, of 450 tons, he despatched ship and cargo to St Martin's in France, where he got for each barrel of herring a barrel of brandy and a crown, and the ship at her return was loaded with salt and brandy. The produce came to a very large sum, with which he bought this vessel and other two large ships and traded to France, Spain, Norway, Sweden, and Virginia. This enterprising merchant was the first who brought iron to Glasgow, the shopkeepers having previously been supplied from the ports on the E coast.

After the Restoration Scotland was treated by the English Parliament as an alien country, and the English ports were practically closed against Scotch traders, and it was the Union to which it had offered such violent opposition that first brought a fresh great stimulus to the commerce of Glasgow. In 1692 there were fifteen ships belonging to Glasgow, the burden varying from 30 to 160 tons, and the total tonnage being 1182, or an increase in 40 years of about one-fourth. The Union, however, opened up the trade with the colonies, and soon thereafter we find the Glasgow merchants sending out their ' adventures ' to Virginia and Maryland, and bringing back tobacco leaf in return. They did not at this time possess any suitable ships of their own, and were accordingly obliged to charter them, which they did principally from the port of Whitehaven. In these early enterprises a supercargo, sent out with each vessel, disposed of the goods and purchased the tobacco, all the transactions being for ready money. This mode of managing business prospered, and the Glasgow merchants, instead of hiring from their neighbours, began to build ships of their own, and in 1718 the first vessel that belonged to Glasgow owners crossed the Atlantic. She was built at Greenock, and registered only 60 tons. From the economy of this ready-money system, and probably also from the merchants being contented with moderate profits, the Glasgow tobacco-houses ere long not only secured the lion's share of the foreign export trade, but even undersold the English merchants in their own home markets, and this led to a combination against them by the dealers of London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Whitehaven, and a complaint to the Government that the Glasgow traders conducted their business upon, and reaped their advantages from, a system of fraud on the public revenue. A searching investigation, held in 1721, resulted in the Lords of the Treasury finding ' that the complaints of the merchants of London, Bristol, Liverpool, Whitehaven, etc., are groundless, and proceed from a spirit of envy, and not from a regard to the interests of trade or of the King's revenue.' The English merchants not satisfied with this finding and rebuke, made in the following year formal complaint to Parliament, and the commissioners who were sent down to the Clyde imposed so many vexations restrictions on the trade that it languished and struggled for its very life. Expensive and harassing lawsuits followed, and it was not till 1735 that the Glasgow traders were able fairly to beat off the annoyance of the English ports. Defoe, in his tour through Scotland in 1723, says that there twenty or thirty ships came every year from the plantations with tobacco and sugar, and later, in the edition of 1727, he says, ' they now send near fifty sail of ships every year to Virginia, New England, and other English colonies in America; ' and he points out the great advantage Glasgow had over London, by the ships not having to go down the Channel, so that they were often ' at the Capes of Virginia before the London ships got clear of the Channel,, and thus saved a mouth or six weeks on the whole voyage.

From the time of the final victory of the Glasgow houses over their English rivals, the trade was conducted on more liberal principles, partners or resident agents being established throughout the tobacco-producing colonies; the trade increased prodigiously, and princely fortunes were realised. Soon after this time the number of ships, brigantines, and sloops belonging to Glasgow amounted to sixty-seven; and besides an important coasting trade, voyages were made to Virginia, Jamaica, Antigua, St Kitts, Barbadoes, Gibraltar, Holland, Stockholm, and Ireland. The halcyon era of the tobacco trade is reckoned from 1740 till the declaration of American Independence, and during this period by far the greater portion of the whole disposable capital of the city w as embarked in it. In 1771, of the 90,000 hogsheads of tobacco imported into Great Britain, over 49,000 came to Glasgow alone, while about the same time the shipping belonging to Glasgow and the Clyde was about 60,000 tons. This seems to have been the culminating year of the tobacco trade, for in 1774 the number of hogsheads imported was 40,543, and in the following year the outbreak of the American War ruined the trade and most of those engaged in it. The importance of this traffic explains the alacrity and seeming patriotism displayed in raising troops to assist the government in their efforts to suppress the rising.

Although the ruin of the great tobacco trade had thus come, the Glasgow merchants, so far from sitting down and weeping, immediately proceeded with characteristic energy to seek fresh fields for their enterprise and capital, and the West India trade, which had for some time back been engaging their attention, was extended and developed so greatly that it soon took the place of the lost tobacco trade, and the West India magnates took the place of the fallen tobacco lords. The application of steam to navigation, which was by-and-by to work such wonders for the Clyde, took place at Glasgow about 1801, w hen Symington constructed for Lord Dundas a steamboat called the Charlotte Dundas, which plied for a short time on the Forth and Clyde Canal, but was stopped, as the directors were afraid the banks might be damaged. In 1811 Henry Bell, a millwright, a native of Torphichen, made a still further advance in a boat 40 feet long and 12 feet of beam, called the Comet, which was built from designs by himself, with an engine made by John Robertson of Glasgow, and a boiler by David Napier. It plied between Glasgow, Greenock, and Helensburgh, and was the pioneer of the busy fleet that now throng the waters of the river. Within the next two years other three steamers, with much more powerful engines, also began to ply. The number of vessels owned in Glasgow at this time was thirty-five, with a tonnage of 2620.

In 1816 still another trade was opened up, when James Findlay & Co. despatched a ship of 600 tons—the Earl of Buckingham—to Calcutta—the first vessel that cleared direct from a Scottish port to the East Indies. Other merchants followed the example of this enterprising firm, of which the well-known and able Kirkman Findlay was then the head, and the trade soon became a valuable and extensive one, and now employs some of the largest and finest of both the sailing vessels and sea-going steamers of the Clyde, from Glasgow, Greenock, and Port Glasgow. Of late years it has increased very rapidly. The trade to China and a new trade to France have since been added, and the intercourse with Canada, South America, Australia, New Zealand, and other parts has become vastly extended. The trade with the United States has latterly grown to such magnitude as to be exceeded only by that of Lon don and Liverpool. In 1840 Messrs Burns founded the great Cunard Line of steamers, with the Sirius, a fine vessel of 2000 tons, and the first steamer that crossed the Atlantic. So well did they succeed that by-and-by another was built for the same trade, and in 1856 Messrs Handyside & Henderson founded the Anchor Line, also plying to New York, while the Allan Line had been founded to carry on trade by steam with Canada. Since then other lines have been formed, and now there is regular steam communication with almost every part of the world at frequent intervals-with Aberdeen, Belfast, Girvan, the West Highlands, Liverpool, Londonderry, Portugal, Spain, all the Mediterranean ports, the Black Sea, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Halifax, St John, New Brunswick, and various ports in South America, the West and East Indies, China, and Japan. Glasgow has likewise been, since 1842, very prominent as an emigration port for British North America, the United States, and Australia. The number of emigrants in different years is:-1868, 12,447; 1870, 23,774; 1872, 23,193; 1874, 19,766; 1876, 12,767; l878, l3,976; 1880, 29,109. Of those who left in 1880, 16,961 were Scotch, 148 English, 258 Irish, and 11,742 foreigners. Taking that year as an average the places selected were:-United States, 23,988; Canada, 3658; Australia, 397; New Zealand, 805; elsewhere, 261. This shows a marked increase in the number of foreigners, the average for the preceding five years being 3952; while the Irish have fallen off sadly, the average for the preceding five years being 1079. With regard to the destination, there is a marked increase in the United States, the average for the preceding five years being 8216; and a marked decrease in the number for New Zealand, the average for which was formerly 2870. New Brunswick and Victoria, once favourite places, have disappeared from the list altogether.

The commerce of Glasgow with other countries and with the British Colonies is indeed about as comprehensive and widespread as any profitable commerce with them can well be made, while the coasting trade, both by steamers and by sailing vessels, is at once minute and enormous. As an illustration of how some branches increase, we may mention that an export trade to France, which hardly existed before 1860, rose in one year to the large value of £367,000; and while in 1877 only fourteen ships with 7197 tons of grain arrived in the harbour, in 1881 the quantity imported was 448,060 tons.

The following table shows the vessels registered as belonging to Glasgow, at intervals from the 16th century onwards:—

Year. Sailing
Vessels.
Tonnage. Steam
Vessels.
Tonnage. Total
Vessels.
Total
Tonnage.
1597 6 296 .. .. 6 296
1656 12 957 .. .. 12 957
1692 15 1,182 .. .. 15 1,182
1810 24 1,956 .. .. 24 1,956
1820 .. .. .. .. 77 6,131
1830 .. .. .. .. 217 39,432
1841 .. .. .. .. 413 95,062
1851 .. .. .. .. 508 145,684
1861 508 173,146 171 45,658 679 218,804
1871 557 280,844 338 152,172 895 433,016
1882 575 373,767 683 453,668 1258 827,435

The following table shows the arrivals in the harbour, at intervals of ten years, for the last forty years:—

Year. Arrivals
Sailing
Vessels.
Tonnage. Steam
Vessels.
Tonnage. Total
Vessels.
Total
Tonnage.
1841 5,785 314,262 9,421 828,111 15,206 1,142,373
1851 6,212 424,785 11,062 1,021,821 17,274 1,446,606
1861 4,804 474,740 11,281 1,029,480 16,058 1,504,220
1871 2,420 361,009 12,713 1,588,699 15,133 1,949,708
1881 1,635 305,063 5,990 2,007,138 7,625 2,312,201

The rapid rise since about 1820 and present condition of the whole foreign commerce of the port, will be best seen from these and the other tables, especially in that giving the customs' revenue. Some of the results are very striking, especially when it is kept in mind that about 1861 a large department of the commerce sustained a severe shock from the effects of the American war. It is also worthy of notice, and in contrast to the experience of most of the other parts of the United Kingdom, that Glasgow commerce possesses an elasticity which has almost always exhibited a progressive increase of customs' revenue, and seldom, leaving the abnormally high years of 1866 and 1867 out of account, a large falling off in spite of the frequent remissions of heavy duties which have taken place since the inauguration of the free trade era of 1844.

The value of British and foreign produce and manufacture exported from Glasgow, and the customs' revenue, are also given at intervals for the last forty years, and for 1861, 1871, and 1881—

Year. Declared Value of
British Produce
and Manufacture.
Customs' Revenue
at Glasgow.
1841,.. £2,007,192 £526,100
1851,.. .. 675,044
1861,.. 5,259,887 924,445
1871,.. 9,853,057 999,572
1881,.. 12,148,611 1,036,611

The revenue in 1812 was only £3124; in 1820, £11,000; in 1830, £59,014. The highest customs' revenue obtained at Glasgow was in 1868, when it reached the sum of £1,352,246,12s. 5d.; and in 1867, 1869, 1872, 1873, 1876, and 1877 it exceeded one million of pounds sterling. Since then it has been-(1878) £945, 860, (1879) £954,62l, (1880) £969,339, (1881) £1,036,616. The revenue for the first six mouths of the present year (1882) has been £531,385, an increase of £14,161 over the corresponding period last year.

Manufactures and Industries.—The manufactures and industries of Glasgow present a most wonderful combination. So singularly varied and extensive are they, that the city ' combines several of the special characteristics of other cities. It has the docks and ports of Liverpool, the tall chimneys and manufactories of Manchester, with the shops of Regent Street, and the best squares of Belgravia. ' Glasgow, ' says Dr Strang, ' unites within itself a portion of the cotton-spinning and weaving manufactures of Manchester, the printed calicoes of Lancashire, the stuffs of Norwich, the shawls and monsselines of France, the silk-throwing of Macclesfield, the flax-spinning of Ireland, the carpets of Kidderminster, the iron and engineering works of Wolverhampton and Birmingham, the pottery and glass-making of Staffordshire and Newcastle, the shipbuilding of London, the coal trade of the Tyne and Wear, and all the handicrafts connected with, or dependent on, the full development of these. Glasgow has also its distilleries, breweries, chemical works, tan-works, dyeworks, bleachfields, and paper manufactories, besides a vast number of staple and fancy handloom fabrics which may be strictly said to belong to that locality.' The textile factories lie to the E, while engineering shops and foundries lie to the N, NE, and S, and the shipbuilding yards are to the W.

We have already seen that there are some traces of early manufacture of cloth in Glasgow, but in all probability it was very small. When the letter of Guildry was granted in 1605, we have evidence in it that silk, linen, and hardware, etc., from France, Flanders, and England, were dealt in, and that there were manufactures of wool and linen cloth. The first manufactory the city possessed was a weaving establishment started by Robert Fleyming in 1638, who obtained from the magistrates a lease of some premises in the Drygate. lt. was not till after the Union, however, that any of them attained prominence, when linen and cotton cloth and plaidings were tried. The manufacture of plaiding indeed, as we have already seen from Mr Commissioner Tucker's report, seems to have made some progress in the middle of the 17th century, but it must have greatly advanced, for in the close of the century Glasgow plaids had attained some celebrity in Edinburgh, then the aristocratic centre of the kingdom. The inhabitants were proud of their handiwork, for we find that in 1715 the magistrates presented to the Princess of Wales, afterwards the Queen of George II., ' a swatch of plaids as the manufactory peculiar only to this place for keeping the place in Her Highness' remembrance, and which might contribute to the advantage thereof, and to the advancement of the credit of that manufactory '-a gift which her royal highness graciously received, and returned her ' hearty thanks to the magistrates of Glasgow for their fyne present.' The commerce with America seems to have first suggested and encouraged the introduction of manufactures into the city on a more extended plan than the home trade which had previously existed. Defoe, in the first edition of his Journey, in 1723, makes no mention of any industry, excepting tobacco and sugar; but in a subsequent edition, 1727, he mentions, besides two sugar-baking houses and a distillery, that ' Here there is a manufacture of plaiding, a stuff crossed-striped with yellow, red, and other mixtures, for the plaids or veils worn by the women in Scotland,' and also ' a manufacture of muslins, which they make so good an d fine that great quantities of them are sent into England and to the British plantations, where they sell at a good price. They are generally striped, and are very much used for aprons by the ladies, and sometimes in head-cloths by the meaner sort of English women.' He says there also was ' a linen manufacture, but as that is in common with all parts of Scotland which improve in it daily, I will not insist upon it as a peculiar here, though they make a very great quantity of it and send it to the plantations as their principal merchandise.' The importance of the linen weaving in Glasgow is said to date from 1700, and to be somewhat peculiar. Ure, in his History of Rutherglen an East Kilbride, tells of a William Wilson, a native of East Kilbride, who took the name of William Flakefield from the place at which he had lived. Along with his father and brother he went to Glasgow near the close of the 17th century, but ere he had been there long he joined the Scottish Guards and went to the Continent, where his attention was attracted by a German handkerchief woven in blue and white chequers. So much was he struck by it that, having been brought up as a weaver, he determined to weave one like it whenever he had an opportunity. When he at length returned to Glasgow in 1700 he brought his handkerchief with him, and after many patient trials and failures he succeeded in making a number like it-the first of the kind ever woven in Great Britain. They were at once successful and met with a ready sale, looms multiplied, and in a few years Glasgow had become famous for this new branch of the linen trade. Everyone who engaged in it made money except the unfortunate who introduced it, and who, whether from want of capital or from some return to his early roving habits, died in poverty, with the appointment of town drummer.

The legislature granted great encouragement to the making of linen in Scotland, and by this the trade in Glasgow was so fostered that the city began to assume importance as a manufacturing town. An Act of Parliament passed in 1748-prohibiting the importing or wearing of French cambrics under severe penalties- and another passed in 1751-allowing weavers in flax or hemp to settle and exercise their trades in any part of Scotland, free from all corporation dues-conjoined with the bounty of 1½d. per yard on all linens exported at or under 1s. 6d. per yard, contributed largely at the outset to the success of the linen trade. Between 1730 and 1745 many new industries were introduced into the city. Glasgow was the first place in Great Britain in which inkle wares were manufactured. In l732 a Glasgow citizen named Harvey brought away from Haarlem, at the risk of his life, two inkle looms and a workman, and by this means fairly succeeded in establishing the manufacture in Glasgow, and breaking the Dutch monopoly in the article. The Dutch workman he had brought with him afterwards took offence and went to Manchester, and introduced the inkle manufacture there. Gibson, in his History of Glasgow, gives an account of the manufactures and industries in 1771, and it is worth noticing, as he seems to have taken great pains to make it exact. He mentions different kinds of linen, checkered handkerchiefs, diaper, damask, cambric, lawn, muslin handkerchiefs, ' Glasgows ' or lawn mixed with cotton, and carolines which are the chief things. Besides these there were industries in brushes, combs, horn, and ivory; copper, tin, and white iron; delf and stonewares; gloves, handkerchiefs, silk, and linen; men's hats, jewellery, inkles, iron, tanned leather, printed linens, ropes, saddlery, shoes, stockings, and thread; and Spencer, in his English Traveller (1771), mentions as the industries the herring trade, the tobacco trade, the manufacture of woollen cloth, stockings, shalloons, and cottons; muslins, the sugar trade, distilling, the manufacture of boots and shoes, and other leather goods, including saddles; and the manufacture of house furniture.

The vast improvements which were effected in the production of cotton yarn by the inventions of Hargreaves and Sir Richard Arkwright gave still a fresh impulse to the manufactures affected, and capital, seeking new outlets after the failure of the tobacco trade, was invested largely in cotton manufacture. Through the subsequent improvements effected on the steam engine by James Watt, it became no longer necessary for mills to be erected only where a large water supply was available, and it was possible to raise them in the midst of a rich coal field, and alongside of a navigable river with a port. The first steam engine used in Glasgow for spinning cotton was erected in Jan. 1792. It was put up at Springfield, on the S side of the Clyde, opposite the lower steamboat quay. This work, which at that time belonged to Mr Todd, and later to Todd and Higginbotham, was removed at immense expense, in virtue of the Clyde Trustees Act of 1840 to afford space for the extension of the harbour. The works of Messrs S. Higginbotham, Sons, & Gray are now to the E;opposite Glasgow Green, and at them spinning, weaving, dyeing, and printing are carried on very extensively. A powerloom had, however, been introduced previously. According to Pagan ' the power-loom was introduced to Glasgow in 1773 by Mr James Louis Robertson of Dunblane, who set up two of them in Argyle Street, which were set in motion by a large Newfoundland dog performing the part of a gin horse.' This statement has since, however, in 1871, in letters to the Glasgow Herald, been disputed by Mr John Robertson, a Pollokshaws power-loom tenter, who asserts that a man named Adam Kinloch, whom he met in 1845, and who was then eightyfive years of age, ' made the first two power-looms that ever were made in the world, and drove them with the use of a crank by his own hand in a court off the Gallowgate ' in 1793. About 1794 there were 40 looms fitted up at Milton, and in 1801 Mr John Mouteith had 200 looms at work at Pollokshaws near Glasgow, and the extension of power-loom factories and of the cotton trade generally became so rapid as almost to exceed belief. In 1818 there were within the city ' eighteen steam weaving factories, containing 2800 looms, and producing 8400 pieces of cloth weekly.' There were altogether 52 cot ton mills in the city, with 511,200 spindles, the total length being over 100,000,000 yards, and the value upwards of £5,000,000. Including the, at that time, outlying districts now in ' natural Glasgow,' and all the looms in the surrounding districts usually kept at work by Glasgow merchants, there were nearly 32,000 steam and hand looms at work. There 0ere also in the city 18 calico printing works and 17 calendering houses. In 1854 the number of cotton spinning factories was 39, of cotton-weaving factories 37, of cotton spinning and weaving factories 16, the number of spindles was 1,014,972, the number of power-looms 22,335, and the number of persons employed 24,414. In 1875 the number of spindles was 1,500,000, the number of powerlooms 27,500, and the number of persons employed 33,276. Besides the works of Messrs Higginbotham already mentioned, two of the largest cotton factories in Scotland are those of Messrs Galbraith at Oakbank and St Rollox. They employ about 1800 persons, and produce nearly 400,000 yards of cotton per week. The woollen manufactures in most of their departments are much less prominent in Glasgow and its neighbourhood than in many other parts of Scotland. The manufacture of carpets, introduced first in 1757, is, however, carried on to a considerable extent, and employs a number of hands. In 1854 there were 7 worsted, spinning, and weaving factories, with 14,392 spindles, 120 power-looms, and 800 hands. In 1861 there were 11, 748 spindles, 14 power-looms, and 1422 hands; ' and though since then considerable fluctuations have been caused by the disturbed condition of trade arising from the state of the coal and iron industries in 1873-74, and subsequently from the failure of the City of Glasgow Bank in 1878, there has been on the whole a proportional increase.' One work alone at Greenhead now employs upwards of 500 hands, and the annual value of the trade is nearly £200,000. There are also a number of silk and rope, flax and jute factories, which, in 1854, had 74,705 spindles and 2050 hands. In 1861 they had 44,224 spindles, 231 power-looms, and 2206 hands; and here again a fitting increase has taken place. Altogether about one-eighth of the population of Glasgow, between the ages of 10 and 40, are employed in connection with these factories with their accompanying processes of bleaching, dyeing, and printing. An establishment for the manufacture of bandanas was started at Barrowfield in 1802 by Messrs Mouteith, Bogle, & Co. and the superior manufacture of the article itself and the successful application of the Turkey-red dye have given to Glasgow bandanas a fame and a preference in almost every commercial mart in the world, and rendered this one of the staple industries in the city, for the manufacture, now shared in by other companies, is carried on upon a scale of great magnitude. Independently of this the manufacturing operations of various other parts in Scotland arc kept in motion by Glasgow capital, and even in the North of Ireland vast numbers of the muslin weavers are in the direct and constant employment of Glasgow houses. The manufacture of sewed muslin is carried on by over 50 firms in Glasgow, and employs more than 10,000 women. The Messrs Macdonald, who, in 1856, erected the large block of warehouses already mentioned, close to the post office, had, for some time prior to their retirement during the commercial crisis of 1857,1500 men and 500 women on their establishment, and gave besides employment to between 20,000 and 30,000 needle-women in the W of Scotland and the N of Ireland. They sent into the market annually a quantity of sewed muslin valued at half a million.

The soft goods trade is, as might be expected, largely developed in Glasgow, and the retail and wholesale trades are often united, the merchants importing goods largely from England and abroad, and sending them out wholesale to smaller traders situated in almost every village and town in Scotland, and not a few in Ireland, and, notwithstanding the magnitude of such transactions, the poorest customer is supplied as readily and courteously with a yard of tape as the richest with an order of a very much more extensive nature. Of the two gentlemen, brothers, who originated this mixed wholesale and retail soft goods trade, one filled the office of chief magistrate of the city, and was knighted. For the purposes of their business they, in 1858, erected in Ingram Street a very large block of buildings in the fine picturesque old Scottish style. Another firm who started in the same line of business about 1850 at first occupied premises with a rental of £1300, and ultimately purchased them.

Chemical manufactures were commenced in Glasgow in 1786, when Mr Charles Macintosh, so well-known for some of his discoveries in applied chemistry, introduced into Glasgow from Holland the manufacture of sugar of lead. This article had been previously imported from the latter country, but in a very short time the tables were turned, and instead of importing it Glasgow sent considerable quantities to Rotterdam. About the same time the firm established the manufacture of cudbear, an article of great importance in the manufacture of dyeing. In 1799 Mr Macintosh also made the first preparation of chloride of lime in a dry state, which has since been so extensively prized and used as a bleaching powder, and still later he established the well-known manufacture of waterproof cloths, which has, however, latterly been transferred to Manchester. In 1800 the chemical manufactures of Glasgow received a fresh great impulse from the erection by Messrs Tennant, Knox, and Co., of a chemical work at St Rollox in the northern suburbs of Glasgow for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, chloride of lime, soda, soap, etc. This is now the most extensive chemical work in the world, covering upwards of 13 acres, containing between 100 and 200 furnaces, employing about 1200 hands, and annually transforming 80,000 tons of raw material into soda, bleaching powder, sulphuric acid, etc. The firm have connections and agencies in every considerable mart both at home and abroad. In 1843 the company erected a ' monster chimney ' for the purpose of carrying off and preventing injury from any noxious gases that might arise in the process of their manufacture. It is still counted one of the sights of the city. It was erected at a cost of about £12,000, and measures 40 feet in diameter at the base, and 455 feet in height.

The manufacture of bottles and bottle glass was commenced at Glasgow in 1730, the first bottle-house being about where the S end of Jamaica Street now is, and probably near the site of the custom house. At first the trade does not seem to have been very brisk, for the workmen were only employed for four mouths in the year, but now the manufacture is carried on very extensively in Anderston and Port Dundas. The manufacture of flint glass was begun in 1777 by Messrs Cookson & Co. of Newcastle, and under other firms is still carried on with great vigour. The earthenware manufacture was commenced at Delftfield, near the Broomielaw, in 1748. This was the first pottery in Scotland, but for a long period the quality was decidedly inferior to the English make, and the goods produced only of the lowest quality, and the consumption in consequence mostly local. Since, however, about 1829, and more especially since 1842, the manufacture has been greatly increased and improved. New establishments have been erected, and the productions have attained a beauty of design and a delicacy of finish which now enable them to compete successfully in all departments, and in both the home and foreign markets, with the well-known Staffordshire ware. There are now (1882) about twenty potteries within the city, the largest being at Garngad Hill, where about 1000 hands are employed. The manufactures include every kind of product from the coarsest earthenware to the finest porcelain, and the exports, both coastwise and foreign, amount to over 12,000 tons a year. The rope manufacture, which dates from 1696, is considerable, and so is the brush trade, which was first introduced in 1755. The tanning of leather on a considerable scale began soon after the Union, and a shoe trade that followed it had attained in 1773 such importance that there were two firms in that year each employing over 300 hands. The trade is now of large extent for both home and foreign supply. The brewing business is very old and Glasgow was in the 17th century noted for the excellence of its ale. It has greatly increased in latter times, and Messrs Tennent, of the Wellpark Brewery in Duke Street, are among the largest exporters of porter and bitter ale in the kingdom, their produce bearing the highest character in the foreign markets. There are twelve breweries. The first distillery was established in Kirk Street, Gorbals, in 1786, by William Menzies, his licence being the fourth granted in Scotland. At that period the duty little exceeded one penny per gallon, and the best malt spirits sold at about 3s. per gallon. The trade both by distilleries and agencies for houses situated elsewhere has now become a very extensive one, the premises of the distillery at Port Dundas being almost the largest in the world. There are many other industries, too numerous to be particularly noticed, and, in short, Glasgow may be set down as the workshop of Scotland, there being, with a very few exceptions, hardly an article useful to mankind that is not made in the city of St Mungo.

All the iron trade of Scotland, with small exception, belongs directly or indirectly to Glasgow, concentrating here its business, commercially and financially, and drawing hence almost all the articles of consumpt connected with its works and workers. The iron industry, now of such importance to the city, seems to have been introduced in 1732 by the Smithfield Company for the manufacture for export of all sorts of hard ware. M 'Ure describes their warehouse as ' built on an eminency near the north side of the great key or harbour at the Breainielaw, ' and says that it contained ' all sorts of iron work, from a lock and key to an anchor of the greatest size. ' The trade went on in a fair way, for in 1772 there were imported into the Clyde 836 tons of bar iron and 896 tons of pig iron, while the exports of manufactured iron were 6711/3 tons, of which a little over 489 tons went to Virginia. The trade had not increased to a very great extent, though it was growing, but about 1839, or perhaps a little earlier, it began to show signs of greater development, which rapidly took place in consequence of the introduction of the hot-air blast, devised by Mr James B. Neilson, manager of the Glasgow gas-works, and o f the greater demand for iron of all sorts, following on the introduction of the railway system. A great deal of the iron reaches Glasgow in the form of pig iron, and at different works within the city it is rolled and manu factured. The six furnaces of the Govan Iron-Works- popularly known as ' Dixon's Blazes, ' from Mr Dixon who erected them about 1837- in Gorbals, form a curious feature in the city, and throw against the sky a lurid reflection which is seen all over the city. Besides the Govan works, some of the other large premises are the Glasgow Iron-Works at Garngad Road, the Blochairn Steel Works near the Alexandra Park, the Parkhead Forge at Parkhead, and the Govan Forge and Steel Company, who manufacture the heaviest class of forgings for ships, marine and ordinary engines, and mild steel castings and forgings of all description. For castings of various sanitary and architectural appliances, the very large Saracen (at Possil) and Sun Foundries (near St Rollox) have a wide and well-earned reputation. The increase of the iron trade in Glasgow corresponds with that for the w hole of Scotland. In 1788 over the whole country there were only eight furnaces at work, and their produce was only one-sixth of what it would be now for the same number, such has been the improvement that has taken place in the methods of operation.

The following table shows the increase since—

Year. No. of Furnaces. Tons Produced.
1806, . . 18 22,840
1823, . . 22 30,500
1833, . . 31 44,000
1843, . . 62 248,000
1851,.. 114 740,000
1861, . . 122 1,040,000
1870,.. .. 1,206,000
1879, . . 97 932,000

The prosperity of the trade between 1833 and 1851 is well shown by the great increase in the number of the furnaces and the improvements in manufacture by the increased output that these furnaces could produce. From an average output of nearly 1400 tons per furnace in 1833, the quantity rose, in 1843, after the introduction of the hot blast, to 4000, and this has since again more than doubled. In place of the 489 tons that had been sent to Virginia in 1772, there were sent in 1860, to America alone, no less than 78, 000 tons, and though this in 1861 fell in consequence of the war to 35,000 tons, France increased its consumption by 14,000 tons, and Spain increased hers by the same amount. In 1880 the total shipments of iron from Glasgow amounted to 259,425 tons. In 1881 this was much exceeded, as the shipments amounted to 339,407 tons, and for the present year (1882), up to the end of September, the shipments are 44, 709 tons over those for the corresponding period last year, while at the same date the stock stored in Glasgow amounts to 626,766 tons.

Another of the great sources of Glasgow's prosperity and success has been the abundance of coal in the surrounding district, which has not only provided fuel for the iron-works, the factories, and the steamships, but has also formed in itself an important article of export. When the coal in the neighbourhood began to be worked is not exactly known, but we know that in Scotland in the 14th century coal was a common article of merchandise, and was exported and sometimes taken as ballast for ships. The first notice we find of the Glasgow coalfield is in 1578, when the Archbishop let the ' coilheuchtis and colis within the baronie of glasgw ' for the space of three years at the yearly rent of £40 Scots (equal to about £5 sterling at the time), and 270 ' laids ' of coal (the ' laid ' being, according to Mr Macgeorge, about 320 pounds). These coal pits were probably in Gorbals. In 1655 the town council let these pits, or others probably in the same quarter in ' the muir heughe, ' at a rent of £33,4s., the tenants to employ eight hewers, and not to charge more than 4d. for nine gallons. In 1760 the price per cart of about half a ton was 1s. 3d., but they became after this rapidly dearer, for in 1778 they were 3s. for about the same quantity. In the latter year the whole quantity taken to Glasgow, including what was used for Glasgow, Greenock, and Port Glasgow, as well as what was exported elsewhere, was only 181, 800 carts, or about 82,000 tons. In 1836 there were 37 pits in the neighbourhood, from which 561,049 tons of coal were brought to Glasgow, of which 124 were exported, and 437,047 tons were used in the city. In 1852 the exports were 200,560 tons, and the whole quantity brought into the city was probably about 1,074,558. In 1858 the quantity of coal, cinders, and culm exported coastwise was 76,744 tons, and abroad 56,696, or a total of 133,440 tons. The following table shows the later growth of the trade:—

Year. Coastwise. Foreign. Total.
1860, . . 104,931 55,058 159,989
1871, . . 187,159 153,256 340,415
1878, . . 271,178 295,542 566,720
1881, . . .. 129,038 ..

The coal and iron combined have made the Clyde also the great centre for the construction of iron ships, marine steam engines and boilers, and a vast amount of kindred work, as is highly fitting, seeing that it was the cradle of steam navigation. Henry Bell, as has been already mentioned, had the Comet built at Port Glasgow by Messrs John Wood & Co. in 1811. The Comet made her trial trip on 18 Jan. 1812, and on her first trip from Glasgow to Greenock she made 5 miles an hour against a head wind. She was only of 28 tons burden and with an engine of 4 horsepower, and cost but £192; yet from this small beginning dates the great and important shipbuilding industry on the Clyde. Bell's invention was not patented, and was promptly seized by able, enterprising, monied men to be copied and improved. By 1813 she was followed by the Elizabeth (10 horse-power), by the Clyde (14 horse-power), and the Glasgow (14 horse-power), all built by Wood at Port Glasgow, and engined respectively by Thomson of Tradeston, by Robertson, and by Bell. The new navigation was at first supposed to be suitable only for smooth inland waters, and did not for a little pass beyond the waters of the Clyde; but a steam vessel of better build was put on trial by David Napier to carry goods and passengers in the coasting trade in the open Channel, and the trial proved so successful that its results are now apparent in every sea that has been navigated by civilised men. The building of sailing vessels on the Clyde went on increasing with the increase of commerce, and now the building of steam vessels became of rapid importance. During the eighteen years, however, after the Comet's first voyage, all the vessels were small and mostly of timber, and the whole aggregate did not exceed 5000 tons, but now many large ones came to be required, and both small and large were eventually constructed of iron. Many other improvements in construction were also made, a considerable number of them being due to David Napier, who had made the boiler of the Comet, and who ultimately combined shipbuilding with his former trade of marine engine-making, and started on a career that was highly successful from every point of view. Besides his many improvements in boilers and engines, Napier first suggested the improved clipper bow by making the stem taper instead of coming in with a sharp round bend. The shipbuilding, however, though connected with Glasgow, lies rather within the limits of the Clyde, and further details in connection with it will be found in the article Clyde.

The Harbour.—The harbour and docks of Glasgow afford one of the most magnificent illustrations that can be found, of the assistance that may be given to nature by the artifice and skill of man. ' Nowhere, ' says M. Simonin, in an article on Glasgow and the Clyde, published in the Nonvelle Revue of Nov. 1880, ' as at Glasgow is there revealed in such luminous traits all that can be done by the efforts of man, combined with patience, energy, courage, and perseverance, to assist nature, and if necessary to correct her. To widen and deepen a river previously rebellions against carrying boats, to turn it into a great maritime canal, to bring the waters where it was necessary to bring the largest ships, and, finally, to gather a population of 750,000 inhabitants, all devoted to commerce and industry upon a spot where only yesterday there was but a modest little town, almost destitute of every species of traffic- such is the miracle which in less than a century men have performed at Glasgow.' Within the last hundred years or so the Clyde navigation works have, says Mr Deas, the engineer to the Trust, converted the river Clyde ' between Glasgow and the sea, from a shallow stream, navigable only by fishing wherries of at most 4 or 5 feet draught, and fordable even 12 miles below Glasgow, to a great channel of the sea, bearing on its waters. the ships of all nations, and of the deepest draught, bringing to this City of the West the fruits and ores of Spain, the wines of Portugal and France, the palm-oil and ivory of Africa, the teas, spices, cotton, and jute of India, the teas of China, the cotton, cattle, corn, flour, beef, timber-even doors and windows ready-made- and the numerous notions of America, the corns of Egypt and Russia, the flour and wines of Hungary, the sugar, teak, and mahogany of the West Indies, the wools, preserved meats, and gold of the great Australian colonies, the food supplies of the sister Isle, and the thousands of other things which go to make the imports of the two-mile-long harbour of Glasgow, which, until a few years ago, was simply the river Clyde itself lined on both sides with wharfs and quays, and carrying away to India, our colonies-even to Fiji, and to every foreign land-the varied products of this great city, and of the whole South and West of Scotland, from the coal and iron of our mines to the finest products of our looms, and the most improved types of our varied machinery. '

The details of the deepening of the river Clyde have been already given in the article Clyde, and the details here given will be confined to the harbour proper. The harbour extends along the river for a distance of practically over two miles and a half. It is for this distance from 400 to 500 feet wide; and besides the natural basin of the river includes two tidal docks, one of them the largest in Scotland. It is divided into two parts, known as the Upper Harbour and the Lower Harbour- the former extending from Albert Bridge to Glasgow Bridge, the latter from Glasgow Bridge down to the mouth of the river Kelvin. The quays on the N bank of the river are as follows, the length being given in yards: In the Upper Harbour the Custom House Quay extending from Victoria Bridge to Glasgow Bridge (504), Broomielaw or the Steamboat Quay (697), Anderston Quay (536), Lancefield Quay (185), Finnieston Quay (297), Stobcross Quay (383), Stobcross Slip Docks (180), Yorkhill Wharf and Govan and Partick Wharf (805), the total length of quayage on the N side, exclusive of docks, being 3587 yards. On the S side, from Glasgow Bridge downwards, are Clyde Place Quay (405), Windmillcroft Quay (299), Springfield Quay and Terminus Quay (772), Mavisbank Quay (516), Plantation Quay (700), the total length of quayage on the S side, exclusive of Kingston Dock, being 2692 yards.

The following table shows the total length of quayage at different periods exclusive of docks:—

Year. North Quay
in Yards.
South Quay
in Yards.
Total Quayage
in Yards.
1800, . . 382 .. 382
1820, . . 697 .. 697
1840, . . 1,233 740 1,973
1850, . . 1,879 1,512 3,391
1860, . . 2,348 2,028 4,376
1870, . . 2,782 2,494 5,276
1880, . . 3,587 2,692 6,279

During the same time the water-area of the harbour, exclusive of docks, increased from 4 to over 90 acres. Exclusive of docks the quayage is thus at present 6279 yards, and the water space nearly 100 acres, while the quay space is about 48 acres, and the shed area about 14 acres. Inclusive of docks the length of quayage is 10,451 yards, the water space close on 140 acres, and the quay and shed and railway terminus space is about 100 acres. The river steamers and coasting steam lines find accommodation mostly along the upper quays on the N side, while the large American and foreign steamers have their berths along the lower quays.

Though docks apart from the river basin had been recommended as early as 1806, and Acts of Parliament for their construction obtained in 1840 and 1846, it was not till 1867 that the first one was erected. This was Kingston Dock, on the S bank of the river behind Windmillcroft Quay. It is an oblong basin, with 5 1/3 acres of water space, surrounded by a timber wharf giving 830 lineal yards of quayage. The entrance is between Windmillcroft and Springfield Quays, and is about 90 feet wide. The site cost £40,000, while £115,000 was expended on construction. The depth of water at full flow is 19 feet, and at full ebb 10 feet. In 1846 permission was obtained from Parliament to erect a tidal basin and a wet dock with 1458 lineal yards of quayage, 17 acres of water space, and 16 acres of quay accommodation, and land was acquired at Stobcross for this purpose, but nothing was done, as it was deemed easier and cheaper to extend the quays along the river. When this became no longer easily possible the Stobcross plan was revived, but on a much larger scale, the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway (now part of the North British Railway system) having in the meantime received permission to erect a station at the proposed dock. Parliamentary sanction was in 1870 obtained for the new plan, which showed a total area used of 61 acres (of which 33½ w ere water space), and a quayage of 3334 lineal yards, the site being at Stobcross on the N side of the river below Finnieston Quay. The works were begun in 1872, and finished so far that the dock could be opened in 1877, when it was first entered by the Anchor Line steamer Victoria. The last stone of the entire work was laid in 1880, and the basin has, by express permission of the Queen, received the name of the Queen's Dock. It is the largest dock in Scotland, and ' comprises three Basins-the North Basin, 1866 feet long by 270 wide; the South Basin, 1647 feet long by 230 feet wide, with a quay between them 195 feet broad; and an Outer Basin, 695 feet wide at its widest part by 1000 feet long. The dock is tidal,' and has a depth of 20 feet at low water. The entrance is at the SW corner, and is 100 feet wide. It is crossed by a swing-bridge 40 feet 6 inches wide, 181 feet 6 inches long, constructed to carry a rolling load of 60 tons on any part of its roadway, and worked by hydraulic power. It was made by Sir William Armstrong & Co. The foundations were found to be very bad, consisting almost entirely of water-bearing gravel and sand, with mud in some places, but the difficulty was got over by the use of groups of concrete cylinders, a plan here first adopted and carried out with great success. In Plantation Quay for instance, which was built on a similar substructure, part of the foundation is on a quicksand. The road in connection, extending from Stobcross Street to Sandyford Street, is 989 yards long and 55 feet wide. ' The average depth of cutting was 29½ feet, the greatest depth being 43½ feet; ' 300,000 cubic yards of material were removed, nearly 80,000 by the use of dynamite. The cost of the road alone, including land, was £45,000. The rise in the value of land near the docks has, since the first inception of the scheme, been very marked. The ground bought in 1843 cost 6s. 6d. per square yard, that bought in 1872 35s. for the same amount, and ground in the neighbourhood has since sold for 65s. The original estimated cost of the dock was, inclusive of land, £1,163,000, the total cost ultimately was about a million and a half, while it affords accommodation for about 1,000,000 tons of shipping. By far the greater portion of the whole of the harbour quays are built with solid stonework, and considerable pains have been taken, and sums of money expended, in repairing many of the older erections which had, owing to the constant dredging and deepening of the bed of the river, in many places shown signs of a tendency to slip into the river. The walls of the Queen's Dock, for example, are built of concrete rubble with Portland cement instead of ordinary mortar, and ' faced with freestone ashlar in courses ranging from 18 to 15 inches in thickness, the stones being not less than 4 feet long by 2 broad on the beds, an d the headers not more than 10 feet apart centres. The Cope is of granite, 3 feet 6 inches broad by 17 inches thick, in lengths of not less than 4 feet, and the mooring paals or ballards, which are 32 feet apart centres, are built into the wall immediately behind the Cope.' The sheds round the quays are ' 60 feet wide by 15 feet high to under side of run beams, and 27 feet to ridge of roof; the back walls are of brick, 19 inches thick, with freestone base, course cope, and door openings; the roofs are of iron, and the fronts are closed in their entire lengths with sliding gates of timber. '

To the W of the entrance to the Queen's Dock are the Kelvinhaugh slip docks, and there are also other two private slip docks—one at Pointhouse Shipbuilding Yard, and one at Meadowside Shipbuilding Yard. At the latter, at the mouth of the Kelvin, there is also a private graving dock, constructed in 1856 by Messrs Tod & Henderson, but now in possession of Messrs W. & D. Henderson & Co., to whom the adjoining Meadowside Shipbuilding Yard belongs. It is 500 feet long, 56 wide at the entrance, and has 18 feet of water on the sill at spring tides and 16 at neaps. There is a public graving dock on the S side of the river at Govan, opposite the entrance to the Queen's Dock. It was begun in 1869, and finished and opened in 1875. It is 565 feet in length within the caisson, 72 wide at the entrance, and has 22 feet of water on the sill at ordinary spring tides, 20 at ordinary neaps, and 12 feet 6 in at low water. In 1873 authority was also obtained to construct another beside the first, but it has not yet been begun. The present dock is one of the largest in the kingdom. There are a number of cranes connected with the harbour, some of them of a powerful and elaborate description. Most of them are worked by steam. On the Custom House Quay are two 6-ton cranes; on the Broomielaw one 6 tons and one 7 tons; on Finnieston Quay one of 30 and one of 60 tons; at the E end of Stobcross Quay one of 75 tons; and on the North Quay in Queen's Dock four coaling cranes of 20 tons, which are worked by the same horizontal engines which work the swing gate. On Clyde Place Quay is one of 10 tons; on Windmillcroft Quay one. of 40 tons; on Terminus Quay four coaling cranes, three of 20 tons and one of 25; on Plantation Quay there are two cranes, one of 25 tons and one of 60 tons. The average revenue from the cranes is about £6000 per an num. The heavy cranes on Stobcross and Plantation Quays are similar in construction, and rest on a foundation such as no other cranes in the world have, viz., a cluster of concrete cylinders sunk into and resting on a quicksand. These cylinders reach to more than 50 feet below the level of the quay. The cylinders are finished at 3 feet below water-level, and above that the seat of the crane rises to a height of 38 feet, reaching a height of 16 feet above the level of the quay. The seat up to 9 feet above the quay level is 44 by 38 feet; at the top it is 32 feet square. The weight in the masonry above the seat is estimated at 3800 tons, and of the crane without a load at 150 tons. The cranes are of wrought iron, and are light and elegant in their construction. They lift a load of 60 tons at the rate of 3 feet 10 inches per minute, and turn it round at the rate of 129 feet 6 inches per minute, and by a hand-winch the load can be adjusted to a hairbreadth, a degree of accuracy which is of the utmost convenience to engineers in adjusting machinery in new steamers. The river is now crossed within the limits of the harbour by five ferries at York Street, Clyde Street, Hyde Park, Stobcross, and Kelvinhaugh. These have screw steam ferry boats, carrying from 46 to 108 passengers. Steam was first used in 1865, but now it would be impossible to overtake the traffic without it. At Govan, below the mouth of the Kelvin, are two ferries also worked by steam, and furnished with boats, in which carriages, carts, live stock, etc., may cross the river. Of the two steamers in use at Govan, one carries 3 horses and carts and 50 passengers, or 200 passengers alone; while the other carries 8 horses and carts and 140 passengers, or 500 passengers alone. In 1880 the number of carriages, carts, cabs, and barrows that crossed at Govan Ferry was 49,309; while the passengers at all the ferries, Govan included, was 8,270,632. Three of the ferry steamers are also floating fire-engines, and as such have done excellent service. The boats at Clyde Street, Stobcross, and Govan ply both day and night; the others work from five a.m. to eleven p.m. There are also a ferry at Oatlands, near the S end of Glasgow Green, outside the harbour limits, and a small ferry across the mouth of the Kelvin, both carried on by row -boat. The slaughterhouse for foreign animals is at Pointhouse, at the W end of Yorkhill Wharf; while the landing wharf and quarantine station for them is at the W end of Plantation Quay, on the S side of the river. There is also a harbour on the Forth and Clyde Canal at Port Dundas; but it is noticed in the article on that canal.

In 1800 the harbour was confined to part of the Broomielaw; in 1840 it extended from the upper harbour at the old bridge to Lancefield Street, and on the S side along Clyde Place Quay. In 1880 it extended along the river on both sides from Victoria Bridge to the mouth of the Kelvin, a distance of over two miles on each side, exclusive of Kingston and Queen's Docks, and yet, notwithstanding this, the accommodation is still insufficient for the trade, for it has been resolved in November of the present year (1882), by the trustees of the Clyde Navigation, that permission is to be asked in the next session of parliament to construct on the lands of Cessnock at Plantation Quay tidal basins, which are to cover about 80 acres. These are to comprise, on the N side of Renfrew Road, two tidal docks with a connecting basin crossed by swing or draw bridges, and two graving docks on the E side of Cessnock Road. They are to have lines of tramway for the accommodation of their traffic, and the total cost will probably be. over a million and a half.

The Clyde Trust.—All the improvements on the harbour and river have been carried out under the care of the Trustees of the Clyde Navigation, whose jurisdiction extends from the upper harbour for more than 18 miles down the river to a line drawn from Newark Castle to Cardross, beyond this the cares of deepening the channel rests on the Lighthouse Trust. Under an act of parliament, passed in 1759, power was given to the magistrates and town council of Glasgow ' to cleanse, scour, straighten, and improve ' the river Clyde from Dumbuck Ford to the Bridge of Glasgow, and further empowering them to charge certain duties for defraying the expenses, these to be levied as soon as the locks recommended by Smeaton were finished. Fortunately for Glasgow no locks were ever built, and in 1770 the town council procured another act, which declared that the magistrates and council were ' now advised that by contracting the channel of the said river Clyde, and building and erecting jetties, banks, walls, works, and fences in and upon the same river, and dredging the same in proper places between the lower end of Dumbuck Ford and the Bridge of Glasgow, the said river Clyde may be further deepened and the navigation thereof more effectually improved than by any lock or dam,' and then went on to provide that the former duties, which were not to be payable till the locks were erected, should now be payable as soon as the Clyde should be ' navigable from the lower end of Dumbuck Ford to the Bridge of Glasgow aforesaid, so as there shall be at least 7 feet water at neap tides in every part of the said river within the bounds aforesaid. ' By a third act, obtained in 1809, the depth was fixed at 9 feet, and the magistrates and council were appointed Trustees of the Clyde Navigation. In 1825 power was given by a fourth act to deepen the river to 13 feet, and the constitution of the Trust was widened by the addition as Trustees of ' five other persons interested in the trade and navigation of the river and firth of Clyde, ' which persons were to be appointed by the magistrates and council. In 1840 a further act was obtained providing for the deepening of the river to 17 feet at neaps, and between 1846 and 1882 various acts were obtained arranging for the construction of docks, the borrowing of money, and the provision of harbour tramways, and for the construction of graving docks. One of these, obtained in 1858, and known as the Consolidation Act, materially affected the constitution of the Trust, which, however, remains as it has always been, one of the most public-spirited and business-like bodies in Scotland. By this act the number of Trustees was fixed at twentyfive, consisting of the Lord Provost and nine members of the town council, two members chosen by the Chamber of Commerce, two of the matriculated members of the Merchants' House, two chosen by the members of the Trades' House of Glasgow, and nine by the shipowners and ratepayers, the qualification of the latter members of the Trust being ownership to the extent of at least 250 tons, or payment of rates to at least the extent of £25 per annum; and the qualification of those who elect them, ownership to the extent of at least 100 tons or payment of £10 of rates or upwards.

The details of the revenue and expenditure of the Clyde Trust will be found in the article Clyde.

Bridges.—Within the limits of the city the river is crossed by nine bridges. The one farthest down the river, immediately below Glasgow Bridge, is a large and powerful iron lattice girder bridge, by which the Caledonian railway traffic is carried to the Central station. It was finished in 1879. Proceeding up the river the next bridge is Glasgow Bridge, one of the busiest places in Glasgow, as continuing the line of Jamaica Street to Bridge Street and Eglinton Street. It forms the principal communication with the S side. It used formerly to be called the Broomielaw Bridge; the original structure, which was founded in 1768, was 500 feet long and 30 wide within the parapets. It had seven arches. About l830 it was, however, found inadequate for the traffic. and in 1833 the foundation of the present bridge, now called Glasgow Bridge, was laid. The casing is of Aberdeen granite. There are seven arches; the length is 560 feet and the width 60 feet. Permission has again been obtained to widen it, but no operations have yet taken place. It cost, inclusive of extra ground, £38,000, and was, at the time of its erection, one of the widest and finest bridges in the kingdom. While the bridge was being rebuilt, a wooden accommodation bridge was erected a little farther E, opposite South Portland Street, but having become insecure in 1846, it was removed, and the Portland Street Suspension Bridge erected at the expense of the heritors of Gorbals. The present structure is the result of alteration and improvement in 1870-71. Still further E, and forming an important link between the N and S sides of the river, is Victoria Bridge. This erection occupies the site of the old and first bridge of Glasgow. We have already seen that a bridge, probably of wood, is mentioned as existing here in the time of Wallace. It was about 1350 replaced by Bishop Rae's Bridge, a great work for the time, consisting of eight stone arches, 12 feet wide between parapets. In course of time this naturally became somewhat decayed, and in 1658 an order was made that no cart was to cross on wheels, but was to have the wheels removed and to be ' harled ' across-a method which hardly commends itself to us now-a-days as likely to be better for the bridge. In 1671, during the Fair, the arch at the S end fell. It seems to have been merely rebuilt, but in 1777 the bridge was widened by 10 feet added to its eastern side; and to narrow the river, and so assist in the prevention of floods, two of the arches on the N side were built up. In this condition it remained till 1821, when it was again repaired; but in 1845 an act of parliament was obtained for the erection of a new one on the same site, and it was finally pulled down in 1847, and replaced by the present bridge, which was opened in the beginning of 1854. It somewhat resembles Glasgow Bridge, and is of the same width, but is faced with Kingston granite. It was named Victoria Bridge in honour of the Queen. It cost £40,000. It is 445 feet long and 60 wide, with five arches of from 67 to 80 feet of span. The next bridge is a high lattice girder bridge, opened in 1870, by which the Union and the Glasgow and South-Western railways cross to St Enoch's station. Next is the Albert Bridge, which has replaced what was known as the Hutchesoutown Bridge. The first bridge that was erected here was one built in 1792, when the Hutchesoutown lands were feued. It had five arches, and was 406 feet long and 26 wide; but it was hardly finished when, in 1795, it was destroyed by a flood on the river. In 1803 there was a light wooden bridge for foot passengers, free during the week, but with a pontage of 1d. on Sunday. The third bridge, a very plain structure 4o6 feet long and 36 wide, with five arches, was not erected till 1829, and from the flow of water from the weir about 30 yards up the river-erected along with the adjoining lock in order that a hypothetical shipping trade might reach Rutherglen, but removed in 1879- the foundations became insecure, and the bridge was closed in 1868. It was replaced by the present bridge, founded then, and opened in 1871, having cost, inclusive of street alterations and retaining walls, £65,000. It was named in honour of the Prince Consort. It crosses the river in three magnificent spans, the centre one being 114 feet wide, and the others 108 feet. The foundations rest on cast-iron cylinders filled with cement, and sunk deep in the bed of the river. The abutments and piers are of white and red granite. The parapet is of open work, and has in the centre a close space with the city arms. On the abutments are panels, with medallions of the Queen and Prince Consort. It is 410 feet long, and the roadway is 60 feet wide. Opposite the middle of the Green is a foot suspension bridge, erected in 1855 for the accommodation of factory hands in the east end. It is known as Harvey's Suspension Bridge (from the promoter of its erection, Bailie Harvey), or as St Andrew's Suspension Bridge, the latter being the authorised name. Before its erection there was a ferry here. About a mile farther up, the river is crossed, opposite the line of Main Street, Bridgeton, by Rutherglen Bridge, an old and not very beautiful structure, dating from 1776, and built at an expense of about £2000, the burgesses of Rutherglen bearing half. Previous to this there was a ford. About 1½ mile above Rutherglen Bridge is Dalmarnock Bridge, only half of which is within the city, the rest lying partly in the county and partly in Rutherglen, the boundary lines meeting in the centre of the bridge. It continues the line of Dalmarnock Road towards Rutherglen. The Clyde bridges are managed by trustees, whose ordinary revenue amounted, for the year ending 31 May 1882, to £303,1s. 6d.; the ordinary expenditure to £375,17s.; the extraordinary revenue to £430,14s.3d.; the extraordinary expenditure to £146,15s.; the Glasgow Bridge widening account to £28,444,2s.4d.; the total assets to £37,325,10s.6d.; and the total indebtedness to £28,444,2s. 4d., being the amount above noticed.

Besides the bridges over the Clyde there is an elegant one-arch bridge, fancifully called the Bridge of Sighs, leading across the Molendinar ravine to the Necropolis. It has a span of 60 feet, and was erected in 1833 at a cost of £1240. The Kelvin is crossed by a number of bridges. Proceeding upwards from the mouth there is first a girder bridge, by which the Stobcross railway crosses; then a stone bridge, for a continuation of Bridge Street, Partick, to Old Dumbarton Road. New Dumbarton Road crosses the stream by a handsome iron bridge resting on stone abutments, while a stone arch carries the roadway over the adjoining mill-lade. The cost of the bridge, which was opened in 1877, and the adjoining roadway was £19,000. Within the limits of the West End Park the Kelvin is crossed by four foot bridges-one of stone; one a strong lattice girder bridge for carriage traffic, finished in 1881; and two wooden foot bridges, one of which was erected for the use of the Prince of Wales when he laid the foundation-stone of the University buildings. Two stone bridges with open parapets connect the city with Hillhead on the line of Woodlands Road and Great Western Road, and at the latter point, to suit low-level streets, a low-level bridge crosses diagonally beneath the upper one. Other two handsome stone bridges, which cross the stream further up, are both in Hillhead.

Cemeteries.—Some ancient cemeteries in the city have been converted into building ground or market places; while others at the Cathedral, St David's, St Mary's, Gorbals, Calton, and Bridgeton still remain, but are not now important for their original purpose, but as lungs for the city. The cathedral cemetery is the oldest, the first part of it that was used being very much crowded with gravestones and monuments; the newer parts are laid out in somewhat more modern taste. There are a number of interesting monuments, including one to some martyrs of the Covenanting times. The other old cemeteries show no peculiar features. Inside the city there were also intramural cemeteries at North Street and Main Street in Anderston, Cheapside Street in Anderston, Christchurch in Mile End, and Greendyke Street Episcopalian church, in a crypt under the United Presbyterian church in Wellington Street, and for Roman Catholics in Abercromby Street. In a report furnished in 1869 by the Master of Works and the medical officer for the city, under a remit from the Board of Police, it was recommended that, except in very special cases, the intramural cemeteries of St David's; College; North Street and Main Street, Anderston; Cheapside Street, Anderston; Calton; Bridgeton; Rutherglen Loan, Gorbals; St Mungo's, Cathedral; Abercromby Street, Roman Catholic; Christchurch, Mile End; Greendyke Street; and Wellington Street should no longer be used. The interments in these have fallen from 2279 in 1863 to 60 last year, there being a steady annual decrease; and now interments take place in the following extramural cemeteries:- The Necropolis - which is now, however, owing to the growth of Dennistoun, by no means outside the city, Sighthill Cemetery, the Eastern Necropolis or Janefield, the Southern Necropolis, Craigton at Paisley Road, Sandymount at Shettleston, Dalbeath at London Road, Cathcart at New Cathcart, and the Western Necropolis at Maryhill. The Necropolis was laid out originally under a scheme promoted by the exertions of Dr Ewing of Levenside and Dr Strang, the then city chamberlain, and is the parent of all the garden cemeteries throughout Scotland. It lies E of the cathedral, from the grounds of which it is separated by the ravine of the Molendinar Burn. The entrance is by a Tudor gateway at the Bridge of Sighs, already referred to. The site lies along the slope and brow of a steep hillside - formerly known as Craig's or the Fir Park, at one time the property of the Merchants' House - rising to a height of 225 feet above the level of the Clyde, and commanding from its summit an interesting and beautiful view, with the city and its spires to the SW, and a long stretch of finely diversified and wooded country to the E. It was begun in 1828, the intention being to lay it out after the model of Père-la-Chaise at Paris, to which, in point of situation, it bears some resemblance, and was opened in 1833. It is beautifully laid out and kept, and has, with its trees, flowers, shrubs, and gravel walks, the appearance of a fine terraced garden. Many of the monuments show considerable architectural and artistic taste. One of the oldest and most conspicuous is a monument to John Knox. It consists of a Doric column of somewhat heavy proportions, rising from a square base, and with a broad capital on which is placed a statue of the Reformer, 12 feet high, by Forrest. The sides of the base are nearly covered with an inscription, giving information relative to Knox and the Reformation. Another conspicuous monument is a Tudor structure on a quadrangular base, with a colossal statue, also by Forrest, to the memory of William M 'Gavin, author of the Protestant. Other interesting monuments are a beautiful Ionic structure to the memory of the Rev. Dr John Dick; a large circular Norman mausoleum for the late Major Monteith; a mausoleum for Mr Houldsworth, with fine figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity; a pretty façade at the sepulchre of the Jews at the NW corner of the grounds; and statues or other structures to perpetuate the memory of Charles Tennant of St Rollox, Colin Dunlop of Tollcross, Colonel Patterson, the Rev. Dr Heugh, the Rev. Dr Wardlaw, the Very Re. Principal Macfarlane, the Rev. Edward Irving, the Rev. Dr Black, the Rev. Dr W. Anderson, James Ewing of Strathleven, William Motherwell the poet, Dr Macnish, J. H. Alexander of the old Theatre Royal, and Michael Scott, the author of Tom Cringle's Log.

Sighthill Cemetery, on the outskirts of the city on the NE, about 600 yards N of St Rollox, was laid out in 1840 by a joint stock company. It occupies a sloping situation, rising to a height of nearly 400 feet above sea-level, and contains 46 acres of land available for burial purposes. The grounds are entered by a fine gateway - close to which is a tasteful chapel designed and used for burial services - and are well laid out with winding walks and shrubberies. There is a magnificent view extending from Tinto to the Grampians. There are a number of fine monuments, including an obelisk erected to the memory of Hardie and Baird, who were executed at Stirling in 1820 on a charge of high treason in connection with the early Chartist troubles. More interments take place at Sighthill than at any of the other cemeteries in Glasgow. The Eastern Necropolis is on the E at Parkhead, off the Great Eastern Road. It contains about 10 acres laid out with walks intersecting at right angles. The Southern Necropolis on the lands of Little Govan in the SE suburbs is about ½ mile SSE of Albert Bridge. The ground, which extends over about 12 acres, is flat, and is laid out with flower-beds and walks intersecting at right angles. The Western Necropolis is on undulating ground at Loch burn Road, Maryhill. It belongs to a joint stock company, and covers 54 acres, of which only a small portion is as yet taken up. It is tastefully laid out, and there are extensive views to the N and W along to the Campsie and Kilpatrick Hills, with Ben Lomond and the Gleniffer Braes. None of the other cemeteries calls for particular comment.

Public Parks.—Glasgow is well supplied with public parks which are well laid out and kept. and carefully tended. There are the Green, the West End or Kelvingrove Park, the Alexandra Park, and the Queen's Park. The oldest of these is the Green, which lies along the river in the eastern part of the city for a distance of more than a mile, and covers a space of about 140 acres. It is all that now remains of the extensive commonty belonging to the city, which at one time swept all round the E side from this point to Cowcaddens, but which has from time to time been appropriated for building purposes. In some of the earlier charters the Green is mentioned under the name of the Bishop's Forest, but probably at that time but little of it was available for the use of the citizens. The Old Green extended from the present Green to Stockwell Street, but was given up for buildings in the end of last century. The first part of the present Green, devoted to the amusement of the people, was the E portion, known as the King's Park, which was granted by James II. in 1450 for the use of the community. Parts of it seem, however, to have been alienated, for in 1574 the community protested against any further encroachments, and in 1576 the magistrates and council resolved that thereafter no part of the city, 'commoun muris,' were to be given to any one. Notwithstanding this, fresh efforts at alienation on the part of the council had again to be resisted by popular effort in 1600 and in 1745. In 1756 the town council gave off a portion of the ground for a saw-mill which, however, they had to send men to destroy, so strong was the popular outcry; and the tenacity of the citizens in resisting all encroachments has been shown many times since. In 1847 resistance was successfully made against a bill promoted by the Glasgow and Airdrie Railway Company to enable them to lay a line across the Green. In 1868 the citizens had to resort to interdict, in order to prevent their own town council from throwing more than 2000 yards of the Green into Greenhead Street, and though there are valuable seams of coal and iron known to exist beneath, yet nothing short of the bankruptcy of the city would allow of their being worked.

The Green was enlarged in 1773 by the purchase of about 30 acres from various persons, and the addition then made came to be known as the High Green; and in 1792 a still further addition was made of the land lying between the King's Park and the bend of the river, and known as the Provost's or Fleshers' Haugh. For generations the Green was allowed to remain almost in a state of nature, being cut up with springs, runnels, and marshy places; latterly it has, however, - especially for the purpose of providing employment for workmen in times of distress in 1820 and in 1875 - been drained and improved as to level and laying out, and has now a fine sward, with numbers of excellent paths and drives crossing it in various directions. It serves as a daily recreation ground for cricket, football, and other athletic sports. At the W end of the King's Park is a gymnasium, the gift of a Glasgow gentleman who afterwards settled in Manchester. It is furnished with all the common gymnastic appliances, and in fine weather swarms with youthful gymnasts. A large space westward from the gymnasium and round the obelisk erected to the memory of Admiral Nelson, is used for great open air public meetings, where public preachers and orators of all descriptions hold forth to an admiring multitude, simple enough to accept as realities, matters the fact of which exists only in the speakers' imaginations. The Low Green and some of the parts to the W are generally pretty thickly sprinkled with loafers of decidedly unprepossessing appearance lounging on the railings and seats or slumbering on the turf. In summer the river opposite is studded with pleasure boats of all sorts. The Humane Society's House, on the river bank close to the St Andrew's Suspension Bridge, is a neat though plain two-story building, whose purpose is sufficiently indicated by the name. Previous to those modern days when wealth and fashion moved westward, the Green used to be the summer rendezvous of the pride and beauty of the city, but now it is often far from being a pleasant place, for the forest of factory chimneys on both sides, in certain states of the wind, roll over on the Green volumes of smoke in black and bitter abundance. The number of springs that abound in it made it from an early date a public washing and bleaching green, and part of it is still set aside for this purpose. It was the field for all grand military exercises and displays. Here Regent Moray's army encamped before Langside; here Prince Charles Edward reviewed his army on the retreat from Derby; here, in the stirring times when George III. was King and almost every shopkeeper was a soldier, drill was carried on; and here the modern volunteers too parade from time to time, about 6000 of them having been reviewed on the Green by the Prince of Wales in 1876. At the W entrance, opposite the Justiciary Court-House, is a small granite drinking fountain erected by some temperance advocates to commemorate the services of Sir William Collins to the temperance cause. It has, on the W side, a bronze panel with a medallion portrait of Sir William.

The Kelvingrove or West End Park lies along the banks of the Kelvin, between Woodside and Sandyford. Originally the park was only on the E side, and was formed from lands on the old estates of Kelvingrove and Woodside, purchased by the town council in 1853 for this purpose at a cost of £99,569. A portion of the ground was, however, set aside for feus in so judicious a manner that it affords fair promise of ultimately reimbursing the total cost. The lands comprise a tabular hill on the E side, with rapid slopes on the N and S, and a longer but still sharp slope on the W down to the Kelvin, from which there is an undulating rise to Gilmorehill with the University buildings. The portion of the ground on the W side of the Kelvin was acquired from the University authorities. The part set apart for feuing includes all the top of the hill to the E, which is now occupied by the magnificent houses that form Park Circus, Park Street, Park Terrace, and Park Quadrant. The part kept up as a public park contains 67 acres, and includes the old mansion-house of Kelvingrove and a number of fine old trees that grew on the old estates. Of the 67 acres, 7 may be either feued, sold, or devoted to the public, the remaining 60 are entirely for park purposes, and the total cost to the public has been, after deduction of feus, etc., £110,967, 1s. 4d. The ground was laid out, and the walks, drives, and shrubberies arranged according to designs by Sir Joseph Paxton. In front of the houses on the top, carriage drives sweep round the entire circuit of the park; another carriage drive winds through at a lower level, and another is now (1882) in course of formation from Sandyford across the Kelvin to the gate at Anderston Free Church, near the NE corner of the University. From Park Terrace a noble staircase, formed by three long flights of stairs, the steps being 60 feet wide, passes down to the lower level of the S part of the park. The stair is formed of Aberdeen granite, and as an open balustrade. On the crest opposite West Park Street is a lofty flagstaff, with - at its base - a mortar and two cannons captured at Sebastopol. From this point, as well as from the higher walks and terraces, there are good views along the river and across to Renfrewshire. The park contains an elegant fountain and the Kelvingrove Museum, both of which are noticed elsewhere.

The Queen's Park lies on the S side, about 1 ½ mile straight S from Glasgow Bridge, along Bridge Street, Eglinton Street, and Victoria Road, and close to Crosshill. It was opened in 1862, and comprises 80 acres, chiefly on a rising-ground or low broad-based hill. The entrance is at the end of Victoria Road, and from a highly ornamental gateway a broad path, broken near the centre by a massive granite staircase, leads to the flagstaff on the summit of the hill. The park was acquired at an expense of £30,000, and the plans for laying it out were prepared by Sir Joseph Paxton. a considerable portion of it is laid out in grass, on which visitors may wander as freely as on the Green, while the rest is covered with shrubberies and clumps of young trees resembling those in Kelvingrove Park. From the flagstaff on the summit there is a very fine view. On the N the city of Glasgow spreads out in all its length from Partick to Tollcross, while beyond are the Campsie Hills. Further to the left are the wooded heights above Kilpatrick, and if the atmosphere be clear the distant Ben Lomond may be seen above and beyond them. On the right is the Vale of Clyde, the valley of the Cart, and the Cathkin Braes. Close at hand on the W is the wooded knoll of Camphill, where Regent Murray encamped, and the ground on the SE was the scene of the battle of Langside. The ground at the SW corner of the park is laid out as a bowling-green, and is occupied by the Wellcroft Bowling Club. Once the trees are grown, this will be one of the finest public parks in Britain.

Alexandra Park lies at the E end of the city, adjacent to the NE side of Dennistoun, and about 1 ½ mile NE of the junction of High Street and Duke Street. Part of it was opened in 1870 and the remainder in 1872. The ground was purchased, and this park formed, by the City Improvement Trust under the 1866 Act, but the care of it has since devolved on the council under the 'Glasgow Public Parks Act, 1859.' It is on the lands of Kennyhill, and the site was formerly occupied by a distillery. The approach from the W from Castle Street, known as the Alexandra Parade, nearly a mile long and 80 feet wide, was constructed chiefly at the expense of the late Mr Dennistoun of Golfhill. The park covers a space of 74 acres, and has cost down to the present time £53, 909, 5s. 7d., of which £40,000 was paid by the City Improvement Trust. A considerable portion of it is laid out in grass, part of it as a golf course, and it contains a swimming pond. It commands from its higher parts a varied and interesting prospect, ranging from the wooded landscape of lower Clydesdale to the mountains of Argyllshire.

The parks are managed by the town council, acting as trustees under the Glasgow Public Parks Acts of 1859 and 1878. The borrowing powers of £200,000 are exhausted. The maximum rate of assessment is 2d. per £, and a sinking fund of ' one pound per cent. per annum on amount of sums borrowed and owing at time' has to be set aside every year. The ordinary revenue for the year ending 31 May 1882 was £27, 378, 18s. 7d., the ordinary expenditure £22,740, 3s., the extraordinary revenue £3520, 1s. 1d., and the extraordinary expenditure £4501, 6s. 4d.; the debts £211,642 18s. 5d., and the assets £244,819, 16s. 5d.

Monuments.—A large number of the public monuments in Glasgow are collected in George Square, but there are others in other parts of the city. In George Square there are no less than twelve statues. In the centre is a colossal statue of Sir Walter Scott, by Ritchie, placed on the top of a fluted Doric column 80 feet high, erected in 1837. This was the first of the many monuments erected to the 'Wizard of the North.' On the E in the centre line of the square is a bronze equestrian statue of Prince Albert, by Baron Marochetti, erected in 1866, and on the W side to correspond is a bronze equestrian statue of the Queen by the same artist. It originally stood at the W end of St Vincent Place, where it was erected in 1854. but it was removed to its present position in 1866, when that of the Prince Consort was erected. They both stand on granite pedestals. At the NW corner of the square is a bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel, by Mossman, erected in 1858. At the NE corner is a bronze statue of James Oswald, one of the members for Glasgow in the first parliament after the Reform Bill. It was erected in 1856, and long stood at Charing Cross, but was afterwards removed to George Square. At the SE corner of the square is a bronze statue of Dr Thomas Graham, seated, by Brodie, erected in 1872. At the SW corner is a bronze statue of James Watt, seated, by Chantrey, erected in 1832 Between Watt and Graham on the S side are bronze statues of Sir John Moore and Lord Clyde, both standing. The former, which is by Flaxman, was erected in 1819; the latter, by Foley, was erected in 1868. It at first stood on the W side of the square. A little behind Sir John Moore is a bronze statue of Burns, standing, by Ewing, which was unveiled in 1877 by Lord Houghton, in presence of some 30,000 spectators. The pedestal has bas-reliefs. The companion statue - a little behind Lord Clyde - is a bronze standing figure of Campbell, the poet. The last of the statues in the square is one of Dr Livingstone, in the middle of the W side; all the pedestals are of granite. There is an equestrian statue of William III. on the pavement in front of the Tontine buildings in the Trongate. It was erected and presented to the city in 1735 by James Macrae, a native of Glasgow, who had been governor of Madras. On Glasgow Green is a sandstone obelisk 144 feet high, to the memory of Lord Nelson. It was erected in 1806 at a cost of £2075On the four sides of the base are inscribed the names of his greatest battles. In the Royal Infirmary square is a bronze statue, by Mossman, of James Lumsden, Lord Provost of Glasgow in 1843, and long honorary treasurer of the Royal Infirmary. It is 8 ½ feet high, stands on a pedestal 10 ½ feet high, and was erected in the end of 1862. Near by, close to the Barony Church, is a bronze statue of Dr Norman Macleod, erected in 1881.

In front of the Royal Exchange in Queen Street is a bronze equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington by Marochetti, one of the finest monuments in Glasgow. It stands on a granite pedestal, and was erected in 1844 at a cost of £10,000. On the pedestal are four bronze bas-reliefs, those at the sides representing the battles of Assaye and Waterloo, while those at the end represent the peaceful life of a peasant before he is called away to war, and his happy return to his home and kindred at the conclusion of peace. In niches in the Ingram Street front of Hutcheson's Hospital are two ancient and somewhat primitive-looking statues of the brothers Hutcheson. Near the centre of the S part of Kelvingrove Park is a tasteful and beautiful - excepting the gilding of the surmounting bronze figure - fountain erected in commemoration of the introduction of a water supply from Loch Katrine into Glasgow, and in honour of Lord Provost Stewart, who took a prominent part in the carrying out of the scheme. It was inaugurated in 1872. The outer basin is 60 feet in diameter, and the fountain which rises to a height of 40 feet, and is richly sculptured, is surmounted by a bronze figure by John Mossman, representing the Lady of the Lake. There are also bronze panels, one with a medallion portrait of Lord Provost Stewart, the others with allegorical designs representing the introduction of the water supply. On a granite pedestal, a short distance off, is a bronze group, representing a tigress carrying a dead peacock to her lair, and her cubs greedily welcoming the prey. It was presented to the city by John S. Kennedy, a native of Glasgow, who removed to New York. Close by is a small bronze group o f a girl playing with a dog, and intended to illustrate the lines from Coleridge :

'He pray-eth best who loveth best
All things both great and small,
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.'

A neat suite of dwelling-houses at the corner of Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street was built by subscription, at a cost of £4000, as a gift to Dr Cleland, author of the Annals of Glasgow, and bears the name of the Cleland Testimonial. There is a marble statue of Pitt, by Flaxman, in the Corporation Gallery, and one by Gibson of Kirkman Finlay, who did so much to develop Glasgow trade, in the Merchants' Hall. The Martyrs' Memorial Fountain in the E end has been already noticed, as well as some of the numerous monuments in the Necropolis and other cemeteries.

Public Buildings—Municipal and County Buildings.—The Council Chambers and Municipal Offices were long in the Tontine Buildings at the Cross, and were afterwards transferred to the South Prison Quadrangle at the foot of Saltmarket. About 1840 it was found that the premises at the jail were too small, and the foundation stone of the southern portion of the new erection, which now occupies the space bounded by Ingram Street, Hutcheson Street, Wilson Street, and Brunswick Street, was laid in 1842.* The sheriffs and their officers, and the council and their officers, all removed to the new building, which was finished and ready for occupation in 1844. It cost £56,0000 of which 029,000 was paid by the city and £27,000 by the County of Lanark, but this included alterations also at the South Prison Quadrangle. The western portion of the building was set apart for the council chamber, the offices of the town-clerk, the city chamberlain, the burgh fiscal, etc., while the eastern part was occupied by the sheriffs, the sheriff-clerk, the county fiscal, etc. At the same time the Merchants' House having a number of years before sold their property in Bridgegate, erected in connection with the County Buildings a new and handsome hall at a cost of£10,300. Of this they were subsequently dispossessed in 1869, when, by the compulsory powers given in their Act of 1868, the court-house commissioners acquired the building, and between that time and 1874 the new buildings were erected to the N at a cost of £90,000, including also the cost of the extensive alterations on the old buildings. The three portions of the structure form one great block. The northern part is occupied by the Municipal Buildings, and shows on the N front a fine porticoed façade with colossal statuary by Mossman over and at the sides of the entrance door. They contain the council chamber (in which is a fine portrait of the Queen by the late Sir Daniel Macnee), the town-clerk's. office, the city chamberlain's office, and other apartments. The middle part of the buildings was originally the Merchants' Hall, and has now been converted into the county offices. The main front is to Hutcheson Street, and has a noble hexastyle Corinthian portico. surmounted by a massive entablature with sculptured subjects on its frieze. The county court-houses form the southern part of the whole block with the main front towards Wilson Street, and present there a grand hexastyle Ionic portico with sculptured basement wall. At each side of the portico is a small abutment with an entrance to the interior. There are spacious and commodious apartments for the courts and public offices. The municipality are, however, not yet satisfied, and have, at a cost of £173,185, acquired a site for new buildings at the E side of George Square. Competitive designs for the new buildings were exhibited in the spring of the present year (1882), and ere long Glasgow should possess a new structure worthy of her increasing greatness. The buildings are under the care of the Court-house Commissioners, consisting of representatives of the Town Council and Commissioners of Supply. Their income for the year ending 31 Aug. was 31270, 15s. 2d., the expenditure £1540, 7s. 6d., the assets. £10, 772, 17s. 5d., the debts £11,013, 4s. 11d., all apart from the municipal buildings.

* The Tontine Buildings, in which was the Old Town-Hall, extending westward from the site of the Old Tolbooth. were erected in the latter part of last century for the threefold purpose of Town-Hall, Exchange, and Hotel. They had a spacious arcaded basement, with a fine range of Ionic pilasters and an interior piazza, and on the keystones of the arches were the grotesque sculptured masks, now within the court of the elegant block of warehouses at the foot of Buchanan Street. The Exchange and the piazza were long the resort of thé chief merchants in the city , but under the operations of the city Improvement Trust subsequent to 1870 they were stripped of their civic grandeur. and deprived of their piazza and ornaments, and converted into shops and warehouses The Old Town-Hall was 55 feet long, 34 wide, and 25 high.

Courts are held in the County Buildings by the sheriff or one of his six substitutes, for criminal and summary business on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday every week, and also appeal courts on the same day. There is a small debt court on Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and a court under the Debts Recovery (Scotland) Act on Monday. Justice of peace courts are held in the Justice's Hall, County Buildings, for cases of crime and cases under the Revenue, Roads, Weights and Measures, etc., Laws every Monday and Thursday, at 11 a. m., and for small debt cases every Tuesday and Friday.

Police Buildings.—The first police office was in the Laich or Tron Church session-house, and was thence removed to the NW corner of Bell Street and Candleriggs, where it was one stair up! In 1825, however, more suitable buildings were erected at the angle of Bell Street and South Albion Street, midway between High Street and Candleriggs, at a cost of £15,000, and an addition to this was made in 1851 at a cost of £8000, the whole now constituting the Central Police Office. The situation was originally very central for the police business, but, till sweepingly altered by the operations of the City Improvement Trust subsequent to 1875, was also eminently disagreeable and unsanitary. Bell Street was a narrow, squalid thoroughfare, with dingy houses. South Albion Street was a mere lane or narrow alley, and both were surrounded by a dense and repulsive part of the city. Though erected in such an unfavourable locality, the buildings themselves are very substantial, forming a high quadrangular block, enclosing a court of 50 feet by 34, and containing a hall for the sittings of the police court, a room where meetings of the police committee of the town council are held, accommodation for the superintendent of streets, the treasurer, and other officials, and ranges of cells and wardrooms for prisoners. An adjoining building consists of barracks and other accommodation for the unmarried members of the force. A low roofed solid structure at the W end of College Street a little to the NNE was erected in 1851, and accommodates the Central Fire Brigade. It contains a number of fine fire-engines and other necessary apparatus in connection with fire brigade work. The lighting department has also its headquarters close by. The cleaning department has its headquarters in extensive premises in Parliamentary Road. These were mostly erected in 1873, have a handsome front, and contain ample accommodation for water carts, sweeping machines. horses, and stores.

Besides the Central or Head Office, there are offices known as the Western, Eastern, Southern, Northern, St Rollox, and Marine Division, in respectively Anderston (Cranston Street), Calton (Tobago Street), Gorbals (South Portland Street), Cowcaddens (Maitland Street), St Rollox (Tennant Street), and Broomielaw ( Robertson Street) The offices in South Portland Street were formerly used by the separate municipal government of the Gorbals district, and are handsome and commodious buildings. The St Rollox Office was erected in 1873, and is a two-story building, with an auxiliary fire station. None of the others call for particular notice. Besides these there are police stations at the South Prison, Dalmarnock Road, Camlachie, Paisley Road, South Wellington Street, Camperdown Street, and Springburn. Police courts are held every lawful day at the Central, Anderston, Calton, Gorbals, and Cowcaddens Offices at 10 a. m.; and about 350 cases are disposed of on an average every day, about one-third being due to drunkenness. The bailie of the river and Firth of Clyde holds a court in the hall in Robertson Street on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at 9.30 a.m. The police force and fire brigade are separately noticed. A new office for the marine division is to be erected in M'Alpine Street.

Prisons.—The first prison of Glasgow is said to have been in a dungeon attached to the cathedral, but mention is made as early as 1454 of a tolbooth at the NW corner of the High Street and Trongate, on the site of the present Cross Steeple, but no account of it has been preserved. There was also a prison known as 'the heicht tolbuyth' in the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century. The Cross Tolbooth, having become decayed and ruinous, was pulled down in 1626, and a new one erected. Franck's account of this latter building has been already noticed. M 'Ure describes it as 'a magnificent structure, being of length from E to W sixty-six foot, and from the S to the N, twenty-four foot eight inches; it hath a stately staircase ascending to the justice court hall, within which is the entry of a large turnpike or staircase ascending to the town council hall, above which there was the dean of gild's hall. . . . The first story of this great building consists of six rooms, two whereof are for the magistrates' use, one for the dean of gild's court, and another for the collector of the town's excise. . . . In this great building are five large rooms appointed for common prisoners; the steeple on the E end thereof being one hundred and thirteen foot high, adorned with a curious clock, all of brass, with four dial plates; it has a large bell for the use of the clock, and a curious sett of chymes and timeable bells which plays every two hours, and has four large touretts on the corners thereof, with thanes finely gilded, and the whole roof is covered with lead. Upon the frontispiece of this building is his majesty's arms finely cut out with a fine dial, and below the same is this Latin inscription:—

' "Hæc domus odit. amat. punit, conservat, honorat.
Nequitiam. pacem, crimina, jura, probos." '

The steeple still stands as the Cross Steeple. It is 126 feet high, and the top has flying buttresses meeting and forming an open crown. The old chime contained twenty-eight bells, commencing at F sharp and ending at C natural; but a new chime of sixteen bells was inaugurated on 25 Dec. 1881. They vary in size from 21 to 40 inches, with notes G, A, B flat, B, C, D, E flat, E, F, F sharp, G, A, B flat, B, C, D. There is a chiming apparatus, and they are played every day from one to two, and from six to seven o'clock. The old steeple bell passed to Calton parish church, and has now been placed in the Kelvingrove Museum. The building erected in 1626 remained in use down to the beginning of the present century. After the Reformation the house of the prebendary of Cambuslang was fitted up as a house of correction, but became unsuitable about 1790; and in 1792 a building in High Street was used instead, but was discontinued when the North Prison was erected.

The North Prison is on the N side of Duke Street, a short distance to the E of High Street. The first erection passed into the hands of the authorities in 1798, and was greatly enlarged in 1823-24. The prison is now an assemblage of plain, strong buildings within an enclosure surrounded by lofty walls. Three of the blocks of building were erected prior to 1854. It contained, at that time, 26 rooms or cells for debtors, 386 cells for male criminals, 200 cells for female prisoners, a chapel, baths, store rooms, and all other requisite prison appliances. It underwent considerable enlargement in 1870-72, but was found in August 1874 to be still insufficient for the increasing number of prisoners, and between that date and 1880 it underwent great alteration and enlargement.

The South Prison is on the W side of the Saltmarket, near the river, to which it has its S flank, while the main front is towards Glasgow Green. It was erected in 1814 at a cost of £34,800, and is a quadrangular pile measuring 215 feet along the front, and 144 from E to W. It has in the centre of its main front a lofty Doric portico, with a double row of fluted columns - six in front and four behind - with corresponding pilasters. There is a plain frieze and a tympanum with the city arms. The imposing appearance of the portico is, however, much marred by the low ground on which it stands. At each end of the main front is a projecting wing, with a double pair of pilasters. It is enclosed by massive iron railings. It originally provided accommodation for the circuit justiciary court, for the county court, and for the municipal courts and offices; but in 1840 it was found too small for so many bodies, and was altered and adapted so as to leave it almost entirely devoted to the purposes of the two divisions of the circuit court of justiciary, which sit here in what are known as the Old Court and the New Court. It had originally 122 cells for prisoners, but has been found to fall so far short of modern ideas, that since 1862 it has been legalised for criminal prisoners only, on the condition that no one should be detained in it longer than forty-eight hours at one time. The prison accommodation being still too small, a large new prison has been erected at Barlinne on the Cumbernauld Road to the E of the city; but as it is without the municipal boundary, it falls to be noticed under Lanarkshire.

Exchanges.—A public newsroom, for the perusal of newspapers and other periodicals, was opened in Glasgow about 1770, but conferred its benefits upon only a few. A coffee-room or exchange reading-room was founded in the Tontine buildings at the Cross in 1781, but was gradually superseded by the Royal Exchange, and became extinct about 1870. The Royal Exchange stands in an open area called Exchange Square, on the W side of Queen Street opposite Ingram Street. The site was formerly occupied by a house belonging to Cunningham of Lainshaw, which was bought by the New Exchange Company and converted into offices, to which the other buildings were added. The structure, which is one of the finest in Glasgow, was erected in 1829 at a cost of £60, 000. The style is Corinthian, and in front is a magnificent octostyle portico, with a double row of columns. Behind this and extending half-way down each side are five pilasters with a rich cornice, and from this to the W end of the building is a colonnade with fluted Corinthian pillars. There is a cyclastyle lantern clock-tower, with a low-domed roof. The principal apartment is a great newsroom, 130 feet long, 60 wide, and 30 high, with an arched roof panelled and decorated, and supported on two rows of Corinthian columns. There are also a number of smaller apartments, used as magazine-room, newspaper file consultingroom, merchants' office, key-room, secretary's room, salerooms, telegraph office, and underwriters' office. The subscription is £2, 10s. from members who have residences or offices within six miles of it, and £1, 10s. from others, and it is free for four weeks to strangers introduced by a subscriber, and always to officers in garrison. The wide paved space on both sides communicates with Buchanan Street through openings spanned by Doric archways.

The Old Stock Exchange stands behind the National Bank, on the W side of Queen Street to the S of the Royal Exchange. It is a plain building, erected in 1846- The New Stock Exchange is situated between the Western Club and St George's Church, at the SE corner of St George's Place and Buchanan Street, and was erected between 1875 and 1877 at a cost of £45, 000, including site- It has at the SE corner a highly ornamented tower, rising to a height of 112 feet. The frontage to George Street is 85 feet and to St George's Place 74 feet, the height embracing three stories. The façade is supported at the street by Gothic pillars, and above the arches, carried on these, runs a broad band of carved lattice work, somewhat after the Moorish fashion. The two upper flats also show traces of Gothic feeling, and the wall is surmounted by a stone balustrade with carved supports. The ground floor is occupied by shops; on the first floor is the great hall, 60 feet long, 50 wide, and 32 high. The Clearing House, which occupies the greater part of the top story, measures 80 by 50 feet, and is lighted from the top by a large glass dome. There are also a large reading-room and a telegraph office, besides a number of smaller apartments. The Corn Exchange stands at the corner of Hope Street and Waterloo Street. It is an Italian building, erected in 1842, and contains a hall 60 feet long and 57 wide. The Telephonic Exchange is at the corner of Douglas Street and Sauchiehall Street. Post Office. - In 1736 the Post Office was in Princes Street, then called Gibson's Wynd or Lane. It was removed to St Andrews Street about 1800, and again in 1803 to back premises in a court at 114 Trongate. In 1810 it was again moved to convenient premises in South Albion Street, which were rented by the government from the then postmaster. It was thereafter in small premises in Nelson Street, which were found inconvenient, and in 1840 it was removed first to Wilson Street and then to larger but very plain buildings in Glassford Street, where it remained till 1856, when it was removed to Manhattan Buildings, at the corner of South Hanover Street and George Square. The building it then occupied was a very plain Italian erection, very poor as compared with the amount of business done or the great importance of the city. It was in 1872 extended by a very plain wing to the E, but complaints nevertheless still continued as to the utter inadequacy of the old structure, and at length in 1876 the buildings and ground to the E of the old Post Office towards South Frederick Street were acquired by government, and designs prepared for the present buildings, and they have since been entirely reconstructed. They now embrace the whole space between South Hanover Street and South Frederick Street, down each of which they extend for half the distance of the whole street, while the main front is to George Square. The style of the new buildings is Italian, very plain and severe, but handsome and dignified. The front extends to a length of 190 feet and the length along the side streets is 120 feet; the height is 75 feet, divided into four stories. All along the top of the front and flanks is a massive cornice, with panelled balustrade and a series of carved vases. In the centre is a pediment crowned with the royal arms. In the centre of the front is the main entrance and letter boxes, in a lobby entered from the street by three arched openings, with polished granite pillars and entablature. There are also two side entrances, with arches and pilasters. At the sides entering from the George Square lobby are the various departments - the postmaster's office, the telegraph office, the postal and telegraph inquiry office, and the stamp, registered letter, private box, money order and savings' bank offices, and the post restante. Behind and entered by the side door from South Frederick Street is the letter carriers' and sorting department. The basement floor contains the engine-house and pneumatic apparatus together with telegraph batteries. The apartment forming the telegraph machine room is in one of the upper flats. Some of the departments are lit by the electric light. The whole building covers over half an acre, and has cost over £60.000. The foundation-stone was laid by the Prince of Wales in 1876, and the eastern half was built and finished, but the second or western half was finished and occupied only in 1881. There are branch post offices with money order, savings' bank, and telegraph departments at Anderston, Argyle Street, Bridgeton, Charing Cross, Eglinton Street, Fish Market, Hillhead, Hope Street, Kingston, Partick, St Enoch's Square, the Cross and Whitevale, and with telegraph departments only at the Royal Exchange and Stock Exchange. There are also in various parts of the city 25 receiving houses and 73 pillar and wall letter boxes, or 85 inclusive of those in Partick and Hillhead. A century ago the staff consisted of a postmaster, two assistants, and two letter carriers; there are at present (1882) a postmaster, 27 superintendents, assistant-superintendents, and clerks, and 124 sorting clerks, while the distribution of the letters, etc., through the city and suburbs is carried out by 240 carriers, and 17 auxiliary letter carriers, acting under an inspector and 5 assistant-inspectors. The telegraph department is conducted by a superintendent, 5 assistant-superintendents, 16 clerks, 280 telegraphists, 21 adult messengers, 38 house messengers, and 132 docket messengers. The first regular Edinburgh mail coach was started in 1758, letters before that being conveyed on foot or on horseback, and the first London mail coach about 1790; there are now 30 despatches and over 50 arrivals every day to and from various parts of the kingdom, while mails are made up for and arrive from all parts of the world at intervals varying from a week to a month. In 1838 the number of letters and packets that passed through it was 22,834, and the money orders granted numbered 1469, of the value of over £1922, while the number of letters, newspapers, post cards, and book packets that pass through it now average about a million and a half every week, while the number of money orders averages now about 80, 000, of the value of nearly £180,000 per annum. The number of telegraph messages that pass through average about two and a half millions per annum.

Revenue Offices.—The Inland Revenue Office is near the S end of Queen Street, on the W side. It is a plain but rather handsome building, erected by the Clydesdale Bank in 1854, and sold to Government in 1858. lt has since become insufficient for the amount of business done, especially with regard to the collection of taxes, and will shortly be replaced by new buildings, on a site purchased in 1881 at the corner of George Street and Hanover Street, the plans of which have just (1882) been prepared, and which is expected to be ready for occupation in 1884. The new buildings are to be Italian in style, and will form a handsome addition to the district in which they are to be erected. They will have a frontage of 90 feet to each street. The height will be 60 feet, and at the corner is a tower terminating in a Mansard roof. The telling-room, to be used for the collection of taxes and excise duties, will be 86 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 22 feet 6 inches high. There is also a large room for the sale of stamps, and rooms for the collector, surveyors of taxes, supervisors, and other officers of the excise branch. They are to cost about £20,000.

The Custom House.—The first custom house was erected about the beginning of the 17th century, for in 1601 the council 'ordainit ane lytill custome hous to be biggit upoun the Brigend.' The present building is in Great Clyde Street, on the terrace between Glasgow Bridge and the Suspension Bridge. It dates from 1840, but has neither the size nor the appearance worthy of the importance of Glasgow and of the large revenue here collected.

Market Places.—The flesh and fish markets, which dated from the middle of the 18th century, were in King Street, and were long regarded as both spacious and handsome, but they were gradually forsaken, for as the wealthier classes moved westward the butchers and fishmongers followed them and occupied ordinary shops, and, the old markets being deserted, were used for different purposes, and were not replaced by other buildings destined for the same purposes. The wholesale fishmarket, originated in connection with clearances made by the City Improvement Trust, and, occupying the space between Guildry Court off Bridgegate and the property known as Park Place, at the corner formed by Bridgegate, Stockwell Street, and East Clyde Street, is most conveniently situated with reference to the river traffic and to the line of the Union railway. It was constructed between 1872 and 1875, and covers an area of about 160 by 90 feet. The walls, rising to a height of two stories, are surmounted by an iron roof, which at the ridge rises to a height of 90 feet. There are good frontages containing shops both to the N and to the S. In the interior are thirty stalls on the ground floor, and there is a gallery all round for the storage of boxes. The City Bazaar adjoins the S side of the City Hall, and has entrances from Candleriggs, Canon Street, and Stirling Square. It occupies the site of the old Glasgow Bowling Green, and covers an area of 2377 square yards. The buildings are low, and are partly open to the sky. All through the week, but more particularly on Saturday evenings, it is the scene of a very great amount of traffic, for it serves for the sale of butcher meat, poultry, ham, butter, eggs, vegetables, fruit, flowers, shoes, second-hand books, toys, and almost all ordinary commodities. The old clothes market occupies a space shaped like the letter L, between Greendyke Street and Lanark Street, near the W end of the Green. The principal front is that to Greendyke Street, which is plain Italian in style. One limb of the L is 78 feet long and 70 wide, while the other is 172 feet long by 63 ½ wide. The building is divided into stalls and fitted with galleries, is lighted mainly from the roof, and has ample lavatory and other conveniences promotive of the greatest possible cleanliness. It was erected in 1875, and superseded an unsightly structure at the foot of the Saltmarket. The dog and bird market is at the N side of the South Prison. It contains accommodation for dealers in dogs, fancy birds, poultry, pigeons, rabbits, etc.

The Cattle Market.—In 1740 the cattle market was outside the West Port, a little to the westward of the Trongate end of Stockwell Street, and at that time beef was 2d. a pound; but in 1818 it was transferred to the ground, nearly ¾ mile E of the Cross, intended for the formation of Graham's Square off the Gallowgate, where at that time 9281 square yards were enclosed by a stone wall, and cattle sheds, sheep pens, and other conveniences provided. It now occupies an area of over 36,000 square yards, has excellent arrangements of stalls and other appliances, and serves for the sale of about 500,000 head of live stock in the year. Great alteration took place between 1878 and 1882, when the dead meat market, the horse bazaar, bank premises, and the new gateway were all completed at a cost of £44,000. In addition to the area mentioned above, the dead meat market covers 3689 square yards. The total home carcases exposed in it yearly for sale number about 90,000, besides about 27,000 American. The principal abattoir is in Moore Street at the W side, which immediately adjoins railway communication. Under the authority of an act obtained in 1865, it was greatly enlarged and improved in 1868-70, and is now one of the most extensive and efficient abattoirs in Great Britain, and there are others at Milton Street and Victoria Street on the S side. The first covers a space of 12, 482 square yards, exclusive of the adjoining house property also belonging to the Markets' Trust; the second, a space of 2968 square yards; and the third, a space of 4260 square yards, exclusive of adjoining house property. The Milton Street and Victoria Street establishments were opened in 1868, and have since been added to. The total number of animals slaughtered at Moore Street is about 190, 000 per annum, at Milton Street about 55,000, and at Victoria Street about 42,000. The market places and abattoirs are managed by the town council in the capacity of market commissioners, under consolidated powers granted by the 'Glasgow Markets and Slaughter-houses Acts, 1865, 1871, and 1877.' For the year ending 31 May 1882 the ordinary revenue was £19,366, 15s. 8d., the ordinary expenditure £12,887, 12s. 10d., the extraordinary revenue £543, 15s. 6d., the extraordinary expenditure £5034, 7s. 8d., the assets £226,350, 3s. 11d., and the debts £159,177, 0s. 3d. The borrowing powers of the Commissioners are £180, 000, of which £20,822, 19s. 9d. remain still unexhausted. By the Act of Parliament 16s. 6d. per cent. has to be set aside every year as a sinking fund for the extinction of the whole debt in fifty years, but the surpluses already applied to this purpose since 1878 amount to £29,976, 0s. 3d. , or at the rate of £3 7/8 per cent. per annum.

Public Halls.—The Old Assembly Rooms were on the N side of Ingram Street, between Hanover Street and Frederick Street- They have now been long diverted from their original purpose, and give accommodation to a public library and newsroom called the Athenæum. The building was founded in 1796, and cost £4800, the cost being defrayed by £20 shares on the Tontine principle. It was probably considered a very handsome building at the time, but nowadays looks poor and dingy. There is a heavy Ionic centre, with lighter wings. The City Hall stands on the E side of Candleriggs, close to the Bazaar. It is externally of a poor and mean description, showing little but a large door and a very homely, not to say unsightly, porch over the pavement. The large hall, which is used for great public meetings of almost every description and for Saturday evening concerts for the working-classes, rests on a series of massive stone pillars and strong arches on the N side of the Bazaar, and contains accommodation for about 3000 persons. It has a platform, galleries, an orchestra, and a very powerful organ. There are also a small hall, committee rooms, and a well-constructed kitchen. Proposals for the improvement of this hall and the Bazaar, as well as for the widening of the adjoining streets, are at present being considered. The St Andrew's Halls in the W end present frontages to Berkeley Street, Granville Street, and Kent Road, and belong to a limited liability company, with a capital of £80,000. The buildings, which are very handsome, were erected between 1874 and 1877, at a cost of about £62,500. There are two floors and an entresol. The chief entrance is by a triple door from Granville Street. On the ground floor is a vestibule 29 by 28 feet, an inner octagonal hall 36 feet in diameter, two side halls each 75 by 40 feet and 30 feet high. On the E side is the main or grand hall. On the N side of the same floor is a series of retiring rooms for ladies, and on an entresol above these a series of rooms for ordinary meetings. On the upper floor are two halls, each 70 by 54 feet, and a complete suite of arrival and retiring rooms. On the basement floor are artistes' rooms, servants' waitingrooms, kitchen, keeper's residence, and store-rooms. The main hall contains a large organ, an orchestral platform for 100 performers, a chorus gallery for 500 singers, and accommodation for an audience of 3000 persons. The Queen's Rooms stand in La Belle Place, adjacent to the Claremont entrance of Kelvingrove Park, and off the N side of the W part of Sauchiehall Street. They were erected in 1850, and have a massive appearance. The style is modified classic- On the N and E fronts are a number of admirable sculptures by Mossman. On the E front on the frieze is a series of tableaux emblematic of the rise, progress, and culmination of civilisation, and over the windows are fine medallions of James Watt, David Hamilton, Sir Joshua Beynolds, Flaxmau, Handel, Sir Robert Peel, and Burns, representing respectively Science, Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Music, Politics, and Poetry. On the frieze of the N front Minerva is represented receiving the homage of figures representing the arts and sciences. In the interior are a large hall and several small ones all tastefully decorated. These are used for assemblies, concerts, and miscellaneous entertainments. What is now called the Assembly Rooms is a very plain building in Bath Street.

The Corporation Galleries are on the N side of Sauchiehall Street, between Rose Street and Dalhousie Street. They were erected in 1854 by Mr Archibald Maclellan for the reception of a rich collection of paintings which he proposed to bequeath to the public as the commencement of a Glasgow Gallery of Art. Mr Maclellan died before the buildings were finished, and they were purchased by the corporation along with the pictures in 1856. The buildings, which are plain Italian in style, are very extensive, and contain halls for concerts and assemblies, galleries for pictures and sculpture belonging to the city, and accommodation for the Government School of Art and Haldane Academy. The paintings and sculpture are contained in six rooms, and among the examples are many of the greatest interest and importance. There are also in floor cases many objects of art, including a number of very fine examples of Japanese work of different kinds, a number of the specimens having been presented by the Japanese government. The pictures number nearly 500, and consist mainly of pictures belonging to three collections - the original Maclellan one having been supplemented first by Mr William Ewing, who presented 36 pictures, and subsequently in 1877 by Mrs Graham-Gilbert of Yorkhill, who bequeathed to the city the valuable collection of pictures formed by her husband, John Graham-Gilbert, R.S.A., - but there have been numerous other donations and bequests to a smaller extent- Mr J. C. Robinson, F.S.A., Her Majesty's Surveyor of Pictures, who reported on the collection to the town council in the spring of the present year (1882), characterises the collection of authentic pictures by the old masters as 'the most interesting and valuable provincial public collection of such works in the kingdom,' and further says, that the Corporation Gallery will, when better known, ' take rank as a collection of European importance,' and that the pictures of the Venetian school 'would be held to be notable ornaments of any, even the most celebrated galleries.' Among the more important pictures may be mentioned the Woman taken in adultery, by Giorgione, the Virgin and Child enthroned, attributed but doubtfully to the same artist ; the Virgin and Child with Saints, and Danae, by Titian; the Holy Family, two different pictures, by Palma Vecchio; the Holy Family, by Bordone; a very fine painting of the Adoration of the Magi, by Antonello da Messina; the Annunciation, by Botticelli; an Allegory of Abundance, by Rubens; a view, Katwyck, by Ruysdael; Tobit and the Angel, and the Painter's Study, by Rembrandt; a Landscape in Storm, by Hobbema; as well as other genuine works by Rembrandt, Ruysdael, Berghem, Teniers, Cuyp, Wouvermans, Wynants, Adrian Van der Velde, Backhuysen, Van Huysum, Netscher, Vandyck, Willem Van der Velde, Jan Steen, Eglon Van der Neer, Hobbema, and Andrew Both. Among the more modern pictures may be mentioned several portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; the Relief of Lucknow, by T. Jones Barker, with portrait figures of all the leading men engaged; the Death of John Brown of Priesthill, by Thomas Duncan; many pictures by Graham-Gilbert; a Coming Storm, by John Linnell, sen., - a fine picture, where the rush of the wind through the trees can almost be heard; the First Feeling of Sorrow, by Sant; and pictures by Westall, Wilkie, and others. The sculpture embraces 27 pieces, besides casts of some famous pieces of statuary in the lobbies and staircases. The chief examples are the statue of Pitt, by Flaxman; busts by Chantrey, W. Brodie, Mossman, Ewing, and Nollekens; the Nubian Slave, by A. Rossetti; and the Oriental Slave, by Tadolini. The galleries are open to the public on Monday, Friday, and Saturday, free of charge, and on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, which are students' days, at a charge of 6d.

The galleries for the exhibitions of the Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts are on the S side of Sauchiehall Street, and contain rooms for the exhibition of pictures. The design is Greek, plain but dignified, and the walls have panels with sculptures. In the centre, over the entrance, the façade has six fluted Ionic columns, with a pediment surmounted by a statue of Minerva. The building was erected in 1880. The institute has now (1882) 419 members, and assets valued at £17,310, 16s. 11d.

The Trades' Hall and Merchants' House.—The Trades' Hall stands on the W side of Glassford Street confronting Garthland Street. It was begun in 1791, at which time the site cost only 20s. per square yard, and finished in 1794, the total cost being £8000. It has a pleasant façade with Doric columns, sculptures, and Venetian windows, and is surmounted by a fine dome, containing a bell cast by Mears of London in 1796. It contains a vestibule, a main hall, and a number of smaller apartments. The large hall is 70 by 35 feet and 23 feet high, with sitting accommodation for about 600 people; round the sides are the armorial bearings of the trades, and there are also several statues and civic portraits. The erection of a new building is at present under consideration. The trade incorporations of Glasgow date from a very early period, and on several occasions have taken notable action in civic affairs, particularly in connection with the preservation of the cathedral, which is alluded to hereafter. The incorporations take their rise from the regulations made by the magistrates for the conduct of trades within the burgh, and for the provision of funds 'for the support of the decayed brethren of the crafts and their widows and children.' Before the Reformation the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow, as the superior of the burgh and regality, had enacted or had confirmed regulations made by the magistrates and town council, associating several classes of the craftsmen of Glasgow with the right to elect deacons, collectors, and masters; and after the Reformation charters were granted by the Crown, and seals of cause (i.e., reguations) by the magistrates and councillors of Glasgow incorporating other classes of craftsmen. The present incorporations are hammermen, tailors, cordiners, maltmen, weavers, bakers, skinners, wrights, coopers, fleshers, masons, gardeners, barbers, dyers. All these were represented in the beginning of the 17th century, except the gardeners; and at that time there was also an incorporation of bonnet-makers. The masons claim to be the oldest, relying on a royal charter from Malcolm III., dated 1057, and said to have been discovered among the archives of the Glasgow Masonic Lodge of St John's in the beginning of the present century; but the authenticity of the document is more than doubtful. This incorporation originally included the coopers and the wrights, but the coopers became a separate body in 1567, and the wrights (whose numbers include wrights, glazing-wrights, boat-wrights, painters, bowyers, and sawyers) in 1600. The cordiners (including tanners) were incorporated before 1460, the skinners and furriers in 1518, the weavers in 1528, the hammermen (including goldsmiths, silversmiths, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, and saddlers) in 1536, the bakers previous to 1556, the fleshers in 1580, the dyers and bonnet-makers in 1597, and the barbers in 1656. The original charter of the gardeners is lost, as their deacon died of plague in 1649, and his papers were destroyed, but their present seal of cause bears date 1790. The total funds of the Trades' House, including those of the incorporations, amount to about £250,000, most of the revenue from which is expended in charitable allowances to decayed members and their families. The first Merchants' House was a handsome two-story erection in Bridgegate, built between 1661 and 1669. It had a steeple 164 feet high, which still remains, and is now known as the Bridgegate Steeple. The building was sold in 1817 for £7500, and was removed in 1818. The second hall was in Hutcheson Street, and has been already noticed under the County Buildings. From 1869 till 1877 temporary buildings in Virginia Street were used till the present Merchants' Hall, which was erected between 1874 and 1877 at the NW corner of George Square, was ready for occupation. It is in a mixed Italian style, and resembles the Bank of Scotland which it adjoins, but is somewhat more elaborate. The building has three stories, besides basement and attics, the principal external feature being a large tower at the corner of George Square and George Street, which rises to a height of 122 feet, and terminates in a dome surmounted by the insignia of the house - a globe surmounted by a ship. There is also a smaller tower at the western end of the block. The frontage to George Square is 96 feet, as also is that to George Street. Inside are a main hall, a dining hall 29 by 25 feet, a board room 21 feet square, and numerous business and private rooms besides. The main hall, which is adapted for assembly purposes, measures 61 by 33 feet 6 inches, and the height, which extends from the second floor to the roof, is 52 feet to the ridge. The roof is of open pitch pine, with corbels showing emblematic figures. It is lighted by oriel windows and an octagonal lantern. The orchestra occupies a recess about 12 feet from the floor. The basement contains strong rooms, and in the centre of the block is a well-hole for light and ventilation. The site cost £31,998, and the building itself has cost over £35,000. There were merchant burgesses in Glasgow at a very early date, and the office of dean of guild, like that of deacon convener of the trades, dates from 1605. The Merchants' House is entirely an open corporation, any gentleman paying £l0 of entry-money being admissible to the membership and privileges. For 1881 the revenue was £7552, and the expenditure £5426, while the stock amounted to £220,403. The Merchants' and Trades' Houses, in their corporate capacity, take a prominent part in almost every measure affecting the city, and jointly they return the members of the dean of guild court.

In the present Merchants' House building are also the offices of the Chamber of Commerce, which was incorporated by royal charter in 1793, and at present numbers over 900 members, representing the principal merchants, manufacturers, and shippers in the city and neighbourhood. It is recognised as the medium of communication with the government and legislature on all commercial questions.

Professional Halls.—The Procurators' Hall stands behind St George's Church, with fronts to St George's Place and West Nile Street. It is an elegant edifice in the Italian style, erected in 1856. The ornamentation is very florid but picturesque. On the keystones of the doors and windows are carved heads, by Handyside Ritchie, of the distinguished lawyers and law lords, Rutherford, Cockburn, Jeffrey, Moncrieff, Millar, Reddie, Duncan Forbes, Kames, Stair, Erskine, Blair, Brougham, and Mansfield. This is the place where public sales of heritable property take place. The business hall is on the lower floor, and measures 59 by 30 feet, and is 17 feet high. The library is on the upper floor, and has the same length and breadth as the business hall. It is divided into three portions by two rows of square Corinthian pillars which run lengthwise. The Faculty of Procurators was incorporated by charter in 1796, and the number of members is now (1882) 230. The Physicians' and Surgeons' old hall stood on the E side of St Enoch's Square, and was a two-story structure, with rusticated basement, pillars, and balustrade. The new hall is in St Vincent Street, and is a large Italian building. The Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow was incorporated by royal charter granted by James VI. in 1599. It was recognised by the Medical Practitioners' Act of 1858, and has now (1882) 97 resident fellows and 84 resident licentiates. The Accountants' Hall is in a plain Italian building in West Nile Street.

Libraries.—Stirling's and Glasgow Public Library is a plain but substantial building erected in 1864 in Miller Street. The Glasgow Public Library was long in George Street, and afterwards in Bath Street, but was amalgamated with Stirling's Library in 1871. The latter collection of books was founded in 1791 by the late Walter Stirling, merchant in Glasgow, and has since received many very valuable additions from various donors, the last addition of great importance being the valuable library of books and manuscripts belonging to the late Dr Scoular. It is estimated that the library contains about 50,000 volumes, including a full set of. the publications of the Patent Office, for the consultation of which, as also of other books, free of charge, accommodation is provided in the library hall. The life subscription to the lending department is £5, 5s.; the annual subscription, 10s. 6d. The library is open from 10 a. m. till 10 p. m. The managing directors are chosen from the Town Council, from the Presbytery of Glasgow, from the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, from the Merchants' House, and from the subscribers. The Athenæum, instituted in 1847, occupies the Old Assembly Rooms in Ingram Street. Its aim is ' to furnish the fullest and most recent information on all subjects of general interest, whether commercial, literary, or scientific; to provide an agreeable place of resort in the intervals of business; to excite, especially among young men, a taste for intellectual and elevating pursuits; and to secure the means of gratifying that taste by affording the utmost facilities for systematic study in the various branches of knowledge.' It includes a library containing about 11,000 volumes, a reading-room amply supplied with telegraphic intelligence and with the leading newspapers and magazines, and amusement rooms for billiards, chess, and other games. The subscription for life members is £15, 15s. , and for annual members £1. The winter classes are attended by over 700 students. The last annual report shows for 1881-82 membership of 1152, an income of £880, 12s., liabilities amounting to £226, 8s. 4d., and assets worth £1114, 2s. The Mitchell Library, which at present occupies premises in East Ingram Street, was founded in terms of a bequest by the late Mr Stephen Mitchell, who died in 1874, and left the sum of £67,000 for the institution of a large library, to be accessible to the public free of charge. The trustees have wisely expended their funds hitherto in the formation of the library and not on elaborate buildings. The library was opened in the end of 1877, by which time the available funds were £70,000. It is open daily from 9.30 a. m. till 10 p. m., and contains about 41,000 volumes. The books may not be taken away, but are to be read in the library, which has been furnished with chairs and tables for the purpose. To the magazine-room are supplied more than 180 of the principal weekly, monthly, and quarterly periodicals, including a number from America, Germany, and France. The admission is free, and no introduction or guarantee is required. The scene presented by the library is somewhat striking; sitting reading side by side may be seen well-dressed gentlemen, plainly-attired working men, and squalid ragged-looking urchins from the East End, all on the same level and with equal rights and privileges in the stores of knowledge. The only request that is made is for clean hands - not a high price for the value of the commodity supplied. The library is managed by a committee of the Town Council. The number of readers is often largely in excess of the accommodation provided. In 1879 the average number of volumes consulted daily was 1237; in 1880, 1269; in 1881, 1315; for 1882, up to 21 Oct., 1336, exclusive of periodicals in the magazine-room. The expenditure for the year ending 31 May 1882 was £2852, 1s. 2d., and the amount of stock held £65,386, 7s. The Mitchell bequest has practically supplied a free public library, and great additional aid in the same direction will be given when the Baillie Fund becomes available in 1884. This consists of a sum of £18,000, given in 1863 by Mr George Baillie, but not to become available for twentyone years after the date of the deed of gift. This fund was to be applied - first, to 'aid the self-culture of the operative classes from youth to manhood and old age, by furnishing them with warm, well lighted, and every way comfortable accommodation at all seasons for reading useful and interesting books in apartments of proper size attached to one or more free libraries provided for them;' and second, 'for the instruction of children of the same class in unsectarian schools gratuitously or on payment of very small fees.' The libraries are to be open on Sundays- The Dean, Council, and Clerk of the Faculty of Procurators in Glasgow are perpetual preceptor, patrons, and directors of the institution, which was incorporated by royal charter in 1867. The Glasgow Central Working Men's Club and Institute in Trongate has for its object the promotion of the social, moral, and intellectual welfare and recreation of the industrial classes, and attempts to carry this out by the provision, first, of a large reading-room well supplied with the leading Scotch, English, and Irish newspapers, and with magazines and other periodicals; second, of recreation rooms where billiards, chess, draughts, etc., may be played. The club is open from 9 a. m. till 10.30 p. m., and the annual subscription is 5s.; monthly, 6d.; visitors, 1d. The Bridgeton Working Men's Club and Reading-Room, with similar objects, is open from 9 a.m. till 10 p.m. The library contains about 2000 volumes, the reading-room is well supplied with newspapers and periodicals, and there are halls for the usual games. The annual subscription is 5s.; half-yearly, 2s. 6d.; monthly, 6d., or including library, 8d.; visitors, 1d. The Calton, Mile-End, and Bridgeton Mechanics' Institution, in Canning Street, has for its object instruction in the sciences, particularly in their practical application. Connected with it are classes for music, French, German, botany, elocution, arithmetic, mathematics, phonography, grammar, and composition. The library contains 3000 volumes, and the reading-room is supplied with the leading newspapers and magazines. It is open daily from 8 a. m. till 10 p. m. The annual subscription to the reading-room is 5s.; quarterly, 1s. 6d.; to the library, annually, 4s.; quarterly, 1s. The large and valuable library at the Uni versity is noticed under that head. There are also libraries in connection with the Philosophical Society, the Institute of Engineers, and the Ruskin Society.

Museums.—The Hunterian Museum at the University and the museum at the Andersonian University are noticed under those headings, and there falls to be noticed here only the public Industrial Museum in the West End Park. This, the Kelvingrove Museum, stands close to the Kelvin at the SW corner of the park, and is formed of two parts. That to the N is the old mansion-house of Kelvingrove, which was altered and adapted for this purpose as well as possible in 1871. It has since been enlarged by the erection of a new wing running E and W at its S end. The old part contains four galleries, each measuring 40 feet by 18 ½, and contains specimens in natural history, manufacturing products, and miscellaneous curiosities. The new part, which was erected between 1874 and 1876 at a cost of about £10, 000, is a plain massive building in the Doric style. The principal entrance is to the E, and the pediment is surmounted by a huge but ill-designed and ill-proportioned figure of Minerva. The entrance hall is fitted up with columns and panels on which are bronze ornaments. The S and N walls have entablatures surmounted by balustrades, with pedestals at intervals, and are pierced by seven windows.The W wall is rustic ashlar, with an entablature. The large hall in this new wing is 100 feet long and 40 wide, with galleries all round 14 feet above the floor. The galleries at the sides are 11 ½ feet wide and at the ends 15 feet wide. The room is lit partly from the roof, partly by the side windows. It contains specimens of all the industries carried on in Glasgow, the examples illustrating the processes in all the stages from the crude to the finished production. At the W end is a room, 40 feet long by 20 wide, fitted up as an aquarium, with 16 tanks containing specimens of the various fresh water fishes found in Scottish lakes and streams. Outside, at the SW corner of the building, is an old walking-beam engine constructed by James Watt. There is a small museum of rock specimens and fossils in connection with the Glasgow Geological Society.

Barracks.—Up to nearly the end of last century the troops stationed in Glasgow were billeted on the inhabitants, but in 1795 the old infantry barracks, on the N side of the Gallowgate, to the E of the Cross, were erected. They cost £15, 000, comprised a spacious parade ground, and provided accommodation for 1000 men. In 1821 cavalry barracks were erected on the W side of the upper part of Eglinton Street in Gorbals. These were disused in consequence of no cavalry being quartered in the city, and in 1850 they were sold to the Parochial Board of Govan, and were converted into a poorhouse. Shortly after this the infantry barracks were pronounced unsuitable as regarded situation, arrangement, and desirable or requisite appliances for convenience, comfort, and health, and it was decided to remove them. In 1869 the government fixed on a site of 30 acres at Garrioch, near Maryhill, about 2 ½ miles from the centre of the city, and accepted estimates of £100,000 for the erection of new barracks. A dispute with the contractor stopped all work from 1871 to 1873, when the War Office purchased an additional 27 acres to the SW of the former site, and took the extension and completion of the works into their own hands, the operations being carried out under the superintendence of the Royal Engineers. The buildings were finished in 1876, and accommodation is now provided for a regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, and a battery of field artillery. The infantry barracks are to the SE, and consist of three blocks two stories in height for the married men, and four three-story blocks for single soldiers, accommodation being provided for 824 men - about 90 married and 734 unmarried - and 38 officers in the officers' quarters. The infantry parade is in front to the N. The cavalry and artillery barracks are to the W of the infantry parade ground, and consist of seven blocks - two for married men and five for the single men and for stables. There is accommodation for altogether 302 men - 32 married - and 12 officers; cavalry, 148 men and 6 officers; royal artillery, 154 men and 6 officers. The stables have room for 104 horses and 10 officers' horses belonging to the cavalry, and for 96 horses and 9 officers' horses belonging to the artillery, while a separate building accommodates 14 sick horses, and provides cover for 8 field guns. The cavalry and artillery parade ground lies to the N of their barracks. There are buildings for officers' quarters and guardrooms, for staff-sergeants' and married Sergeants' quarters, and for quarter-masters' stores, barrack stores, and washing-houses, as well as an extensive canteen, amusement-rooms, library, reading- rooms, chapel, schoolrooms, gymnasium, etc. To the W of the infantry barracks is an hospital, with accommodation for 60 patients, and the prison has cells for 21 offenders. The ground to the SW towards the Kelvin, and embracing a third of the whole site, is used for exercise ground.

Theatres.—The first theatre in Glasgow was a temporary booth, fitted up in 1752, in the ruins of the Archbishop's palace or castle, but was superseded in 1762 by a regular theatre erected in the district then known as Grahamstown. It stood on ground now occupied by the Central railway station, and was opened in 1764 by a company, which included Mrs Bellamy. It seemed doomed to misfortune, for on the opening night it was much damaged by fire, and after a career of varied but generally indifferent success it was burned to the ground in 1782, when the whole wardrobe and properties, valued at £1000, were destroyed. The next theatre, built in 1785, was in Dunlop Street, and was opened by a company that included Mrs Siddons, Mrs Jordan, and other distinguished performers. In the beginning of the present century it was found too small, and a new one was erected, partly by subscription, on the W side of Queen Street, at a cost of £19, 500. It was one of the largest and most elegant theatres then in Great Britain, but it was destroyed by fire in 1829. The Dunlop Street theatre, which had been rebuilt in 1839-40, was now a building of showy but tasteless exterior, with statues of Shakespeare, Garrick, and Mr Alexander. In 1849, during a panic caused by a false alarm of fire. a rush for the doors caused the death of 65 people, and injury to a great many more. It w as destroyed by fire in 1863, but underwent such repair as rendered it still the principal theatre in the city; but it had to be finally relinquished in 1868, in consequence of the operations of the Union Railway Company. The Theatre Royal in Cowcaddens then took its place as the leading theatre. It had been erected in 1867 as a great music hall, called the Colosseum. It was opened in 1869 as the Theatre Royal, and was in 1879 entirely destroyed by fire, the loss amounting to between £35,000 and £40,000. The present Theatre Royal was then erected on its site, and was opened in the end of 1880 with a company, including Miss Marie Litton, Mr Hermann Vezin, and Mr Lionéll Brough. There is no architectural display outside, and no room for it, but inside the structure is worthy of the city. The stage is 74 feet wide and 56 feet deep, while the proscenium is 31 feet wide and 36 feet high. The auditorium, which contains accommodation for about 3200 persons, consists of three tiers of galleries and the pit. Behind the orchestra are rows of stalls, the door to which enters from Hope Street. The balcony, which contains seven rows of seats, is also entered from Hope Street, and so is the upper circle. The pit and amphitheatre are entered from Cowcaddens. The outer vestibule is paved with tesselated marble of various colours and graceful designs, and the interior is handsomely and beautifully fitted up and decorated. There are a number of private boxes, and the usual refreshment and other rooms. The opening was celebrated with great éclat, but the fortunes of the house have not as- yet been very prosperous- When rebuilt it was valued at £25,000, but it has, in Oct. 1882, just been sold for £12,000 to the new Glasgow Theatre and Opera House Company, Limited- The Gaiety Theatre stands at the SW corner of the intersection of West Nile Street and Sauchiehall Street. It was opened in 1874 as a music hall, and was the result of alterations on a block of buildings, which included the Choral Hall, and which was purchased at a cost of £12,500. It resembles internally the Gaiety Theatre in London, and has accommodation for an audience of about 1800. It has since become a theatre, and is now principally the bright and successful home of comic opera and burlesque. A little to the W, on the opposite side of Sauchiehall Street, is the Royalty Theatre in a block of buildings with a good Italian front to Sauchiehall Street; and the Grand Theatre is in Cowcaddens, at the point where New City Road and Garscube Road branch off. The latter is the home of sensation and melodrama. The Royal Princess's Theatre is on the S side in Main Street, Gorbals. It is chiefly devoted to melo and sensation drama. The same building contains the Theatre and a public hall called the Grand National Hall. The front is in the Roman Doric style, with six fluted columns. On the top are six statues, two representing Shakespeare and Burns, and the others allegorical. In West Nile Street, opposite the end of West Regent Street, is Hengler's Cirque. There are also a number of music halls in the city, but they do not call for particular notice.

Banks.—Two years after the Bank of Scotland was established in 1695, the governors attempted to establish a branch in Glasgow, but the effort was unsuccessful, as all the accommodation required by the merchants was in the hands of private bankers or money-changers, who negotiated bills of exchange and provided loans, and the branch was withdrawn in 1698. ln 1731 another effort was made, and after a time with better success, for the company obtained a foothold. The first banking company belonging to Glasgow itself was the Ship Banking Company, now merged in the Union Bank, which was established in 1749, and as trade was rapidly increasing, it seems to have thriven so well, that in 1753 another company started a bank called the Glasgow Arms Bank. It was followed in 1758 by a third, called the Thistle Bank, and in 1809 the Glasgow Banking Company was formed. All these were, it must be remembered, private banks, and it was not till 1830 that the joint stock companies began to be formed. In that year the Glasgow Union Bank, now the Union Bank of Scotland, was founded, and was followed by the Western Bank in 1832, the Clydesdale Bank in 1838, and the City of Glasgow Bank in 1839The failures of the Western Bank and the City of Glasgow Bank have been already referred to. The banking offices of the city in the present year (1882) are the head office of the Clydesdale Banking Company, and 15 branch offices; the head office of the Union Bank of Scotland, and 9 branches ; a principal office of the Bank of Scotland, and 11 branches; a principal office of the British Linen Company Bank, and 13 branches; a principal office of the Commercial Bank of Scotland, and 6 branches; a principal office of the National Bank of Scotland, and 9 branches; the office of the North British Bank; a principal office of the Roy-al Bank of Scotland, and 16 branches; and 5 offices of the National Security Savings' Bank of Glasgow, - in all, 92 banking establishments. There are, besides, the savings' banks in connection with the post office, and no less than 121 branches of the penny savings' bank, 12 public schools banks, and 22 foundry boys' religions society banks, or taking the whole number not only in, but also around Glasgow, there are no less than 214 of these penny savings' banks.

The old head office of the Clydesdale Bank was the building in Queen Street now occupied as the inland Revenue Office. When this was sold to the government in 1858, the bank moved to buildings in Miller Street, which had been erected for and occupied by the Western Bank, which failed in 1857. The structure here was Italian, with a fine façade with an elaborately carved frieze. This, too, proved insufficient for increasing business, and new buildings were erected in St Vincent Place between 1872 and 1874 at a cost of £35,000, the business being transferred thither in the latter year. These stand on the N side of the street, and have a frontage of 134 feet, while they extend backwards from the street for 109 feet. The style is Paladian, and the building is three stories high, the basement being rusticated, the second story Ionic, and the third Corinthian. The entrance portico is two stories high, supported on each side by syenite columns with sandstone Ionic capitals, and on the pediment are the arms of the city of Glasgow, with at each side groups of sculpture representing industry and commerce. The telling-room is 61 by 56 feet and 40 feet high. There are also all the other appurtenances of a great banking establishment. including, of course, an ample safe, the walls of which are of granite, 6 feet thick. The head office of the Union Bank is on the S side of Ingram Street at the N end of Virginia Street, and occupies the site of a famous mansion belonging to one of the tobacco lords. The original building was erected in 1842 by the partners of the Glasgow Bank, now incorporated with the Union. It has since been extensively remodelled. The style is Roman Doric, with base and pillars of polished red granite, the rest of sandstone. The portico is hexastyle, and is surmounted by six statues, representing Britannia, Wealth, Justice, Peace, Industry, and Glasgow, from the chisel of John Mossman. The Bank of Scotland's principal office was formerly on the N side of Ingram Street opposite Glassford Street. It had a good front, and over the entrance was a shield bearing the city arms and supported by two figures. The present building is at the corner of George Square and St Vincent Place, with chief entrance from the latter. It was erected in 1867 and extended in 1874, and is a massive and handsome building. The chief entrance is from, and the principal front to, St Vincent Place, and has an entablature, supported on each side by a massive figure of Atlas, sculptured by William Mossman. The British Linen Company's principal office is at the N corner of Queen Street and Ingram Street, opposite the Royal Exchange. It is of considerable height, and is a specimen of modern Italian architecture of a very ornate kind. At the top is a fine bold balustrade. One of the branches at the corner of Eglinton Street and Oxford Street is also a good building, Italian in style. The principal office of the Commercial Bank is in Gordon Street, between Buchanan Street and West Nile Street. It was erected in 1857, after the model of the Farnese Palace at Rome, and rises to a height of three stories, surmounted by a balustrade. The whole of the front is profusely adorned with rich carvings, after designs by Handyside Ritchie of Edinburgh. The principal office of the National Bank of Scotland is on the W side of Queen Street. It is not very well seen, but the front looks somewhat too rich for the size of it. The style is modern Italian, and is very highly ornamented. The building rises to a height of two stories, the lower being adorned with a range of Ionic columns, and the upper with a similar row in the Corinthian style, surmounted by a rich entablature and cornice. Above the cornice is a group of sculpture, consisting of the royal arms, flanked by a statue on either side-one representing Peace, the other Commerce. Over the doorway are the city arms. The telling-room is large and handsome. The Royal Bank's principal office stands at the W end of Exchange Place, behind the Royal Exchange, by which its handsome front is unfortunately entirely concealed. It is a tasteful and chaste structure in the Ionic style, with a fine hexastyle portico supporting a massive entablature. The interior was greatly altered in 1874 at a cost of £14,000. The telling-room is now 50 by 40 feet, and 40 feet high. This is separated from side spaces, which are only 20 feet high, by screens between a series of Composite columns, the arches of which are filled in with fan-work, surmounted by a cornice and frieze. The office of the North British Bank is in Bath Street, but calls for no particular notice. The principal office of the National Security Savings' Bank, which was established under Act of Parliament in 1836, was originally in John Street, and afterwards in Hutcheson Street. It was then transferred to a building, erected for it in l853 at a cost of £3440, which stood at the N corner of Virginia Street and Wilson Street. It was again removed in 1865 to buildings erected in Glassford Street at a cost of £14,000. The present erection is a plain but substantial three-story block, and is occupied in front by warehouses, the bank being behind, with a wide entrance from Glassford Street. The Savings' Bank was instituted 'to provide for the safe custody and increase of small savings belonging to the industrious classes.' Sums of from 1s. to £30 are received in one year from individuals, and larger sums from societies. The interest allowed is at the rate of £2, 15s. percent. Per annum. The number of depositors has increased from 13,792 in 1842 to 119, 846 in 1882, and in the same time the funds have increased from £176,130, 0s. 5d. to £3,508,049, 19s. 6d. In connection with this institution district penny savings' banks were first established between twenty and thirty years ago, under the late Mr William Meikle, the actuary and cashier, and have had a career of marked success. These banks were established subsequent to 1851, but by 1861 there were in connection with the Glasgow parent establishment 53 banks, with deposits to the amount of £6220, and in 1881 there were over 200 banks, with 60,284 depositors and deposits to the amount of £42,903, and it is calculated that 10,000 of the depositors sometimes visit these places in the course of one evening. The Savings' Bank provides, for the penny branches, cash-books, ledgers, and ordinary cards, either gratis or at a reduced rate, and no doubt reaps a rich reward for its encouragement, in the increased number of depositors drawn from the young people thus trained to save. Many places have copied the Glasgow scheme, and it might with very great advantage be adopted in many more.

Insurance Offices.—There are about 500 insurance offices and agencies in Glasgow altogether, the companies with the greatest number being the Caledonian Fire and Life Insurance Company, which has a principal office and 73 agencies ; the Queen Insurance Company of Liverpool and London, which has a principal office and 56 agencies ; the Standard Life Assurance Company, which has a principal office and 54 agencies ; the Employers Liability Assurance Corporation (Limited), which has a principal office and 30 agencies ; and the General Life and Fire Assurance Company, which has a principal office and 18 agencies. The others have smaller numbers. The City of Glasgow Life Assurance Company's office was formerly in St Vincent Place, but is now on the site once occupied by St Mary's Episcopal Church in Renfield Street. The latter building was erected in 1870-71, and is in the Italian style, with a series of columns serving as piers to the arches of the windows in the centre of its front. The facade has carved decorations, and at its sides are two large niches with colossal statues of St Mungo and St Andrew, the former by Ewing, the latter by W. Brodie. The principal office of the Scottish Widows' Fund and Assurance Society is at the NE corner at the intersection of Renfield Street and West George Street. It is a massive building in the Italian style, with a rusticated basement, and has over the windows a series of sculptured masks with a succession of massive entablatures. Along the top is an open balustrade, surmounted at intervals by vases. Up to 1878 the building also afforded accommodation for the New Club, but this now occupies premises of its own. The Scottish Amicable Life Assurance Society office, on the S side of St Vincent Place, was erected in 1872-73, and is ornate Italian in style. There are three fine statues of Justice, Truth, and Amity, from the chisel of William Mossman. None of the other buildings calls for particular comment.

Clubs.—The Western Club has a clubhouse at the NW corner of the intersection of Buchanan Street and St Vincent Street. The club was formed in 1824. The building, which is extensive and massive, is of a plain Italian style. The principal entrance is from Buchanan Street, under a broad and graceful tetrastyle portico. with square Corinthian columns, and the windows have decorations similar to those of the portico, while the building terminates all round in an imposing entablature. There is a fine vestibule and staircase, and a large and magnificently furnished dining-room ; and indeed the whole of the interior is splendidly fitted up and decorated. The Western Club includes, among its members, most of the noblemen and gentlemen of the West of Scotland. There was a Union Club established in 1837, but it was unsuccessful, and was discontinued in 1855. The New Club was organised about 1865, and till 1878 occupied the greater portion of the Scottish Widows' Fund buildings already described. In 1877 the club acquired ground at what is now 144 West George Street, and erected a clubhouse for themselves at a total cost of about £30,000. The building is modern French in style, and presents to West George Street a front of five stories, besides attics, and of such breadth as to admit of eight windows in each story. There are elegant dining, reading, billiard, and card rooms, as well as fifteen bedrooms, and all the latest appliances for comfort and luxury. The Conservative Club has accommodation in Renfield Street in the building already mentioned as containing the principal office of the Scottish Widows' Fund Insurance Society. There are nine other clubs of a similar nature, but of comparatively little importance.

Railway Stations.—Queen Street station was originally the Dundas Street station of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, opened in 1842. The old station was very dingy, and became thoroughly unsuitable for the large amount of traffic it had latterly to accommodate. Within the last few years great changes have been made, and there are now four double platforms, covered by a glass roof 450 feet long, 80 high, and 250 in span, supported by semicircular lattice girders ; but much still remains to be accomplished before the external frontages will be worthy of the North British system. The cab-stand is at the E side, and beyond are lines and offices for the accommodation of the goods traffic. The chief station of the Caledonian railway is the Central, covering the greater portion of the ground between Gordon Street, Union Street, Argyle Street, and Hope Street, from all of which it is ultimately to have entrances, of which three are already available. The roof is carried on cross iron lattice girders, with a span of 250 feet, and placed about 30 feet apart ; running across these are small ridges with glass, extending for a length of 600 feet. The principal entrance is from Gordon Street, by a large hall containing the booking offices. Along the N and E sides are also the various offices and waiting-rooms. There are four double and two single platforms. The cab-stand is to the W, and the cab entrance is from Hope Street. Along Gordon Street and part of Hope Street imposing buildings for a hotel in connection are fast approaching completion. They are six stories high, with large arched openings below for access to the station. The entrance is at the NW corner, and close to it rises a lofty and massive clock tower. The whole buildings will cost about £700,000, and form a handsome addition to the architectural features of the city. The chief station of the Glasgow and South-Western railway is in handsome buildings on the E side of St Enoch's Square. They are domestic Gothic in style, and rise to a height of five stories, with basement and attic floors besides. A sloping road leads up from the NE corner of the square to the principal entrance to the station, where the roadway is protected by a glass roof. Large doorways lead into a hall containing the booking offices, while the general waiting-room-a large and comfortable apartment-opens off on the right. The offices, etc., are on the S and W sides. There are three double and two single platforms. The cab-stand is on the S side. The glass roof is formed by ridged portions supported on semicircular lattice girders, the covered portion being 525 feet long, 205 wide, and 84 high. At the NE corner is an excellent hotel in connection with the station, the chief entrance being from the station roadway at the NE corner of the square. There is a handsome porch, and the buildings as a whole form one of the most imposing structures in Glasgow. The buildings were partly opened in 1870, and were finished in 1880, the total cost being over £500,000. The Bridge Street station is a high-level station at the S end of Glasgow Bridge, and was, before St Enoch's was opened, the principal station of the Glasgow and South-Western Company. It is now used partly by them and partly by the Caledonian Company as a S side station for trains on their way to the Central. The principal station of the Caledonian Company for their N traffic is a very ungainly and mean building at the N end of Buchanan Street. It is sadly in want of improvement. The other stations at Eglinton Street, College Street, Gallowgate, Shields Road, Terminus Quay, Cathcart Road, Kinning Park, Stobcross, and elsewhere do not call for particular mention.

Hotels.—There are 53 hotels in Glasgow, of which the principal, architecturally—the St Enoch's and the Central-have just been noticed, but many of the others are tasteful and handsome buildings.

Arcades.—Besides the Argyle and Wellington Arcades already mentioned, there is another called the Central Arcade in the block of buildings between Bothwell Street and Waterloo Street and immediately adjoining Hope Street. It has three entrances, one from each of those streets, is oval in shape, and has shops all round. In the centre of the open oval are two spaces where flower beds may be put. It was finished recently, and has as yet only a few of the shops occupied. There is a furniture arcade between Saltmarket and King Street.

Infirmaries, Hospitals, and Dispensaries—The Royal Infirmary was projected in 1787 by George Jardine, professor of logic in Glasgow University. At a public meeting a committee was appointed to collect subscriptions and look for a site, and in 1788 the site of the archbishop's castle was fixed on. In 1791 George III. granted a charter of incorporation, fixing the number of governors at twenty-five, containing among others representatives from the town council and the University ; and the wished-for site having been obtained, the foundation stone of the buildings was laid on 18 May 1792, with great ceremonial and full masonic honours, and in the end of 1793 the first part of the building, which stands to the NW of the Cathedral, was erected. This, the original portion of the existing structure, is a large building in the Roman style, with four stories above ground and one below. In front is a tetrastyle Corinthian portico, and rising above all is a fine ribbed cupola. It contained 15 wards and 283 beds. The second block of buildings, called the fever hospital, with 11 wards and 267 beds, was erected in 1832, stands a little to the N of the former block, and is much plainer. The third building was erected in 1861 at a cost of £12,200 ; but though the actual size is thus increased, rearrangements, rendered necessary by improved ideas of accommodation, have taken away so much of the original supposed space, that accommodation is now provided for only 550 patients in all. The institution is mainly supported by voluntary contributions, which always include a large quota from the working-classes, to whom it renders such good service. It has also a permanent stock capital, which was in 1854 greatly supplemented by a legacy of £10,000 from Mr James Ewing of Strathleven. The affairs of the infirmary are managed by a board consisting at present of 27 members, including the Lord Provost, the members of parliament for the city, the Dean of Guild, the DeaconConvener, 2 representatives from the University, the President of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, and a number of distinguished physicians and surgeons. Connected with it is a medical school, with lecturers on chemistry, anatomy, physiology, surgery, medicine, materia medica, pathology, midwifery, medical jurisprudence, and diseases of the mind. The medical school was founded six years ago under a supplementary charter, and buildings for its accommodation were opened in November 1882. These, which have been erected by public subscription, are immediately to the N of the Infirmary buildings. They are plain Italian, and contain all the necessary accommodation for lectures and work in the shape of disecting-room (67 feet long, 25 wide, and 24 high), osteology-room, laboratories, retiring-rooms, lavatories. New and important features are a students' room, where students may smoke, read, or chat in the intervals of their classes ; and a toxological laboratory for practical instruction in the testing for poisons. The institution of the school was deemed necessary in consequence of the removal of the University and the severance of the old ties between its medical faculty and the infirmary. The infirmary also provides clinical instruction for students attending Anderson's College. The staff consists of 5 physicians, 5 surgeons, 2 dispensary physicians, 3 extra dispensary physicians, 2 dispensary surgeons, 3 extra dispensary surgeons, an aural surgeon, a vaccinator, a dental surgeon, an apothecary, a superintendent, a chaplain, a matron, and the usual complement of nurses and servants. The total number of indoor patients treated has risen from over 4000 in 1861 to over 6000 in 1881 ; and the number of outdoor patients from over 10,000 in 1861 to over 23,000 in 1881, of whom on an average 90 per cent. are cured, while on an average 1000 children are vaccinated every year. The wards are generally full, but now an arrangement exists by which patients are sent from the Royal Infirmary to the Western, or vice versâ., when either has no bed to spare. The ordinary expenditure in 1861 was £9143 ; in 1881 it was nearly £24,000, while in the latter year the ordinary income was under £19,000, and notwithstanding the utmost economy-. and when it is considered that the most recent improvements in nursing and management have been introduced, it is probable that nowhere in the kingdom is there an infirmary where the patients are so well cared for at so little expense-the expenditure has for several years exceeded the income by £4000 on an average every year. The continued strain can be met only in one of two ways, and it is to be hoped that the increased benevolence of the public will prevent the necessity of lessening the number of patients treated.

The Western Infirmary stands on a rising-ground to the W of the new University buildings at Gilmorehill, with the entrance from Dumbarton Road, a little to the W of the bridge over the Kelvin. It was founded in 1871, and part of it completed and opened in 1874. It has now accommodation for about 350 patients. The buildings, which are Jacobean in style, are constructed on the block and pavilion system, and have cost about £100,000. They are 460 feet long from E to W, and 260 feet from N to S, and may be described generally as consisting of nine blocks which intersect one another at three places, the stairs, hoists, and shoots being placed at the intersections. The ventilating and sanitary arrangements are of the most improved description. The wards are lighted by windows at the sides, and vary in size, containing from 14 to 18 beds each. They are 15 feet high, and their width is 26 feet, affording from 105 to 110 square feet of floor-space, and 1575 cubic feet per bed. On the basement is the kitchen, which measures 40 by 26 feet, store-rooms, laboratory, nurses' dining-rooms, etc. To the N are the washing department, engine-room, and heating apparatus. There are also theatres for pathological and post-mortem examinations, and one for operations and lectures, the last with accommodation for 300 persons. It is managed by a board of of 27 directors chosen from various public bodies, and from the general subscribers. It is attended by students from the University and from the Western Medical School. The staff consists of 5 physicians, 4 surgeons, 3 outdoor physicians-accoucheurs, 3 dispensary physicians, 1 extra dispensary physician, 3 dispensary surgeons, 1 extra dispensary surgeon, a pathologist, an aural surgeon, a dental surgeon , a pathological chemist, an apothecary, a superintendent, a matron, nurses, and servants. Accident cases are admitted at any time, and there are special wards for the diseases of women and for skin diseases. During the year ending 31 Oct. 1881, 2648 indoor and 14,456 outdoor patients were treated, and the ordinary income was £13,216, but now that the whole building is occupied, the estimated total expenditure every year will be £17,000, which has to be supplied by voluntary contributions. In connection with the Royal and Western Infirmaries is the Glasgow Convalescent Home at Lenzie, which, however, also admits other patients.

The old City Fever Hospital is in the St Rollox district, SW of St Rollox chemical works. It covers a considerable space, bounded by Baird Street, Black Street, Kennedy Street, and Oswald Street, and consists of eight main detached blocks, besides the usual out-buildings. The new City Fever and Smallpox Hospital is at Belvidere, to the E of the city, S of London Road, and close to the corporation water-work reservoirs. The smallpox hospital was finished in 1877 at a cost of about £30,000. The building consists of five detached pavilions, with out-houses constructed principally of brick. In order that there may be free circulation of air, the enclosing wall is built on a novel plan, being placed in a trench, with the ground sloping up on either side to a height of about three-fourths of the wall. The fever hospital is not yet finished, some of the buildings being still temporary ones. There are eight pavilions entirely detached with out-buildings. It lies to the S of the smallpox hospitals. It is proposed at once to replace some of the temporary buildings by three wards (90 beds), for which contracts have been accepted. There is a joint fever and smallpox hospital for the burghs of Partick, Hillhead, and Maryhill, at Knightswood, about 2 miles to the W of Hillhead. The Glasgow Public Dispensary is in Dundas Street, and was established for the purpose of giving gratuitous advice to poor people not receiving parochial relief. There are clinical classes in connection with it, and patients unable to come to the dispensary are visited by the students at their own homes. The medical staff consists of a consulting physician, a consulting surgeon, and specialists for diseases of the throat and chest, of the kidneys and urinary organs, of the ear and skin, and of women and children. It is entirely supported by voluntary contributions. There is a dispensary connected with Anderson's College within the college buildings. It has a staff of 7 physicians, 6 surgeons, 3 physicians and surgeons for the diseases of women and children, one for diseases of the skin, one for diseases of the eye, one for diseases of the ear, one dispenser, and one superintendent of outdoor visiting department. The objects are the same as in the last institution, and, in 1881, the cases were-medical 4757, surgical 1803, women and children 1427, skin 508, eye 360, ear 377, and outdoor 3628. The Glasgow Eye Infirmary was originally in Charlotte Street, and has still a branch there for East End patients, but in 1873-74 fresh accommodation was provided in the West End, where a building of two stories was erected, with waiting, surgical, dispensing, ophthalmoscopic, and attendants' rooms. It is French Gothic in style, and has a centre and two wings with fronts to Berkeley Street West, and to Claremont Street. It contains 56 beds for operation cases, while the Charlotte Street branch has 24 for the same purpose. There are clinical classes, and the institution is recognised by the faculty of physicians and surgeons as a public dispensary. It is managed by 13 directors, and has 11 gentlemen visitors and 13 lady visitors, and has a house-steward and housekeeper at each branch. The staff consists of a consulting surgeon, 3 surgeons, 3 assistant-surgeons, and - a resident medical clerk. The number of cases treated in 1881 was 10,873. There is also an Ophthalmic Institution in West Regent Street, which treats cases among the poor by performing operations, treating indoor cased, and giving gratuitous advice and medicine to outdoor patients. It is managed by 20 directors, and the patron is the Earl of Stair. Three patients a year may be sent by each subscriber of a guinea a year or donor of £5, at any time. There are clinical classes in connection with it, and the staff consists of a consulting physician, an acting surgeon, an acting physician, 2 clinical assistants, and 2 dispensary assistants. In 1881 there were 3004 outdoor and 318 indoor patients admitted. The Dispensary for Skin Diseases is in Elmbank Street, and is entirely supported by voluntary contributions. It is managed by 9 ordinary and 8 extraordinary directors, the patron being the Duke of Argyll. Gratuitous advice is given three days a week, and in connection with the dispensary are two wards in the Western Infirmary, to which the directors have power to send the more serious cases. There is a summer clinical class in connection with the institution. The staff consists of a physician and an assistant-physician. On an average 1200 patients are treated every year. The Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases of the Ear is in Buchanan Street. It contains 12 beds for indoor cases, and is supported by voluntary contributions. It is managed by 28 patrons. The staff consists of a consulting physician, a consulting surgeon, a consulting dental surgeon, 3 ordinary surgeons and physicians, a lecturer on aural surgery, and a matron. There is clinical instruction for students. The number of patients treated annually is over 1000. The Dispensary for Diseases of the Chest is in Dundas Street. Gratuitous advice is given to poor patients twice a week. The affairs are managed by 4 directors, and the Duke of Hamilton is the patron. The Institution for Diseases of Women and Children is at Woodlands Road. It is supported by voluntary contributions ; and gratuitous advice is given, there being also clinical lectures. The Glasgow Maternity or Lying-in Hospital was established in 1835, and stood originally in St Andrews Square, but was subsequently removed to the corner of North Portland Street and Rottenrow. It was amalgamated with the University Lying-in Hospital in 1873. It is supported by voluntary contributions, each donor of £5, 5s., or annual subscriber of 10s. 6d., being entitled to recommend one patient annually for admission to the hospital. There are also clinical classes. New buildings were erected and opened in 1881. They form a plain but handsome structure in the Early English Domestic Gothic, the principal entrance being from North Portland Street, by an arched doorway with pediment, having the city arms, and the dates when the institution was founded and rebuilt. The building is three stories high, and has attics besides. The basement contains the lecture-rooms, and the resident officials' quarters, etc. ; the second and third floors contain accommodation for 36 patients, and for the nurses, while in the attics are a sanatorium and servants' rooms. In detached buildings are the laundry, washhouse, etc. The affairs are managed by directors chosen from five public bodies, and from the general subscribers. The staff consists of a consulting physician, a consulting surgeon, 2 physicians-accoucheur, 2 assistant physicians-accoucheur, a house surgeon, 6 outdoor accoucheurs, and a matron, with the proper complement of nurses and servants. In 1881 the number of patients aided was 1247. The Lock Hospital in Rottenrow was incorporated by seal of cause from the magistrates in 1805, for the cure of unfortunate females. It is supported by voluntary contributions, and managed by 12 directors, of whom 2 are chosen by the faculty of physicians and surgeons, 1 from the clergy, 1 from the town council. 1 from the Merchants' House, 1 from the Trades' House, and 6 from the general body of subscribers. The average number of patients daily is between 30 and 40, and about 350 are admitted every year. There are 2 acting surgeons. The Glasgow Royal Lunatic Asylum is now outside the city, to the W at Gartnavel, in the parish of Govan. The original Lunatic Asylum was begun in 1810 and opened in 1814, and stood on what was at that time a secluded site in the northern outskirts of the city, but which is now on the N side of Parliamentary Road with all its bustle. It lost the requisite quiet and amenity, first by the tunnelling of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway beneath it, and next by the encroachments of the public streets, and in 1841 was sold for £15,000, to be converted into the City Poorhouse. The present edifice, which is about 1 mile W of the Botanic Gardens, and stands on a broad low eminence commanding a splendid view, was founded in 1842 and opened in 1843, at a cost, including the site of 66 acres, of £75,950. It is a very large, but far from beautiful, pile, in a poor Tudor style. There is accommodation for over 500 patients, from all grades of society, and at all rates of board. The first-class division or West House consists of three sides of a quadrangle, the principal one 492 feet long, and each of the others 186 feet; the second-class division or East House also consists of three sides of a quadrangle, the principal one 285 feet long, and each of the others 196 feet. The Asylum is incorporated by Royal Charter, and managed by a board of 22 directors, partly composed of representatives from various public bodies, and partly appointed by the qualified contributors to the funds. The non-resident staff consists of a consulting physician, a surgeon, and a chaplain, the resident, of a physician, 2 assistant-physicians, 2 matrons, and 3 superintendents, with a proper staff of keepers. There are lunatic asylums connected with the poorhouses, but the Barony Asylum was, in 1873, removed to new buildings at Lenzie, and the Govan one is noticed in the article Govan.

Religious and Philanthropic Societies and Institutions—The Night Asylum and Soup Kitchen for the houseless or utterly destitute is in North Frederick Street. It was first opened in 1837, and now admits yearly about 40,000 persons, and provides nearly 200,000 meals. It is managed by 36 directors, a superintendent, and a matron, and has connected with it a house of industry for indigent women. The House of Shelter in Hill Street was instituted in 1850 as a home for women liberated from prison and desirous to reform and support themselves by honest industry. The house is under the charge of a matron and the inmates are lodged, fed, and clothed in return for their labour at needlework. The average number of inmates is about 46. The Glasgow Institution for Orphan and Destitute Girls has homes in South York Street and Whiteinch each under a matron. It was established in 1826 to rescue orphan and entirely destitute girls, and to give them an education and training fitting them for domestic servants. Quarrier's City Orphan Home, Working Boys' Home, Children's Night Refuge, Young Women's Shelter and Mission Hall is in James Morrison Street. It is in connection with the other home at Bridge of Weir and the training homes for Canada at Govan Road, Govan, and helps on an average nearly 200 young people and children every year permanently, besides a much larger number temporarily. In all the homes there are at present about 430 inmates, and the expense of them all amounts to about £7000 a year entirely supplied by private benevolence. The average income for the last ten years for all has been about £9000 per annum. The Glasgow Home for Deserted Mothers in Renfrew Street was instituted in 1873, and is supported by voluntary subscriptions. It is managed by a board of ten directors and a matron, who looks after the inmates, who are deserted and houseless mothers with helpless infants, or those who have for the first time been led astray. Efforts are afterwards made to procure them situations. The Magdalene institution, incorporated by royal charter, is partly self-supporting, and partly maintained by subscriptions ; and has a probationary home at Stirling Road, where there is accommodation for 50 inmates. The well conducted are transferred thence to the reformatory and industrial house at Lochburn near Maryhill, where there is accommodation for 130 inmates. It is managed by a board of 51 directors. The Asylum for the Blind was originally founded, in 1804, by John Leitch, a citizen of Glasgow, who had suffered injury of sight, and who bequeathed £5000 towards commencing and maintaining the institution. It was for many years watched over by John Alston, one of the city magistrates, who introduced many contrivances for aiding the instruction of the inmates. Since its first start it has been greatly aided by legacies and donations, and now the work done in it is such as to render it almost self-supporting. The buildings are in Castle Street near the Royal Infirmary. They were originally erected by voluntary subscription in 1827-28, but are now being renewed. Those comprising the southern portion of the new structure were completed and opened in Nov. 1882. They contain shops, warehouses, schoolrooms, and dormitories, while the workrooms will be in the northern division, which is still to build. Externally, the buildings are plain, but at the SW angle is a good semi-detached, hexagonal tower. The statue of Christ restoring sight to the blind was presented by Mr C. Tennant of The Glen. The institution is managed by a large board of directors, partly chosen from various public bodies, and partly from the contributors, and includes a school for educational training, and a large manufactory for making baskets, cordage, sacking, and other articles. There are several shops in different parts of the city for the sale of the articles manufactured. The number of inmates is about 160. There is a city mission for the outdoor blind, and connected with it is a ladies' auxiliary association for visiting blind women and teaching them knitting. The mission has under its care about 1100 people. The Glasgow Convalescent Home is at Lenzie, as has been already noticed. There is accommodation for 67 patients, of whom 30 are taken from the Royal Infirmary, 27 from the general public resident in Glasgow and its neighbourhood, and 10 from the Western Infirmary. There are also convalescent seaside homes at Dunoon and Kilmun for the provision of good food, baths, and sea air for the necessitous and deserving of the industrial classes who are recovering from illness. The former has accommodation for 150 and the latter for 100 inmates. Each donor of £10 or annual subscriber of £1 is entitled to recommend one person annually for admission. There are Dorcas Societies in connection with the Royal Infirmary, and in connection with the City of Glasgow and Joint Burghs fever and smallpox hospitals, and a Samaritan Society in connection with the Western Infirmary for the purpose of supplying warm and sufficient clothing and surgical appliances, as well as for giving temporary help to the families of poor patients who are leaving hospital. As an example of their work, it may be mentioned that during 1881-82 the Royal Infirmary Society aided 549 men and 325 women, and had an income of £912, 15s. 9d. and an expenditure of £619, 14s. 1d. The Poor Children's Dinner Table Society provides deserving and destitute children with one meal daily during the winter months. During the winter of 1881-82 eleven tables in different parts of the city were in operation daily, and provided 213,000 dinners, besides a large number of bread tickets given to the children when they were visited at home. The ladies' committee in connection with the society made over 3600 yards of material into different articles of clothing. The income for 1881-82 was £1818, 17s. 2d., and the expenditure £1813, 14s. 11d. The Glasgow Female Benevolent Society was instituted in 1779 to enable a small monthly allowance to a limited number of aged and destitute women (chiefly widows). It is supported by voluntary contributions. The Training Home for Nurses is in Renfrew Street, and was established for the purpose of educating women of high character to nurse the sick. There is accommodation for 20 nurses, 7 private patients, and 20 patients in two wards, with 10 beds in each. The Association for the Relief of Incurables has offices in Bath Street and a hospital at Broomhill Home, Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire, with accommodation for 62 patients ; about 150 patients are also assisted at their own homes every month. The Little Sisters of the Poor have a building known as St Joseph's Home for the Aged, at Garngad Hill. It was founded in 1862, and now contains 225 aged poor of both sexes, entirely dependent on public charity, as the Sisters have no funds. The Sailors' Home is on the Broomielaw. Besides these there is a United Evangelistic Association, an auxiliary to the London Missionary Society, a Working-Men's Total Abstinence Society, an Abstainers' Union, a Scottish Band of Hope Union, a Permissive Bill and Temperance Association, a Branch of the Scottish Temperance League, lodges of the Independent Order of Good Templars, a Branch of the National Bible Society, a West of Scotland Bible Society, a United Young Men's Christian Association,* a Young Women's Christian Association, a Protestant Association, a Protestant Laymen's Association, a Glasgow, a Southern District, a Govan District, a Western, and a Middle District Sabbath School Union, a Foundry Boys' Religious Society, with 90 branches and a membership of 19,000 boys and girls, a Working-Men's Evangelistic Association, a City Mission, with a ladies' auxiliary, a Cabmen's Mission, a Seamen and Boatmen's Mission, a Gaelic Mission, a Medical Mission, a Mission to the Deaf and Dumb, a Continental Society, with a ladies' auxiliary, a Mormon proselytising Mission, an Aged Women's Society, an Association for Providing Trained Nurses for the West of Scotland, branches of the Humane Society and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, a Celtic Society, an Angus and Mearns, an Ayrshire, an Eaglesham, a Caithness, a Clydesdale Upper Ward, a Galloway, a City of Glasgow, a Western, a Loudon, an Orkney and Shetland, a Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan, a Water of Endrick, a North Britons, a Barony of Gorbals, a Kintyre, a Northern Highlands, and a Seaman's Friendly or Benevolent Society, two lodges of Oddfellows, a Court of the Order of Free Foresters, an Association for Organising Charitable Relief, and branches of the St George's, Commercial Travellers', and Scottish Wine and Spirit Merchants' Societies, besides a number of institutions of the same sort connected with various trade incorporations and others of lesser note.

* The Glasgow United Young Men's Christian Association was instituted in 1824, and has Central, Southern, Eastern, Govan. and Partick sections, with 173 branches and a membership of over 7000. There are reading-rooms and educational classes in connection with the sections. The central rooms are on the N side of Bothwell Street where handsome buildings were erected by the association in 1879. They are domestic Early English Gothic. On corbelled niches above the doorway are statues of Knox and Tyndale, and above the windows of the second floor are medallion busts of Luther, Melancthon, Zwingle, Calvin, Wishart, Cranmer, and Wyckliffe.

Charitable Bequest—Mitchell's mortification dates from 1729, and yields about £113 per annum for decayed old men and women, 4 old burgesses, 2 widows, and 2 unmarried daughters of burgesses, all of merchant rank ; and 3 burgesses, 3 widows, and 1 unmarried daughter of a burgess, all of trades rank. The amount of stock in May 1882 was £2692, 14s. 8d. M'Alpine's mortification was founded in 1811 by Mrs M 'Alpine, for the maintenence of poor men and aged women of the description mentioned in her will. The former get £10 a year, the latter £5. The trustees are the deacon, convener, and the ministers of eight of the Established churches. Black's bequest for domestic servants was founded by Dr James Black in 1834. There are about 200 pensioners who are faithful domestic servants settled in Glasgow or its neighbourhood who have been for ten years or upwards in one situation, and each of whom receives £2, 10s. per annum. The Robertson bequest was founded by Miss Robertson in 1844, and affords pensions of £9 a year to each of ten decayed gentlewomen over 45 years of age, unmarried, and who have resided in Glasgow for at least ten years, and pensions of £4, 10s. a year to each of ten female servants over 50 years of age, unmarried, and who have been seven years in one situation in Glasgow, but who, when elected, are out of service. The Ewing bequests were founded in 1860 by James Ewing of Strathleven, the total amount being £30,000, less legacy-duty, the income of which is to be divided-one-third among decayed Glasgow merchants, one-third in educating, training, and settling their sons in business, and the remaining one-third among their widows and daughters. It is under the management of the Merchants' House. Other bequests are noticed elsewhere, and there are a number of minor ones.

Scientific and Literary Societies—The Philosophical Society of Glasgow was instituted in 18o2, for the advancement of the mathematical, physical, and natural sciences. It meets fortnightly from November to April, and in 1881 the number of members and associates was 842. It has a very fine scientific library, containing about 6000 volumes, and it publishes proceedings. The Natural History Society of Glasgow was instituted in 1851, for the purpose of encouraging the pursuit of natural history in all its branches and promoting the love of science by meetings, for the exhibition of specimens, the reading of papers, and the arrangement of excursions. It meets once a month from September to April. The Glasgow Geological Society, founded in 1858 for the advancement of geological science by meetings for the reading of papers, the exhibition of specimens, and the arrangement of excursions, is one of the most hard working societies in Scotland, and has carried out its purposes admirably. The number of ordinary members in 1880 was 230. It has a small museum and a fine library, and publishes valuable volumes of transactions. It meets once a month from October to April, and once a fortnight in April, May, and June. The Glasgow Archæological Society was founded in l856 for the encouragement of the study of archæology, particularly in Glasgow and the West of Scotland. It meets once a month from November to April. The Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland was founded and incorporated to promote the advancement of science and practice in engineering and shipbuilding. It has a good library, and publishes transactions. It meets once a month from October to April. All these societies have their rooms and libraries jointly in a building in Bath Street. The Royal Botanic Institution maintains and manages the Royal Botanic Gardens in the Great Western Road in Hillhead. Annual family tickets cost a guinea; single tickets, half a guinea ; and non-subscribers pay 6d. a visit, while in virtue of a gift of £500 from the late Mr Campbell of Tilliechewan, admission during the week of Glasgow Fair is free. The original Botanic Garden was at the old College, but it became unsuitable, and when the new association was founded in 1816 with a capital of £6000, in ten-guinea shares, £2000 was subscribed by the University, on condition that the regius professor of botany should have the use of the lecture-room in the garden and access to the plants. The society was incorporated by George IV., and, in 1819, a garden of six acres was laid out off Sauchiehall Road, now Sauchiehall Street. This was overtaken and displaced by the extension of the city to the W, and a still larger garden was then formed about 1842, on a piece of ground in Hillhead between the Great Western Road and the Kelvin, and this was further enlarged in 1875 by the addition of winter gardens laid out after the manner of those at Chelsea. The ground slopes towards the Kelvin, and is beautifully laid out with plots and walks. It contains a class-room for the professor of botany at the University, which, however, is not used, as the accommodation is insufficient, and there is no laboratory, museum, or herbarium. Large ranges of new conservatories have just been erected. There are in the garden about 15,000 species of plants, either scientifically arranged or named. To the NE of the main entrance is the Kibble Crystal Art Palace and Conservatory, which was erected here in 1872. It takes its name from the donor, Mr Kibble. There are two domes rising to a height of about 40 feet, while the larger is about 150 feet in diameter. It underwent extension, and was more elaborately decorated in 1874. It contains accommodation for about 7000 persons, and is much used, under special management, for fétes. The Maitland Club was instituted in 1828 for printing MSS. and rare works illustrative of the early history, antiquities, and literature of Scotland, and has published upwards of 100 volumes, many of them of the highest historical importance. The Glasgow Art Club was founded in 1867 for the advancement of art in Glasgow and the W of Scotland, by means of life classes and an annual exhibition of the works of its members ; and the St Mungo Art Society was instituted in 1874 to carry out the same object in the same way. The Glasgow Juridical Society was instituted in 1847 for the discussion of legal and cognate subjects, and the consideration of questions of juridical interest. Members must belong to the legal profession or be law students. The Glasgow Legal and Speculative Society was founded in 1852 for conducting debates on legal and speculative questions. There are also a Hunterian Club-with a limited membership of 200, for printing rare old MSand reprinting scarce and interesting works of old authors ; a Ruskin Society-for the promotion of the study of Mr Ruskin's works, and of 'such life and learning as may fitly and usefully abide in this country;' a Glasgow, Orkney, and Shetland Literary and Scientific Association, an Institute of Accountants and Actuaries, an Insurance and Actuarial Society, and an Institute of Architects. Among the miscellaneous societies may be mentioned the Royal Clyde Yacht Club ; the distinguishing flags of which are 'blue burgee with red lion on yellow shield, surmounted by crown, and blue ensign;' the Royal Northern Yacht Club, distinguished by 'blue burgee with yellow crown and anchor, and blue ensign;' the Western Yacht Club, 'red burgee with white lion rampant;' the Clyde Corinthian Yacht Club, 'red burgee with white St George's cross and red lion rampant on a yellow shield, and a red ensign ;' the Model Yacht Club ; the Golf Club, with course and club-house in the Alexandra Park-over 200 members ; the Wellcroft Bowling Club, with green close to Queen's Park-membership 130 ; the Clydesdale, West of Scotland, Glasgow Academical, and United Northern Cricket Clubs, the Glasgow Inverary Shinty Club, the Tam o' Shanter Club, the Rambles round Glasgow Club, the Glasgow Chess Club, the Glasgow Draughts Association, the Trout Preservation Association, the Caledonian Apiarian Society, the Scottish Food Reform Society, the Tonic Sol-Fa Choral Society, the Glasgow Choral Union, the Glasgow SouthSide Choral Society, the Glasgow Catholic Choral Society, the Glasgow Amateur Orchestral Society, the Clyde Amateur Rowing Club, the Art Union of Glasgow, the Glasgow and West of Scotland Licensed Grocers' Association, the Glasgow Wine and Spirit Trade Defence Association, the Glasgow and West of Scotland Guardian Society for the Protection of Trade, the Glasgow Shipowners' Association, the Glasgow Landlords' Association, the Glasgow Corn Trade Association, the Maryhill Agricultural Society, and the Glasgow Agricultural Society. Glasgow occupies a prominent position in football matters. The leading Clubs under association rules are the Queen's Park, Rangers, and 3d L. R.V.; and the leading one under Rugby rules is the Academical.

Volunteers—Notices of the early Glasgow Volunteers have already been given in the historical section , where mention has been made of the two battalions of 600 men each raised during the Rebellion of 17 45, and the regiment of 1000 men raised in 1775, and sent on active service during the American War of Independence. In 1794, during the spread of the revolutionary movement in France, which culminated in the French events of 1798, an Act of Parliament was passed empowering the raising of five companies of volunteers in Glasgow, and these were accordingly enrolled to the strength of 500 men, and named the Royal Glasgow Volunteers. The men maintained and clothed themselves, but were provided with arms by the government. After the war with France began three additional regiments were raised-a second regiment of Royal Glasgow Volunteers of 800 men formed into 10 companies, who were both maintained and armed by the government ; the Royal Glasgow Volunteer Light Horse, of one troop of 60 rank and file, who maintained and armed themselves ; and the Armed Association of two companies. These were disbanded in 1802 at the conclusion of the peace of Amiens, but when the war again broke out in 1803 eight battalions of infantry and a squadron of cavalry were formed-the 1st Regiment of Glasgow Volunteers with 900 men ; the 2d or Trades Battalion, 600 men ; the 3rd or Highland Battalion, 700 men ; the 4th or Sharpshooters Battalion, 700 men ; the 5th or Grocers Battalion, 600 men ; the 6th or Anderston Battalion. 900 men ; 7th the Armed Association, 300 men ; and 8th, the Canal Volunteers (artillery with two field pieces), 300 men ; while the cavalry were about 100 strong. These were, with other troops in the district to a total of about 7000 men, reviewed in grand state on the Green in 1804 by the commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland, and created a great sensation in the city by firing off ten rounds of blank cartridge per man, the effect of which we are told was 'exceedingly impressive, and so great and terrible as to be sublime.' The present volunteer movement originated about 1858, and Glasgow soon showed a zeal in no way inferior to what had been exhibited on former occasions ; and when the regiment was reviewed by the Prince of Wales in 1876 on the Green, the muster from Glasgow and the district was 6000 men. Since then the movement has become still more popular, and there are now in the city seven regiments of Rifle Volunteers (1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, 10th Lanarkshire), besides a regiment of Artillery Volunteers and of Engineer Volunteers, representing a total strength of about 10,000 men. Connected with them is the West of Scotland Rifle Association, which has a prize meeting at Cowglen in Renfrewshire in June every year.

Publications, etc—Letterpress printing was first introduced into Glasgow in 1638 by George Anderson, who came from Edinburgh, and who had there printed several books in the University in 1637-38. He came to Glasgow in the year of the famous General Assembly, and seems to have received a salary from the magistrates. One of the earliest, and probably the earliest, productions of the Glasgow press is The protestation of the Generall Assemblie of the church of Scotland, and of the noblemen, barons, gentlemen, burrowes, ministers, and commons ; subscribers of the covenant, lately renewed, made in the high kirk- and at the mercate crosse of Glasgow, the 28, and 29, of -November, 1638. Printed at Glasgow by George Anderson in the yeare of grace 1638. Anderson died in or about 1648, and his heirs gave up the Glasgow business and returned to Edinburgh, where they printed from 1649 to 1652, after which the business was carried on by a son till 1656. In that year the Glasgow Town Council, anxious again to have a printing press in their midst, made a proposal to young Andrew Anderson that he should come to Glasgow, offering him at the same time the yearly subsidy of 100 merks that had formerly been paid to his father, and this offer was accepted. Anderson remained for a time, but he does not seem to have been kept very busy, or to have published much of importance, and in 1661 he returned to Edinburgh. In the same year Robert Sanders became the burgh printer, with an annual allowance of £40 Scots, in return for which the council printing was to be done without payment. In virtue of his appointment he used the city arms on many of his title pages; and he seems, in spite of the annoyance he received from his predecessor Anderson, to have done a good business, and published a large number of works. In 1666 he printed an edition of the New Testament, and in 1667 he began the issue of Glasgow almanacs. In 1671 he was engaged on another edition of the New Testament, when Anderson, who had been appointed the king's sole printer for Scotland, induced his men to desert him, and set up the claim to be the sole person in Scotland who was entitled to produce the New Testament. This led to an appeal to the Privy Council, who decided that any printer in Scotland was entitled to do what Sanders had done. A subsequent complaint by Anderson's heirs in 1680 against Sanders, to the effect that he had broken the privilege by selling bibles imported from Holland, and had reprinted several works in divinity, led to his being ordained to give up to them the books complained of ; but this caused him to enter into negotiations for a purchase of a share in the royal patent, and thereafter he brought workmen and materials from Holland, and executed many books. He died about 1696, and was succeeded by his son Robert, who published a number of works. In 1718 type-making was introduced into Glasgow by James Duncan ; but the types, which were used for the first edition of M'Ure, were cut by himself, and were rough and ill-shaped. From the beginning of the 18th century, up till about 1740, printing in Glasgow was at a low ebb, though there were still town's printers, who, however, do not seem to have been very good, for complaints were made that to get anything rightly printed the work had to be sent to Edinburgh. There was a printer to the University, but he seems to have been little better than his neighbours. About 1740 Robert Urie & Co. did some better work, their most noteworthy productions being an edition of the Spectator and a Greek New Testament ; and the following year, 1741, saw the establishment, as a bookseller, of Robert Foulis, who, along with his brother Andrew, was to give Glasgow printing a character somewhat different from its former one, and to win for the firm the name of 'the Elzevirs of Scotland.' Their types were also made in Glasgow by Messrs Wilson & Bain. In 1743 Robert Foulis was appointed printer to the University, and under its patronage some of the finest productions of the Foulis press were issued. Of these we may notice Demetrius Phalereus de Elocutione (1743) the first Greek book printed in Glasgow, the so-called 'immaculate' edition of Horace (1744), and the folio editions of the Iliad and Odyssey (1747), the Iliad being considered one of the finest specimens of printing in existence. The brothers also founded a fine art academy, but they unfortunately did not prosper, for the academy was broken up in 1770, and in 1776 the insolvent estate was wound up by Robert Chapman, printer, and James Duncan, printer, both the brothers Foulis being then dead. Andrew left a son and namesake, who was also a printer, and who published, in 1788, a fine edition of the Gentle Shepherd, with aquatint engravings by David Allan. Among the printers of the latter part of the 18th century also was Dugald Graham the pedlar, whose rhyming narrative of the events that occurred during the Rebellion of 1745 is of some importance. From Graham's press came the Glasgow chap books, now so highly prized, of many of which he was himself the author. He abandoned printing in 1770 and became city bellman. During the present century printing has gone on thriving and increasing like other industries, and Mr Macgeorge's recent work on Old Glasgow is a sign that good printing can still be done in the city. There are now (1882) 223 printing firms and 83 publishing firms within the city, exclusive of newspaper offices. The first Glasgow Directory was published in 1783. The population was classified into town council, ministers, numbering 18, professors, faculty of procurators, officers of excise, physicians, numbering 16, midwives, numbering 10, messengers-at-arms, numbering 11, and then merchants, manufacturers, grocers, vintners, lint-hecklers, hucksters, etc., all together. The sheriff-substitute lived in the Saltmarket, the townclerk in the Gallowgate. It is a small volume, and the compiler offers many apologies for its imperfections. Even the second directory, published in 1790, was only a small crown 12mo of 82 pages, while the modern directory is a dense 8vo volume of 1149 pages, with an appendix of 135 pages.

The citizens seem to have become desirous of keeping pace with the events of the outer world, as early as 1657, for we find that in that year the council appointed 'Johne Flyming to wryt to his man quha lyues at London to send hom for the tounes use weiklie ane diurnal' and twenty years after a Colonel 'Walter Whytfoord' undertook to provide coffee for the lieges, and to supply newspapers as well; but it was not till 1715 that Glasgow could boast of a newspaper of its own. In the end of that year a paper called the Glasgow Courant was published retail at three halfpence, but wholesale at one penny ; and an effort was made to get local news and a shipping list, by appealing to gentlemen in various parts to send news, and particularly at shipping ports of ships arriving and departing. At the fourth number the name was changed to the West Country -Intelligence. It was published on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and was a small quarto twelve-page paper ; but it does not seem to have succeeded, for it stopped after about 67 numbers had been published, and for a quarter of a century afterwards Glasgow was without a newspaper. In 1741 the Glasgow Journal appeared, edited by Andrew Stalker, but during the rebellion Mr Stalker's courage failed, and he retired because he could not with safety publish to please the generality of his readers ; but the paper was continued by Urie, the printer, and did not become extinct till about 1846. The year 1745 witnessed the appearance of the second Glasgow Courant, in which advertisements made a considerable figure ; the paper lived for only a very short time. The Chronicle was commenced in 1766, the Mercury in 1775, and the Advertiser in 1783. In 1801 the Advertiser had its name changed to the Herald and Advertiser, which a few years later was again changed to the Herald, and from 1805 to 1810 the proprietors also published the Clyde Commercial Advertiser. In 1807 a weekly called the Caledonia was established, and in 1808 it became a bi-weekly with the name of the Western Star. Several attempts were also made to establish other papers, but none of them was permanently successful, though the Reformers, Gazette had a lengthened existence. The Glasgow Citizen was established in 1842, and has still a large circulation, but has been, since 1864, broken up into two papers-the one an evening halfpenny paper, the Evening Citizen ; the other a weekly literary halfpenny paper, the Weekly Citizen. The North British Daily Mail (1847) was the first daily newspaper in Scotland ; its principles are Radical. The Evening Citizen was the first Glasgow evening paper. The Herald became a daily paper of moderate Liberal opinions in 1859. The Glasgow -News (Conservative) was established in 1873, while some years before a second evening paper, the Evening Star, had come into existence. It has since become the Evening -News and Star. A comic weekly called the Bailie was started in 1872, and still flourishes ; and a third evening paper, the Evening Times, was started in 1876.

The papers at present published in Glasgow are the Glasgow Herald (daily), North British Daily Mil (daily), Glasgow. News (daily), Evening Citizen (daily afternoon), Evening News and Star (daily afternoon), Evening Times (daily afternoon), the Christian Herald (every Wednesday), the Christian Leader (every Thursday), the Christian News (every Saturday), the Glasgow Weekly Herald (every Friday), the Glasgow Weekly -Mail (every Friday), the Glasgow Weekly Citizen (every Friday), the League Journal (every Saturday), the Mace (weekly), the Mercantile Advertiser and Shipping Gazette (every Tuesday and Friday), the Military Record and Volunteer News (weekly), the Property Circular (every Tuesday), Quiz (every Thursday), Scottish Freemason (fortnightly), the Bailie (every Wednesday), the Clyde Bill of Entry (every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday), the Freemason (every Saturday), the National Advertising List (every Saturday), and the National Trade Guardian (every Wednesday). The following magazines, mostly monthlies, are also published in Glasgow :-the Adviser, the Amateur, the Children's Messenger, the Cycling Mercury, the Dew Drop, the Easy Guide, the Glasgow University magazine, the Glasgow Young Men's Christian Magazine, the Good Templar, the Leather Trader, the Masonic Magazine, the mercantile Age, the Sabbath School magazine, the Social Reformer, the Scottish Sanitary Journal, the Reformed Presbyterian Witness, besides Murray's, Fraser's, and the A B C Time Tables, and Henderson's Conveyance Guide. Quarterly is the Evangelical Repository, while the annual publicacations are the Post Office Directory, the Glasgow Almanac, and the Scottish-Masonic Calendar.

Educational Institutions—The University.—The University, the second in Scotland, was, as we have already seen, founded in 1450, and opened in the following year with a chancellor, rector, and masters and doctors in the four faculties. There were at first no buildings, but all the meetings were, by permission of the bishop, held in the crypt of the cathedral, and ultimately the teaching was transferred to a house belonging to the parson of Luss, which stood on the S side of the Rottenrow near the High Street, and was afterwards known as 'the auld Pedagogy.' Though this building survived till the middle of the present century, the University did not long remain in it. Probably it became too small for the increasing number of students, for in 1458 a piece of land was rented on the E side of High Street for the erection of a new Pedagogy. The endowment was, however, so poor that the governing body could not provide money to pay for their accommodation, and this having been brought under the notice of the proprietor of the new site, James, first Lord Hamilton, he in 1459 made them a present of the ground-on which afterwards the old University buildings, now part of the College Station, were erected-together with four acres of land in the Dow Hill or Dove Hill, adjoining the Molendinar Burn, on condition that twice every day the regents and students should pray for Lord Hamilton's soul, and also that of his wife Euphemia; and that, if a chapel were built in the college, the regents and students should therein on their bended knees sing an ave to the Virgin, with a collect and remembrance for the same persons. No buildings probably were erected on this ground ; but the existing houses having been adapted as well as possible for their new purpose, the University migrated thither in 1465. In 1475 the grounds were still farther enlarged by the addition of land on the N belonging to Sir Thomas Arthurlie, and bequeathed by him to the University. On the front portion of this, houses were afterwards erected for the professors. The Reformation almost ruined the struggling home of learning, for as it was, like all the universities of the time, chiefly supported by, and an instrument of, the Church, the students disappeared when the churchmen fled. In 1563 Queen Mary made over to it some of the confiscated lands of the Church, being moved there to, as the charter narrates, by the half-finished condition of the buildings, and the fact that all provision for the poor bursars and masters had ceased, so that the whole place had rather the appearance of the decay of a university than an established foundation. By this charter five bursaries were founded for poor youths, and the manse and 'kirk-room' of the Black Friars, with 13 acres of land in the Dove Hill and certain rents that had belonged to the friars, were granted for the maintenance of the masters. Notwithstanding this, however, the University had in 1571 only about a dozen students and an income of about £25 sterling, and in that year the magistrates, taking its state into pitiful consideration, granted it some of the Church lands which they had received at the Reformation, a grant which was confirmed by parliament. It does not seem to have been popular among the common people, for we find mention of a charge made against three Glasgow bailies named Colin Campbell, William Heygate, and Archibald Heygate, who were alleged to have been ringleaders of a mob that burst into the University and shed the blood of several of the students who successfully resisted their attempts to set the building on fire. In 1574 Andrew Melville became principal, and tried to throw some new spirit into matters ; but nothing could be done without money, so the Regent Morton, stirred up by him, in 1577 advised King James VI., then in his minority, to issue a new deed of erection, and to make a considerable grant in aid of the college revenue, consisting of the tithes, manse, glebe, and church lands of the rectory and vicarage of the parish of Govan. The new regulations following on the new constitution provided that the students were to use Latin as their ordinary language, and were to rise at five in the morning and be in bed at a quarter-past nine. They were allowed to play golf and to practise archery and dramatic representations, but not to play with cards or dice or at billiards, nor were they to bathe. Some buildings are said to have been erected in 1593, but nothing is known of them, and the old college buildings, almost entirely demolished to make way for the College station, were not erected till 1630. Meanwhile private individuals had been increasing the funds of the authorities. In 1610 one of the regents, named Boyd, bequeathed 1000 merks to aid in the erection of buildings ; and in 1617 a large bequest was also made by a citizen named Wilson for the same purpose, while Archbishop Law increased the revenues, and presented many books to the library. In 1626 Dr John Strang became principal, and by his exertions considerable funds were obtained in aid of the building fund. The subscriptions were mostly from the nobility and gentry in the W, and amounted to the sum -for those days a very large one-of £2000 sterling. There was a contribution of £200 promised by King Charles I., and, curiously enough, the sum was paid by Oliver Cromwell in 1654, the Protector further granting £500 on his own behalf. The buildings were begun in 1632, and carried on as the funds permitted, work never being stopped altogether, though sometimes it proceeded but slowly. Some thought the structure was on too magnificent a scale, and, notwithstanding the extra money obtained from the grant by Cromwell of the revenues of the bishopric of Galloway, and a further sum of 200 merks yearly from the customs of the city, the governing body found themselves by-and-by over 15,000 merks (more than £1300) in debt. The old buildings were Jacobean in style, and before the Union Railway Company took possession they showed three quadrangular courts, the upper stories being reached by staircases with massive stone balustrades. The front was 305 feet long : the grand archway was surmounted by a stone balcony supported on corbels, and the upper story had dormer windows with carved pediments. Over the entrance were the royal arms of the time of Charles II. The first quadrangle was all old , and a stone staircase in one of the corners led up to a large panelled hall used for business meetings, and containing a few portraits. The second quadrangle was entered by an archway beneath the steeple, which was 148 feet high, and the buildings in it presented a somewhat incongruous mixture of ancient and modern. The steeple was not a very elegant structure, but some interest attached to the lightning conductor, which was erected in 1772 under the auspices of the famous Benjamin Franklin. The third quadrangle contained the library and one or two class-rooms, but the greater portion of it was merely separated from the college park by railings. Standing apart in it was the building containing the Hunterian Museum, a classical structure erected in 1804, and adorned in front with a hexastyle Doric portico. Besides these three quadrangles, there was at the N side, with a separate entrance from High Street, a fourth containing thirteen dwelling-houses for professors. The college park spread away to the E, with pleasant walks shaded with trees. It was used for the recreation of the students, and is the spot selected by Sir Walter Scott in Rob Roy as the scene of the duel between Francis and Rashleigh Osbaldistone. Of the buildings just mentioned there had been erected, between 1632 and 1660, the inner court, the steeple, three professors' houses -for the principal and the two divinity professors -and a portion of the W front, towards the roofing of which the town council contributed £2000 Scots. The number of students was considerable, and their intellectual wants were attended to by a principal, eight professors, and a librarian. The Restoration brought with it fresh troubles for Glasgow University, for the re-introduction of Episcopacy brought with it the loss of the revenues granted by Cromwell, and the debt contracted in the building operations proved such a heavy burden that three out of the eight professorships had to be abolished and the emoluments of the five who were left considerably reduced. From 1660 onwards the University continued to receive many benefactions, but most of them took the form of foundations of new bursaries, the most important being the foundation of the valuable Snell Exhibitions. This took place in 1677, when John Snell of Uffeton, a Scotchman and an alumnus of Glasgow, bequeathed the funds arising from an estate in Warwickshire, for the education of Glasgow students at Oxford, and students still go from Glasgow to Oxford every year holding Snell Exhibitions. The pious founder is said to have been more anxious to encourage the spread of Episcopacy than the cause of learning, and to have thought that an Oxford education was an excellent thing for his purpose. The foundation is at present worth £110 a year to each of ten exhibitioners. In 1693 the University was, in common with all the other Scottish Universities, at length aided once more by a grant of £300 a year, given by government from the confiscated bishop's rents, and from this time till now its progress has been one of uninterrupted improvement and success. In the beginning of the 18th century the teaching staff consisted of a principal and seven professors, while there were about 400 students ; but by 1720 the number of professors had increased to twelve -the chair of Oriental Languages having been founded in 1709, that of Physic (a revival of a chair instituted in 1637, but long suppressed from want of revenue) in 1713, that of Civil Law and the Law of Scotland in 1713, that of Anatomy in 1718, and that of Ecclesiastical History in 1720. About 1720, steps were also taken for the erection of houses for the other professors in addition to those formerly mentioned. A lectureship on Chemistry was founded by the celebrated Dr Cullen in 1746, and the chair of Astronomy was founded in 1760, and an observatory in connection with it was erected in the college garden about the year 1790. The last of the buildings on the old site were erected about 1812.

From the first foundation of the University down to the 18th century many of the students resided within the college, but the students increasing more rapidly than the accommodation, a number of them began, as early as the 15th century, to live outside. In the subscriptions for the new buildings, in the beginning of the 17th century, some of the contributions had the condition attached that certain accommodation was to be provided for the use of the donor's family, and, if none of them attended, it was to be at the disposal of the faculty. Up till 1712 no charge seems to have been made for the rooms, but from that time onward a charge was made of from 4s. to 10s. a room, according to the situation. Dr Carlyle of Inveresk says in his -Autobiography that when he attended the college in 1743 he furnished his room himself, and one of the college servants lit his fire and made his bed, while 'a maid from the landlady who furnished the room came once a fortnight with clean linens. 'The beginning of the 19th century saw considerable additions again made to the teaching staff, no less than five new chairs, all endowed by the crown, being added between 1800 and 1820. These were the chair of Natural History, founded by George III. in 1807 ; that of Surgery by the crown in 1815 ; that of Midwifery by the crown in the same year; the lectureship in chemistry was erected into a professorship by the crown in 1817 ; and the chair of Botany was founded by the crown in 1818 ; while in 1820 the number of students had increased to nearly 1000. Between 1820 and 1840 four new chairs were again added- Materia Medica in 1831, Institutes of Medicine and Forensic Medicine, both in 1839, and Civil Engineering in 1840. The old buildings were in 1860 condemned by the Executive University Commission appointed in 1858, and it became necessary to look out for a site for a new erection. The University authorities had long recognised the unsuitable nature of the buildings, and been desirous of a change, and in 1846 they had even obtained an Act of Parliament authorising their sale and the erection of a new university on a site at Woodlands, but nothing had been done. Stirred now to fresh efforts, they, in 1864, sold their old premises to the City of Glasgow Union Railway Company, who have now erected on the site the College station, into which the front of the old University and portions of the first and second quadrangles have been incorporated, while the College Green is now covered by a network of rails. In the same year they purchased, on the W bank of the Kelvin to the S of Hillhead, the lands of Gilmorehill, Donaldshill, and the lands of Clayslaps-the latter being for the erection of a hospital-for a total sum of £98,400- there being also an understanding, since carried out, that part of Clayslaps should be acquired by the corporation to be added to Kelvingrove Park. To pay for this and to erect their buildings, the University had a total sum of £138,900, consisting of £100,000 received from the railway company for the old premises, £17,500 the principal sum and interest obtained from the Monkland Junction Company in 1846 for breach of bargain, and £21,400 promised by government on condition that a further sum of £24,000 be raised by public subscription for the erection of a hospital in connection with the University Medical School. With this sum it would have been possible to erect buildings, but 'of the plainest design and on a scale quite inadequate to provide for the future extension of the University,' so it was resolved to attempt something more, and the preparation of plans for a building on a very extensive scale was entrusted to the late eminent architect, Sir George Gilbert Scott, who produced a magnificent design in the domestic Early English style with Scoto-Flemish features of later date. The carrying out of these would, it was estimated, cost nearly half a million of money, and so well was the demand for the extra sum required responded to, that before the end of 1868 £130,000 had been raised by public subscription-a sum since increased to £165,924 after deduction of £30,000 allocated to the Western Infirmary, while the government grant had been increased to £120,000. Meanwhile operations had been begun on 2 June 1866, when Professor Allen Thomson, chairman of the building committee, cut the first turf. The foundation-stone was laid on 8 Oct1868 by the Prince of Wales, amid great rejoicings, and by the beginning of the winter session of 1870-71 part of the buildings was ready for occupation. They were formally opened on 7 Nov. 1870 with a brilliant ceremonial. They advanced still further towards completion in 1871 and 1872, but were still so far incomplete in 1873 that, while £415,000 had then been expended on them, a further sum of nearly £100,000 more was required for their completion. Since then operations have lagged considerably from want of funds, but one notable feature has been added. In 1877 the Marquis of Bute offered to build at his own expense and present to the University the handsome common hall included in Sir George Gilbert Scott's design. It is now fast approaching completion, and forms a magnificent donation, for it has cost between fifty and sixty thousand pounds, the original estimate being £57,000.

The buildings, which have a magnificent and commanding position, form an imposing rectangular pile, 532 feet in length from E to W, and 295 feet in breadth from N to S. The common hall, running across the centre of the rectangle from N to S, divides the inner open space into two quadrangles, of which the eastern is entirely surrounded by buildings, but the western has the W side clear, and opens on to a grass plot, round the N, S, and W sides of which are residences for the professors known as college professors, i.e., all those holding chairs founded before 1800. These are in a style harmonising with the University buildings. The main front is to the S, and has a symmetrical outline. In the centre is a grand tower 150 feet high, and intended to terminate, when finished, in a spire rising to the height also of 150 feet. The wings, extending from this on both sides, terminate to the E and W in square towers. The corner towers are four stories high, the rest of the front is three stories. In the base of the centre tower, which rises to a height of six stories, is the main entrance, with a deeply moulded Gothic arch, leading to a richly groined vestibule, and two minor entrances of similar design, and leading to the eastern and western quadrangles respectively, are midway between the central and side towers. Over the central arch the front of the tower is broken by fine windows and balconies, and at the corners of the top are round turrets supported on corbelling. These are, when finished, to be surmounted by small spires. The eastern elevation is plainer. The northern elevation, towards University .Avenue, has its long many-windowed outline broken by a projecting portion, with a beautiful semi-circular bay, and contains two great sections for respectively the University Library and the Hunterian Museum, each measuring 129 feet in length, 60 in breadth, and 100 in height. The Common Hall extends from the rear of the centre of the S elevation to the front of the centre of the N block, and has a basement story of cloisters with groined roof. Above is the hall proper, 115 feet long by 70 wide and 62 high, with a high pitched roof. Exclusive of hall, library, and museum, there are 98 rooms, each chair having a classroom and retiring-room, and, wherever necessary, laboratories and rooms for apparatus fitted up in the most approved manner. The heating and ventilation are carried out by means of novel arrangements, specially devised by the scientific professors, currents of air for drawing off the air being produced by heated flues, while the fresh air is drawn in from the central tower and driven by means of steam fans over hot water pipes and through the buildings. Nearly 2,000,000 cubic feet of air are passed through the rooms every hour.

The University Library was founded in the 15th century, and contains an extensive and valuable collection of books now amounting to about 110,000 volumes, and it is constantly being increased by donations and by books purchased with the treasury grant of £707 per annum as compensation for the loss of Stationers' Hall privilege. Among the contents may be noted a MS. paraphrase of the Bible by Zachary Boyd. The Hunterian Museum passed into the possession of Glasgow University in 1783. It was the bequest of Dr William Hunter, an alumnus of Glasgow, who had acquired great celebrity and a large practice in London, and who, at his death in 1783, bequeathed his magnificent anatomical and general collection to his alma mater. The first building for it at the old University was erected in 1804, and it was opened in 1808. The collection was even then valued at £65,000, and now it is worth more than double that sum. The library of 12,000 volumes contains many rare and valuable books and manuscripts, including an illuminated MS. Psalter of the 12th century, a MS. of Boethius of the 14th century, MSS. of a breviary, of ten books of Livy, and of a French translation of Boccaccio of the 15th century. The series of coins and medals is almost unrivalled, and there are pictures by Murillo, Guido, Rembrandt, Rubens, Kneller, Correggio, Salvator Rosa, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Raeburn, and other artists of lesser note, as well as good engravings by Strange and others. There is a noteworthy collection of Roman altars and legionary tablets. The cabinet of medals may be consulted on previous notice being given, and the rest of the collection is open to visitors from 11 to 3 o'clock in winter, and from 11 to 4 o'clock in summer, at a charge of 6d.

Previous to the Universities Act of 1858 the University had two governing bodies, viz. :—(1.) The Senatus, which consisted of the rector, the dean, the principal, and the whole of the professors, who conferred degrees and managed the affairs of the library, etc. ; (2.) the Faculty, which consisted of the principal and the college professors, i.e. , all the professors whose chairs were founded before the present century. The faculty administered the funds ; elected occupants to the eight chairs, whose patronage was vested in the college ; presented a minister to the parish of Govan ; and made appointments to certain bursaries. Besides these there was a Comitia-consisting of the rector, dean, principal, professors, and matriculated students of the University- which met to elect and admit the rector, to hear the inaugural addresses of the principals and professors, and to promulgate the laws of the University ; and a court called the Jurisdictio Ordinaria, consisting of the principal, the professors of Greek, Latin, logic, ethics, and physics, and the gowned students, which met for the purpose of exercising discipline, but by the Universities Act the distinction between the Senate and the Faculty was abolished, and the University Court and the General Council instituted. The University Court consists of the rector, the principal, the dean of faculties, and assessors appointed by the chancellor, rector, general council, and senatus academicus. It acts as a court of appeal and supervision for the senatus. The General Council consists of the chancellor, the members of the University Court, the professors, and all graduates of the University who have been registered; and since 1881 this registration has been compulsory. The officials of the University are the chancellor (appointed for life by the General Council), the rector (appointed for three years by the matriculated students), the principal, and the professors of the four faculties of arts, divinity, law, and medicine. There are now ten professorships, a lectureship, and two demonstratorships in the faculty of arts, four professorships in the faculty of divinity, two professorships and two lectureships in the faculty of law, and twelve professorships, four lectureships, and a demonstratorship in the faculty of medicine. The professorships, etc., with the dates of their foundation, are logic and rhetoric, 1577; moral philosophy, 1577; natural philosophy, 1577; Greek, 1581; humanity, previous to 1637; mathematics, revived in 1691; practical astronomy, 1760; civil engineering and mechanics, 1840; English language and literature, 1861; lectureship in naval architecture and marine engineering, 1881; Arnot and Thomson demonstratorship in experimental physics, 1875; Young assistantship in engineering, 1876; divinity, 1640; oriental languages, 1709; ecclesiastical history, 1716; Biblical criticism, 1861; law, 1713; conveyancing, 1861; lectureship of public law, 1878; lectureship of constitutional law and history, 1878; practice of medicine, 1637, suppressed, but revived in 1713; anatomy, 1718; natural history, 1807; surgery, 1815; midwifery, 1815; chemistry, 1817 (superseding a lectureship founded in 1747); botany, 1818; materia medica, 1831 (superseding a lectureship founded in 1766); institutes of medicine, 1839; medical jurisprudence, 1839; clinical surgery, 1874; clinical medicine, 1874; Waltonian medical lectureship, 1788; lectureship on diseases of the eye, 1828; HoneymanGillespie lectureship, 1876; Muirhead demonstratorship in physiology, 1876. There is also a lecturer on insanity. The patronage of the chairs of practical astronomy, civil engineering and mechanics, English language and literature, ecclesiastical history, Biblical criticism, law, practice of medicine, anatomy, natural history, surgery, midwifery, chemistry, botany, materia medica, institutes of medicine, and medical jurisprudence is vested in the Crown; that of humanity, Greek, logic, moral philosophy, natural philosophy, mathematics, divinity, oriental languages, clinical surgery, and clinical medicine in the University Court; and that of conveyancing in the dean and council of the Faculty of Procurators. The income of the University is derived (1.) from teinds, arising from grants by James, Archbishop of Glasgow in 1557; by James VI. in 1577 and 1618; by Charles I. in 1630; by Charles II. in 1664 and 1670; (2.) from feu-duties, etc., of lands granted by James, Lord Hamilton, in 1459; William and Thomas Arthurlie, 1466; Queen Mary, 1563; of the lands, etc., of the Friars Preachers granted by Queen Mary in 1566 to the town for pious uses, and conveyed by the town, under Act of Scottish parliament, in 1572 to the College; and from some other bequests of old date; (3.) interest on investment of the surplus rents of the Archbishopric of Glasgow from 1694 to 1839. (The lease of the Archbishopric was first granted by William III. in 1690 for nineteen years, for payment of the then debts of the University and other purposes, and was renewed by successive rulers till 1825, when £100 per annum from this source was added to the salary of the Regius professor of botany. From 1825 till 1839 £800 per annum was still allowed for general purposes, but then ceased, though in 1841 it was applied to the provision of salaries for some of the Crown Chairs); and (4.) lastly, from the interest of investments of balances from year to year in favour of the University. The income from these sources for 1880-81, was £9313, 8s. 8d., of which £1594, 18s. 4d. was paid for ministers' stipends, and £727, 12s. 2d. for taxes, etc., leaving a net revenue of £6990, 18s. 2d., of which £3718, 6s. 10d. was paid proportionally for salaries of principal and professors, leaving a balance of £3272, 11s. 4d. to be transferred to the general University fund. The latter, inclusive of this balance, amounted to £18,682, 10s. 3d., and the expenditure to £17,255, 9s. 11d., leaving a surplus of £1427, 0s. 4d. The annual salaries of the principal and professors, exclusive of class fees, which vary from three guincas to one, according to the class, are as follows - the principal and the professors of logic, moral philosophy, natural philosophy, Greek, humanity, mathematics, divinity, oriental languages, law, practice of medicine, anatomy, ecclesiastical history, and practical astronomy, having also each an official residence and a small allowance for taxes, etc. :- principal, £988, 15s. 1d.; logic, £286, 11s. 2d.; moral philosophy, £301, 2s. 3d.; natural philosophy, £319, 6s. 8d., assistants, £228, 5s. 1d., class expenses, £100; Greek, £289, 9s., assistant, £100; humanity, £289, 8s. 11d., assistant, £100; mathematics, £312, assistant, £100; astronomy, £298, 12s. 9d.; civil engineering, £488, 14s. 9d.; assistant, £147; English literature, £200; divinity, £412, 4s. 9d.; oriental languages, £300; ecclesiastical history £340, 7s. 6d.; Biblical criticism, £504, 10s. 8d.; law, £310; conveyancing, £105; medicine, £270; anatomy, £250, class expenses, £200; natural history, £209, 10s. 10d.; surgery, £100; midwifery, £100; chemistry, £200, assistants, £200, class expenses, £70; botany, £229, 10s. 10d.; materia medica, £100, assistant, £25, class expenses, £50; institutes of medicine, £150, assistant, £103, 14s. 5d.; forensic medicine, £100, assistants, £25, class expenses, £35; clinical surgery, £107, 0s. 4d.; clinical medicine, £107, 0s. 4d. Connected with the University there are bursaries and fellowships worth nearly £10,000 per annum, of which £780 is shared with the other Scottish Universities, and £1100 belongs to the Snell Exhibitions at Oxford; of the rest £2280 per annum go for 28 fellowships or scholarships, ranging from £20 to £225 a year, while in connection with the Arts classes there are 193 bursaries worth about £3356, and ranging from £6, 13s. 4d. to £89; with divinity 36 bursaries, worth £844, and ranging from £11 to £40; with law 2 bursaries. worth respectively £25 and £18; with medicine 14 bursaries, ranging from £15 to £45; with any faculty 24, worth £445, and ranging from £5 to £30; with arts and divinity 14, worth £432, and ranging from £8 to £40; with arts or medicine 2 bursaries of £35 each; with arts, or law, or medicine, 2 bursaries of £16 each; with divinity, law, or medicine 6, worth £226, and ranging from £11 to £70. There are also 30 important prizes of books, gold medals, or sums of money, ranging from £2, 10s. to £25. The winter session begins in the end of October or the beginning of November, and ends near the close of April; the summer session begins early in the first week of May, and ends near the close of July. The students are divided into togati and non-togati, the Former - attending the classes of logic, Greek, moral philosophy, natural philosophy, and humanity - wearing a scarlet gown, while the others do not. The matriculated students in 1881-82 were :- in arts 1331, in divinity 10, in law 211, in medicine (including summer matriculations numbering 106) 624, in arts and medicine 25, in arts and law 9, in arts and divinity 20, a total of 2320, or nearly double the number there were ten years ago before the new buildings were opened. For the election of the Lord Rector the students are divided into four groups or nations, according to their places of birth. The natio Glottiana consists of all matriculated students born within the county of Lanark; the natio Transforthana consists of all matriculated students born within any of the counties of Orkney and Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, Inverness, Cromarty, Nairn, Moray, Banff, Aberdeen, Perth, Forfar, Kincardine, Clackmannan, Fife, Kinross, Argyll, Stirling, and Dumbarton; the natio Rothseiana consists of all matriculated students born within the counties of Bute, Renfrew, and Ayr; and the natio Loudoniana consists of all matriculated students not included in any of the other nations. The practical medical instruction is given mostly in the Western Infirmary, as the University is now too far removed from the Royal Infirmary, the Maternity, and some of the older institutions in the city to allow them to be used as formerly. The list of graduates in 1881-82 gave the following results :- In arts 97 took the degree of M. A., and 7 the degree of bachelor of science (B. Sc.); in divinity 16 took the degree of bachelor of divinity (B. D.); in law 7 took the degree of bachelor of laws (LL. B.); and 10 the degree of bachelor of law (B. L.); in medicine 16 took the degree of doctor of medicine (M. D.); 50 the double degree of bachelor of medicine and master of surgery (M. B. and C. M.); 1 the single degree of M. B.; and 2 the single degree of C. M.; while 5 received the certificate in engineering science. The General Council for 1881-82 contained 3540 members. It meets twice a year, on the Wednesday before the opening, and on the Wednesday before the close, of the winter session, and considers all questions affecting the well-being and prosperity of the University, and from time to time makes representations on these subjects to the University Court. Under the Reform Act of 1867 Glasgow University unites with Aberdeen in returning a member to serve in parliament, the electorate consisting of the members of General Council.

There is an excellent gymnasium a little to the W of the main building, built in 1872 at a cost of £2500, raised by public subscription. The students' societies connected with the University are the Theological Society, where essays are read and debates take place on theological and ecclesiastical questions; the Medico-Chirurgical Society, for dissertations and debates on medical subjects; the Dialectic Society, for the discussion of literary, philosophical, and political subjects; the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Literary Society, the Ayrshire Students' Society, the University Oriental Society, for the study of the languages and literature of the East; and the University Choral Society, for past and present members of the University who are interested in music. Among the distinguished men who have held Snell Exhibitions have been Adam Smith, Sir William Hamilton, J. G. Lockhart, Archbishop Tait, and Lord President Inglis; and among the distinguished men who have either studied or taught in the University have been Bishop Elphinstone, John Major, Spottiswoode, George Buchanan, Andrew Melvil, James Melvil, Robert Boyd, John Cameron, Zachary Boyd, Robert Baillie, James Dalrymple, the first Viscount Stair, Bishop Gilbert Burnet, Bishop John Douglas, Dr Robert Simpson, the historian Wodrow, Francis Hutchison, Dr William Hunter, Dr Thomas Reid, Dr William Cullen, Dr Joseph Black, Dr Matthew Baillie, Professor John Millar, Professor Young, Professor Wilson, Lord Jeffrey, Sir William Hooker, Smith of Jordanhill, Professor Anderson, Professor Jardine, Sir Daniel Sandford, Dr Lushington, Professor Macquorn Rankine, Professor Allen Thomson, and Professor Lister.

The Observatory.—The observatory first sprang from a bequest to the University, in 1757, of a number of astronomical instruments, and in 1760 George II. founded the chair of practical astronomy, the professor of which was also to be the observer in the University of Glasgow; and the first observatory was erected in College Gardens. In 1808 a society, called the Glasgow Society for Promoting Astronomical Science, was formed and incorporated by seal of cause from the magistrates, and in connection with it an observatory was built on Garnet Hill. It had a revolving roof, and contained a sidereal clock, an azimuth instrument, a large mural circle by Troughton, and a 14-feet Herschelian telescope, while a similar instrument, only, however, 10 feet long, stood on the terrace in front. Both the old observatories found their localities getting too much built up and involved in smoke, and a new observatory was erected on an eminence in Dowanhill, about ½ mile to the NW of the new University buildings and immediately behind the curve of Victoria Crescent. It is an excellent building, and includes a residence for the professor of astronomy. The principal instruments are, - a meridian circle of 3 feet 6 inches diameter by Ertel of Munich, and an equatorially-mounted refractor of 9 inches aperture and 13 feet focal length, made by Cooke of York. The latter instrument was presented by a few private gentlemen of Glasgow. The Royal Botanic Gardens, also connected with the University, have been already noticed.

Anderson's College.—An institution for the promotion of knowledge, and particularly of scientific knowledge, was founded in terms of a bequest by Dr John Anderson, at one time professor of natural philosophy in the University of Glasgow. Dr Anderson was a son of the minister of Roseneath, and was educated at Stirling and Glasgow. He was appointed professor of oriental languages in 1756, and this chair he in 1760 exchanged for the more congenial one of natural philosophy. In 1786 he published his Institutes of Physics, which was so popular that it went through five editions in the space of ten years. He also published a number of articles on natural science, antiquities, and military art; and in 1790 he invented a gun, the recoil of which was deadened or stopped by air stored in its carriage. The British government was not alive to its merit, and in 1791 he went to Paris and presented it to the National Convention, who accepted it, and ordered it to be hung up in their hall with the inscription, 'The gift of science to liberty.' A posthumous work on the Roman Antiquities between the Forth and Clyde, gave an account of the valuable collection of Roman altars and legionary stones made by him, and now in the Hunterian Museum. During the time Dr Anderson was professor of natural philosophy he visited many of the workshops about the city, and, seeing that a knowledge of the principles of natural philosophy would be invaluable to mechanics, he established a class for popular lectures, which he continued all the remainder of -his life, every Tuesday and Thursday during his winter session, and, on his death in 1796, it was found that he had bequeathed nearly all his property 'to the public for the good of mankind and the improvement of science, in an institution to be denominated ''Anderson's University,'' and to be managed by eighty-one Trustees' He named the first trustees in his will, and divided them into nine classes, viz., - tradesmen, agriculturists, artists, manufacturers or merchants, mediciners, lawyers, divines, natural philosophers, and kinsmen, and by nine members of each of those classes the institution is still conducted, with the addition now of nine managers. Dr Anderson's original scheme embraced the four faculties of arts, medicine, law, and divinity, each with nine professors, and an elementary school besides; but the funds bequeathed - only £1000, inclusive of library and collection - were quite indequate for the purpose, though, by means of contributions from many citizens of Glasgow and other friends of science, his object has now been gained. The institution was incorporated by seal of cause from the magistrates in 1796, and began with a single course of lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry, delivered by Dr Thomas Garnet, the well-known author of the Tour Through the Highlands. In 1798 a professorship of mathematics and geography was added, and in 1799 Dr Garnet, having gone to London as the first professor in the Royal Institution, was succeeded by the eminent Dr Birkbeck, who in the following year instituted a class expressly for artisans - the first of the kind ever established and the forerunner of the Mechanics' Institutes now spread all over the country. The class was taught the first session gratuitously, and afterwards a very low fee was charged. The buildings were originally in John Street, but were very small and cramped, and in 1828 new premises in George Street - originally erected in 1782 as a grammar school - were obtained, and these are still occupied. They are the reverse of beautiful, and are now also becoming cramped and too small, but they have seen and are seeing much good and useful work. When it removed to George Street the institution took the name of Anderson's University, which has since, under an act of parliament obtained in 1877 for incorporation, etc., been changed to Anderson's College. In 1829 the resources of the institution were increased by a donation from the late James Yeats of a fifth part of the island of Shuna which is worth about £40 a year. In 1870 the 'Young' chair of technical chemistry was founded; and in 1876, through the liberality of a few gentlemen in Glasgow, a chair of applied mechanics, with a suitable endowment, was founded in connection with the faculty of arts. The faculties of law and divinity have always remained in abeyance, but a medical school has been in existence since the closing years of last century, when John Burns began to lecture on surgery. Many of the most distinguished physicians and surgeons in Glasgow have been connected with it, and many of the medical practitioners trained in it have attained to fame, two names - those of Livingstone and Dr B. W. Richardson - being particularly noteworthy. Many of the medical professors pass afterwards to Glasgow University to fill similar posts. In 1879 three new lectureships, viz., - dental anatomy, dental surgery, and dental mechanics and metallurgy - were instituted. The classes are divided into day classes and popular evening classes, the fees in the latter, which are intended for artisans, being very small. The faculty of arts has professors of mathematics and natural philosophy, chemistry, technical chemistry, and applied mechanics. The medical faculty has chairs of chemistry, surgery, anatomy, institutes of medicine, materia medica, practice of medicine, ophthalmic medicine and surgery, botany, midwifery, medical jurisprudence, public health, aural surgery, dental anatomy, dental surgery, and dental mechanics and metallurgy. Practical and clinical instruction are obtained at the Royal Infirmary, at Anderson's College Dispensary - which in 1881 had 8732 patients, while 3628 patients were visited at their own homes - at the Lying-in Hospital, at the Ophthalmic Institution, and at the Anderson's College Dental Hospital. There are also classes of French, German, Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, writing and book-keeping, phonography, and geology. There are evening classes for the study of natural philosophy, anatomy and physiology, chemistry, music, and botany, and applied mechanics; the lectures in chemistry, mechanical and experimental physics, and anatomy and physiology being delivered in terms of a bequest by Mr John Freeland, who, in 1861, gifted £7500 for the purpose of making provision for separate courses on these subjects, and who also gifted £5000 for general purposes. Those in music are delivered in terms of a gift of £3000 in 1866 from Mr William Euing, who also presented the college with the adjoining Model Schools, and bequeathed to it his musical library, £1200 for the provision of accommodation for his library, and £6000 for general purposes. In connection with the 'Young' chair of chemistry are a number of bursaries of £50 a year tenable for three years; in connection with the chairs of natural philosophy, anatomy, and botany are five bursaries of £12 each; and the Ferguson Bequest Trustees appoint two bursars for any class except practical anatomy or practical chemistry. The expenditure for 1881-82 was £1315, 12s. 11d., and the income, exclusive of fees, etc., £698, 9s. 8d. The college possesses, inclusive of buildings and apparatus, property to the value of £40, 562, 12s. 10d. The formation of the library, which is of fair size, was begun in 1808, and the apartment for it is now lighted by the electric light. The collection of curiosities, etc., bequeathed by Dr Anderson has developed into a good museum, which contains a number of interesting coins and medals, and geological and mineralogical specimens, as well as an extensive general collection. The museum is open to students attending the University free, and to the general public on Wednesday and Saturday, from 12 to 2, at a charge of 6d. The room used for library and museum contains a plaster statue of the founder of the College. The number of evening students in 1852-53 was 160; in 1873-74, the year of the greatest number, it was 1457; for 1881-2 it was 1084; and the total number in attendance on all the classes for 1881-82 was 2517, though probably some deduction ought to be made from that number for students attending more than one class. There is a Dental Students' Association meeting in the College. The winter session begins in September and ends in April, and the summer session begins in May and ends in July.

The Western Medical School is the extra mural school in connection with the Western Infirmary. It has its premises in University Avenue in Hillhead, and has lecturers on chemistry, anatomy, physiology, surgery, practice of medicine, materia medica, midwifery, and forensic medicine and public health.

The Glasgow Veterinary College is in Buccleuch Street. It was founded in 1861, and was, under the Royal Sign Manual, incorporated with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. The patrons are the Dukes of Argyll and Hamilton, the provost and magistrates of the city, the professors of the University, the Highland and Agricultural Society, etc., etc. There are chairs of veterinary medicine and surgery, materia medica, anatomy, and of chemistry, physiology, and botany; and clinical instruction is given at the college. Affiliated to it is the Glasgow Agricultural College, with a chair of the science and practice of agriculture, of practical work at the farm, surveying, farm accounts, etc., of general and agricultural chemistry, of natural history, of veterinary medicine and surgery, and of botany.

The College of Science and Arts originated from the Glasgow Mechanics' Institute, which was founded in 1822-23, and is incorporated by seal of cause. It had good buildings bought for it in North Hanover Street in 1831, but these were in 1859 purchased by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Company for extension of their terminus, and new buildings were in 1860 erected for the Institute near the E end of Bath Street between Renfield Street and West Nile Street. These, which cost about £4000, are rectangular in form, with a frontage of 50 feet to Bath Street, and 96 feet backwards, and rise to a height of four stories. They are very handsome, with finely proportioned pillars in front, and a statue of James Watt in the centre on the top. Since 1879 it has been aided as a technical school, to the extent of £600 a year, by Hutcheson's Hospital, and the name was then changed to the College of Science and Arts. It has also since that been aided by other public bodies, and the objects considerably modified. When it was established it was meant to promote the culture of the artisan class; but the evening classes maintained by the School Board and other institutions have now taken this field up, and consequently the literary classes here have been entirely discontinued, and the limited resources of the College, since 1879, concentrated on providing 'education in such branches of science as have an immediate application to the practical arts on which so large a section of the community is dependent, and also to some extent in the arts themselves.' This is accomplished by both day classes and evening classes, in which instruction is given in geometry, machine and building construction, and drawing, naval architecture, freehand and perspective drawing, arithmetic, book-keeping and mensuration, mathematics, theoretical and applied mechanics, electricity and electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, steam, sound, light, and heat, botany, mining and geology and mine surveying, which are taught by the principal, eight lecturers, and assistants. The students are prepared with a special view to the examinations of the Department of Science and Art, and of the City and Guilds of London Institute. The amount of money earned in Government grants from the former was for 1880-81 £259, 10s., while for 1881-82 it will be about £450, and £50 will probably be obtained from the latter source. The library is good and extensive, containing about 9000 volumes. The affairs are managed by a council of 16 members - 1 representing the Merchants' House, 1 the Town Council, 1 the Faculty of Procurators, 1 the Trades' House, 1 the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, 1 the Glasgow Institute of Architects, 1 Hutcheson's Hospital, and 9 are elected by the College. The income for 1881-82 was £1682, 5s. 4d., the expenditure £1972, 9s. 1ld., and the cash in bank after covering the deficiency £269, 10s. The assets, inclusive of property, etc., and cash balances are estimated at "18,085, 4s. 2d.

The Technical College of Glasgow originated in an influential meeting held in the Council Chambers in February 1872, at which a scheme was proposed for providing technical instruction in the theory and practice of the various great industries of the city. The instruction was to be given, as far as practicable, to men whose early scientific education had been neglected, and who were already engaged in the active duties of life, and was to be carried out in connection with Anderson's University, the Mechanics' Institution, and the Government School of Art and Haldane's Academy, at a cost of £50,000, to be raised by public subscription. In 1876 a report was read at a public meeting, in which it was stated that the whole scheme would have to be abandoned for want of funds, except a weaving college, for which £3230 had been subscribed. This was afterwards erected in Well Street, Calton, with ten steampower looms and two hand-looms. There is an instructor and several assistants, and instruction is given in plain and figured weaving, and in making working plans and drafts for the use of mounters, weavers, enterers, harness tyers, and designers. The students are made familiar with the working of both hand and power looms, as well as with their construction; and they are also taught to sketch patterns, draw designs, and analyse woven fabrics. The number of pupils has increased from 42 in 1878 to about 80 in 1881.

The Glasgow Eastern Botanical Society was instituted in 1876 for the study of botanical science, and meets in the Bridgeton Mechanics' Institute once a month. It conducts a MS. magazine.

The Free Church Theological College.—This building, which also includes the Free College church, stands on the high ground to the E of Kelvingrove Park, with frontages to India Street and Lynedoch Street. The two form a solid pile - which has, however, a somewhat dull look - and were erected at different times down to 1862. The style is plain Italian, with a handsome and well-proportioned campanile at the W end, with a balustrade and pointed roof. The church fronts the N, and has an octostyle portico with two towers in miniature uniformity with that at the W end, but these are entirely spoiled by the ornamentation on the top. The platform near the top of the high campanile is accessible, and commands a magnificent bird's-eye view of the greater part of the city, but particularly to the W, where the eye passes over the suburbs to the open country beyond, along the basin of the Clyde. The college was instituted after the Disruption, for the purpose of preparing students in the West of Scotland for the Free Church ministry, and has a principal and professor of divinity, apologetics and new Testament exegesis, church history, and Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis, and a lecturer on natural science. There are a considerable number of bursaries, varying from £10 to £30 per annum, and scholarships varying from 40 to £112 per annum. The session commences in November, and lasts for five months.

Normal Schools.—The Normal Institution in connection with the Church of Scotland was founded in 1827 for the purpose of training teachers, and is the parent institution of its kind in the kingdom. The building, which stands on the N side of New City Road at the E end close to Cowcaddens, was erected in 1827 at a cost of £15,000. It has a principal front 128 feet long to the S, with wings running northward for l10 feet; in the centre is a tower rising 45 feet above the roof. The Students' Hall has lectureships on the principles of teaching, religious knowledge, mathematics and science, English, natural science and drawing, classics and history, pianoforte music, vocal music, needlework, and French, and a gymnastic master. The practising schools are carried on by a head-master and four assistants, two mistresses, teachers of music, German, needlework, pianoforte, and drawing, and a staff of pupil teachers. The attendance of students in 1881 was 80 male and 83 female, and in the practising department there were 632 pupils in average attendance. A boardinghouse for the accommodation of 70 female students was erected in 1874 not far from the school, at a cost of £1700.

The Normal Seminary in connection with the Free Church originated immediately after the Disruption, and has accommodation on the S side of Cowcaddens about 1 ½ furlong E of the Church of Scotland's institution. The building, which is in a mixed style of Tudor Gothic, was erected in 1846. There is a rector and lecturers on mathematics and geography, etc., a master of method, a music governess, a lady superintendent, a French master, a music master, a drawing master, a drill sergeant, and an instructor in calisthenics, while in the practising department there are three masters and three mistresses, and in the industrial department two mistresses. The attendance at the training department was in 1881-82 male students 73 and female 97. In the practising school there were 521 pupils and 10 pupil teachers.

Glasgow Association for the Higher Education of Women has for its object the advancement of the higher education of women in Glasgow by means of courses of lectures delivered by professors in the University and others, and by tutorial and correspondence classes. Some of the courses of lectures are delivered in the University, and others in the association's class-room in St Andrew's Halls, to which a ladies' reading-room and library is attached. The session is from 1 Nov. to 1 May. The correspondence classes prepare ladies in the country for the University local examinations, and assist them in private study. The London Society of Arts holds examinations in Glasgow, and grants certificates in the theory and practice of music, in connection with this association. In 1881-82 £190 was spent in bursaries and prizes; the income was £1174, 11s. 2d.; and the expenditure £1022, 15s. 11d.

The High School of Glasgow.—This institution, at one time known as the Grammar School, dates from the 12th century, and is descended from the Sang School, which has been already mentioned. Till 1782 the buildings were in Greyfriars' Wynd, but in that year the school was removed to buildings erected for it in George Street, and now occupied by Anderson's College. It was again moved in 1819 to a site on the rising ground behind Anderson's College between John Street and Montrose Street, a situation which was at that time both open and airy. It gradually got blocked in by houses, and after the management of it passed from the town council to the school board - under the Education Act of 1872, in which it was scheduled as one of the eight secondary schools for Scotland - the desirability of a fresh removal was pressed forward, and, finally, in 1878, the school board acquired for the High School the buildings in Elmbank Street, up till that time occupied by the Glasgow Academy. These, which have cost £35,023, are plain Italian in style, two stories high, and have over the doorway and adjoining windows four statues, representing Homer, Cicero, Galileo, and James Watt, erected through the liberality of three members of the school board since the buildings passed into their possession. There is accommodation for 1356 pupils, and the staff consists of a rector, ten masters, and twelve assistants, giving instruction in classics, English, mathematics, German, French, writing and book-keeping, drawing and painting, singing and fencing. The average attendance is about 700. Connected with it is the High School Club, formed of old pupils desirous of promoting the interests of the school, especially by providing scholarships.

The Glasgow Academy was originally instituted in 1846, and when the directors in 1878 sold the old buildings in Elmbank Street to the school board, the Academy was moved to a new site to the N of the Great Western Road, where it crosses the Kelvin. The new building is a handsome square block in the Italian style. It contains sixteen class-rooms, a rector's room, a masters, room, a large gymnasium, a lecture-room, a laboratory, a music-room, and a dining-room, besides a covered hall with compartments for cloak and cap rooms. The school is worthy of notice for its internal arrangement, all the class-rooms (which are 18 feet high) opening off galleries communicating with one another by corner staircases, and looking out on a large central well, lit from the roof. Including the site of 5 acres, all laid out as playground, it cost about £30,00. The staff consists of a rector, eight masters, eight assistant masters (for classics, English, mathematics, German, French, writing and book-keeping, drawing and painting, music and gymnastics), and four lady teachers for the initiatory department and for music. There is accommodation for 700 boys, and the average attendance is from 400 to 500. It belongs to a limited liability company, and the affairs are managed by a board of fifteen directors. In connection with it is an Academy Club similar to the High School Club. Besides the High School and the Academy there are 42 other private high-class schools within the city in various parts, with accommodation for nearly 11,00 pupils.

Hutcheson's Hospital was founded in 1639-41 by two brothers, George and Thomas Hutcheson, who were notaries and writers in Glasgow in the early part of the 17th century. George died in 1639, and bequeathed a site and a sum of money for founding a hospital. for aged citizens; while Thomas gave and bequeathed further sums for the same purpose, and also for educating poor boys. The whole value of the original bequests amounted to £3817, 1s. 8d., but so judiciously has this been nursed and added to by other benefactors, that the clear assets are now worth nearly half a million. The original building, of which the foundation was laid by Thomas Hutcheson in 1640, was on the N side of the Trongate, at the foot of Hutcheson Street, and had to be taken down to allow that thoroughfare to be formed. Drawings of it that have been preserved show a plain Jacobean two-story building, with a clock spire, according to M'Ure, 100 feet high. The frontage had an extent of 70 feet, with the principal entrance in the center. There was a wing at the back, and accommodation for 12 old men and 12 boys, and a school where the boys were taught. The 12 old men used to go together to the church, and sit together in a 'convenient easie seat.' When the old buildings were removed in 1802, new ones were begun at the corner of Ingram Street and John Street, and finished in 1805; and here is still the building known distinctively as Hutcheson's Hospital. It has a rusticated basement and a Corinthian superstructure. surmounted by an octagonal spire 156 feet high, and in niches at the sides of the Ingram Street front are quaint statues of the two brothers. It was long partly occupied by Stirling's Library, but has no school or boarding place in it. The funds are designed for the aid of citizens of Glasgow, or of persons who have engaged in trade there on their own account with credit and reputation, but who have, by misfortune, fallen into reduced circumstances, and also for the aid of the wives and daughters of such, preference being given cæteris paribus to persons enrolled as burgesses of Glasgow previous to 30 Jan. 1871. Applicants must be 50 years of age, but widows with two or more children are eligible at 40; the foundationers in the school are the children of such as would themselves be qualified as pensioners. The schools are Hutcheson,s Grammar School, in Crown Street, in Hutchesontown, and the Girls' School, in Gorbals. The charity was greatly widened by an Act of Parliament obtained by the governors in 1872, by which the governing body was enlarged, so that it now consists of the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council, the ministers of the ten city parishes, three members elected by the Merchants' House, three by the Trades' House, and six ministers elected by the patrons from the ministers in Glasgow other than those of the Established Church, and not more than one from any denomination. Powers were conferred on the directors to take certain steps for the promotion of secondary education, and under these a grammar school and a girls' school have been organised, so as to provide primary and secondary education for boys and girls. £36,000 was expended on these buildings, and the attendance, including foundationers, is in the former about 1300, and in the latter about 900, the fee charged from outside pupils being from £2 to £5 per quarter. In connection with the former, six, and with the latter, four bursaries every year connect the primary with the secondary department. They are tenable for three years, and are worth £5 the first year, £10 the second year, and £15 the third year, with free education. In the grammar school there are besides 20 scholarships every year, and in the girls school 4 for the encouragement of higher education. All these are awarded by open competition. Besides this the governors were empowered to grant a subsidy of £600 a year to the Mechanics' Institution to aid it as a technical school, and 10 bursaries have been established in connection with it every year tenable for three years, the gainers of which are entitled to a three years' course at the Mechanics' Institution, with, at the discretion of the governors, an allowance of £5 for class expenses. Three University bursaries , of the annual value of £20, £25, and £3, have also been established, each tenable for four years.

There is a branch of the Royal School of Art Needlework in Bath Street. Applicants for admission must be gentlewomen by birth and education, and must be willing to devote seven hours a day to work at the school, the chief aim being thus to find suitable employment for gentlewomen and to restore ornamental needlework to the high place it once held among decorative arts. The profit in 1881 was over £400, and the reserve fund amounts to nearly £6000.

Board Schools.—The Burgh School Board consists of 15 members, and was constituted in 1872 by the Education Act passed in that year. When the first board came into office they found that the children of school age within the limits of their district numbered 87,294, while in 1873 to meet this there was school accommodation for only 57,290 scholars (31,000 in inspected schools), while the school attendance was only 52,000, leaving 35,000 children of school age unaccounted for. The school accommodation in 164 schools for 46,749 scholars was good, in 36 for 7664 scholars indifferent, and in 25 for 2806 it was bad. They decided that 41 schools with accommodation for 7300 pupils should be abandoned, and this left aggregate accommodation for 49,919, which left a deficiency of over 34,000. To meet this the board acquired nine permanent day schools in Anderston, Bridgeton, Buchan Street, Dobbie's Loan, Finnieston, Hozier Street, Old Wynd, Rose Street, and St Rollox, and opened temporary schools in various places till 30 schools with accommodation for 22,000 scholars should be erected. Such has, however, been the amount of progress in educational matters, and the increased demands of the education department, that since that time they have again abandoned as unsuitable schools with accommodation for more pupils than those which they at that time proposed to build. There are at present (Nov. 1882) 49 schools under the management of the board, with total accommodation for 36,192 pupils, while for the month of October the number on the roll was 41,893, and the actual attendance 34,730. Of the 49 schools, 10 with accommodation for 3369 scholars are either wholly or partially temporary. After the passing of the Education Act many existing schools were at once closed, and in consequence the school board had at one time 30 temporary schools in operation. These were in 1880 reduced to 7, but the number has since been increased to 10, owing to greater attendance at several schools. The new buildings, afterwards mentioned, will, it is hoped, enable these temporary schools to be finally closed. The following are the schools under the board, inspected in the year ending 30 June 1882, with the number of pupils in average attendance and amount of grant for the year:—

  School. Average
Atten-
dance.
Percentage of
Passes.
Grant.
1 Abbotsford, . . . 663 95.9 £630 7 6
2 Anderston,. . . . 838 94.8 743 10 0
3 Barrowfield, . . . 620 92.0 515 2 0
4 Bishop Street,. . . 967 96.0 923 0 6
5 Bridgeton, . . . . 327 93.7 270 11 0
6 Buchan Street, . . 354 91.1 289 9 0
7 Burnbank,. . . . 213 93.9 160 11 0
8 Camden Street, . . 949 92.5 955 11 6
9 Camlachie,. . . . 379 86.8 279 7 8
10 Campbellfield,. . . 774 91.6 637 6 0
11 Centre Street,. . . 823 93.8 761 11 2
12 City (Boys'), . . . 335 90.5 283 18 6
13 City (Girls'), . . . 431 96.5 404 0 6
14 Crookston Street, . 1115 92.7 1022 11 6
15 Dobbie's Loan, . . 382 94.7 328 15 0
16 Dovehill, . . . . 784 92.6 619 16 0
17 Finnieston,. . . . 303 86.7 238 15 0
18 Freeland, . . . . 339 92.8 314 14 2
19 Garnethill,. . . . 974 96.9 988 9 0
20 George Street, . . 451 94.2 386 9 0
21 Glenpark, . . . . 322 91.9 294 3 0
22 Greenside Street, . 799 97.8 878 4 6
23 Grove Street,. . . 455 92.3 362 10 0
24 Henderson Street, . 1065 93.8 1067 17 6
25 Hozier Street,. . . 444 91.4 346 2 0
26 Kennedy Street,. . 691 94.3 650 5 6
27 Keppochhill, . . . 339 94.5 299 1 6
28 Martyrs,. . . . . 357 98.5 328 3 6
29 Mathieson Street, . 545 96.1 454 1 6
30 Milton, . . . . . 714 97.6 633 15 0
31 Oakbank, . . . . 916 91.1 841 16 0
32 Oatlands, . . . . 1252 92.7 1213 1 0
33 Overnewton, . . . 870 94.7 828 9 8
34 Parkhead, . . . . 734 95.6 682 3 0
35 Rockvilla, . . . . 531 86.2 430 17 0
36 Rose Street, . . . 591 90.6 518 12 0
37 Rumford Street,. . 739 90.5 685 10 6
38 St Rollox, . . . . 559 94.6 514 3 6
39 Sister Street,. . . 703 96.1 589 16 6
40 Springburn, . . . 857 93.6 818 8 6
41 Thomson Street,. . 984 93.3 943 8 0
42 Tureen Street, . . 783 96.2 734 16 6

The average number on the roll of the schools tabulated, for the year ending 30 June 1882, was 35,747; and the total average attendance was 27,271, an increase of 2039 on 1880-81. The number qualified for examination was 22,310, an increase of 2114 on 1880-81; and the number presented for examination was 20, 595, an increase of 1944 on 1880-81. The average number of passes in the elementary subjects was 93.7, as against an average of 88.32 for all Scotland, while 24,595 (an increase of 1974 on 1880-81) were passed in grammar, intelligence, geography, and history. The infants qualified for examination were 1326; presented 1274, an increase of 59 and 74 respectively on the preceding year. The total grants earned amounted to £24,868, 2s. 2d., and the grants earned from the Science and Art Department amounted to £459, 2s.; while the year's fees amount to about £30, 000. When the operations of the board at present contemplated are complete, they will have under their care 52 schools, of which the following is a list, showing the accommodation :- In Anderston district - Bishop Street (1210), Finnieston (378), Overnewton (975), Anderston (929), High School (1356); in Milton district - Dobbie's Loan (470), Henderson Street (985), Rockvilla (926), Milton (1140), Garnethill (1003), Oakbank (930), Grove Street (503), Burnbank (250), Woodside (1036), St George's Road (1100); in St Rollox District - Kennedy Street (840), Springburn (850), Keppochhill (584), Freeland (332), Martyrs' (472); in Dennistoun district - St Rollox (807), Dovehill (1066), Rosemount (600), Dennistoun (1130); in Central district - City, for boys (600), City, for girls (595), George Street (471); in Calton district - Tureen Street (785); in Camlachie district - Thomson Street (886), Barrowfield (742), Sister Street (775), Parkhead (1037), Camlachie (812), Campbellfield (876), Campbellfield, halftime (287), Glenpark (341); in Bridgeton district - Bridgeton (331), Rumford Street (711), Hozier Street (486), Springfield (766), John Street (l135); in Tradeston district - Centrde Street (843), Crookston Street (1l35), Shields Road (200), Shields Road, New (843); in Gorbals District - Greenside Street (830), Buchan Street (530), Abbotsford (1100); in Hutchesontown district - Rose Street (820), Camden Street (1020), Oatlands (1286), Mathieson Street (900). Of these the St George's Road, Rosemount, Dennistoun, Springfield, John Street, and New Shields Road schools are still unfinished. The 28 schools already erected by the board have cost (inclusive of sites) nearly £400,000, and the cost per unit of accommodation has varied from £8, 15s. 2d. to £23, 14s. 2d., and has averaged £14, 19s. 8d. All the board schools are at least two stories in height, and are mostly built on the square principle with the stairs in the centre, the school-rooms and class-rooms running off to the right and left. They are all mixed schools, but have the separate entrances, etc., for boys and girls, prescribed in the Education Department's rules. Inside, the boys and girls form separate sub-divisions of the classes. The board meets on the second Monday of each month. The total amount of loans has been £448,750, repayable in periods varying in different cases from 25 to 50 years, and there has been already repaid £40, 425, 1s. 6d. The income from 1873 to 1881 was £1,011, 938, 18s. 8d., and the expenditure £993, 621, 16s. 16s. 0½d., while for 1880-81 the income was £110,425, 7s. 6d., and the expenditure £112, 453, 16s. 7d., the amount of school fees and grant for the same period being £45,657, and the expenditure on teachers' salaries £45, 786, so that the schools are within £129 of being self-supporting. The school rate is 4½d. per £. All girls in Standard IV. and upwards now receive lessons in cookery. The total number of the teaching staff is at present 673, of which 163 are masters, 170 mistresses, and the rest ex-pupil teachers, pupil teachers, and monitors. Higher education is given in the Abbotsford, Burnbank, Camden Street, Centre Street, City (boys), Crookston Street, Garnethill, George Street, Greenside Street, Grove Street, Henderson Street, Kennedy Street, Milton, Oakbank, Oatlands, Overnewton, Parkhead, Rose Street, Rumford Street, Sister Street, Thomson Street, and Woodside schools. In upwards of 20 schools evening classes are held every year, through which since 1874 over 24,000 scholars have passed. In 1881-82 the number of schools open is 24, including 3 for advanced pupils, while the number of scholars on the roll is 5563. There are also science and art classes. When the Education Act was passed in 1873 there were in Glasgow 87,294 children of school age; 228 schools with accommodation for 57,290 children, and 52,644 on the rolls; in 1881 there were 86,813 children of school age; 166 schools with accommodation for 73,150, and 70,056 on the rolls.

Miscellaneous Public Schools.—Miller and Peadie's school for girls, on the N side of George Street, between Montrose Street and Portland Street, was erected in 1806 from funds bequeathed in 1790 by Archibald Miller, for the education and clothing of girls who are the children of 'reputable' parents, and under the care of 'reputable' people. They are admitted between the ages of eight and nine, and remain in the institution for four years. At present there are about 100 girls in enjoyment of its privileges. It is managed by the principal and the professor of divinity in the university, the ministers of the city parishes, and an elder from each of their kirk-sessions. The staff consists of a mistress and an assistant. Wilson's Charity School for boys, in Montrose Street, is governed by the magistrates, the city parish ministers, and fifteen other gentlemen. It is conducted by a master and two mistresses. The Highland Society school is in the same street. It has a revenue of about £1300 a year, and affords education, clothing, and apprentice fees to sons of indigent Highlanders. It has an industrial department. The Buchanan Institution is in Greenhead Street. It was founded by the late James Buchanan for the maintenance, education, and industrial training of destitute boys. They reside with their parents at night, but have three substantial meals daily at the institution, and are taught the elementary branches of knowledge and also the elements of navigation, gymnastics, tailoring, shoemaking, and carpentry, to fit them for the army, for the sea, or for emigration to the colonies. It is managed by directors chosen from the Town Council, the Merchants' House, and the Trades' House; and has a governor, matron, and assistants. Alexander's charity, in Duke Street, affords a gratuitous education to children of the surname of Alexander or Anderson, children who have constantly resided for three years in High Church, St John's, or College parishes, or such children as the governors may select and appoint. The directors are the lord provost, the magistrates, and the ministers of High Church, St John's, and College parishes. The teaching staff consists of a head-master, four male and four female assistants. Gardner's Free school is in Balmano Street, and was founded in terms of a bequest by the late Moses Gardner, to afford gratuitous instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, for three years to thirty-five boys and thirty-five girls. The patrons are the dean of guild, the deacon-convener, and eleven other gentlemen. There is one teacher. The Logan and Johnston school, in Greenhead Street, was founded by the late William Logan and his wife, Jean Johnston, for the education, upbringing, and assistance in life of poor or destitute step-children or orphans of Scottish extraction, those bearing the names of Logan or Johnston to be preferred. One hundred and thirty girls receive instruction in the elementary branches of education, and also in knitting and sewing, and each of them receives lunch daily, and a suit of clothes, and two pairs of shoes and stockings yearly. There is a matron. There are four directors from the town council, four from the Merchants' House, and four from the Trades' House, and there are nine visitors. M'Farlane's school, in Surrey Street, Gorbals, gives free education in reading, writing, sewing, and the principles of religion, to girls entering between eight and nine years of age. It has about seventy scholars. M'Lachlan's Free school, in Cathedral Street, gives ample elementary education to the sons and daughters of poor but respectable Highlanders residing in or near the city. The attendance is about 250, nearly equally divided between boys and girls. Murdoch's schools, in St Andrews Square, give instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, and have about 500 pupils. Allan Glen's Institution, at the corner of Cathedral Street and North Hanover Street, was built in 1853, and enlarged prior to 1876 so as to accommodate about 140 boys. It gave a good practical education to, and provided clothes for, sons of tradesmen. It sprang from a bequest which contemplated other objects, and has a value of about £350, 000, and in 1875-76 the trustees applied to parliament for an act to empower them to provide additional schools, to establish libraries and reading-rooms in connection with them, to assist deserving boys by the foundation of bursaries, and to set aside one-fifth of the income for the assistance of the aged and destitute. Under the act then obtained, the Institution has ceased to supply gratuitous elementary education, and now places secondary and technical education within reach of boys of the middle classes. There are open and covered playgrounds, 6 class-rooms, a lecture-room, a laboratory, and a workshop, with other conveniences. There is an elementary department with a master and mistress, a secondary department with 3 masters, and a technical department with 7 masters. The latter embraces classes of experimental physics, theoretical and practical chemistry, metallurgy, mathematics, engineering, mechanical drawing, modelling and practical workmanship, drawing, and French and German. In the technical department boys are prepared for learning the trades 'whose mastery implies a considerable amount of scientific and technical knowledge as well as of manual dexterity.' There are l00 exhibitions, partly for the secondary and partly for the technical department, and the holders receive education, books, and apparatus free. There are also evening classes in the technical subjects mentioned above, and also in steam, building construction and drawing, shading and monochrome painting, and French. The trustees are the provost, dean of guild, deacon-convener, the minister of the cathedral, 9 under testamentary disposition, 1 nominated by the Town Council, 1 by the Merchants' House, 1 by the Trades' House, and 2 by the University. The average number of pupils is about 300. The fees range from 30s. to 8 guineas per session. The Graham Free Education Trust was instituted by the late Mrs Graham or Lindsay, who bequeathed a fund for the education of the children of deserving parents bearing the names of Graham, Norrie, or Norris. The Maxwell and Hutcheson charitable trust was founded in 1877 under the will of Miss Ann Maxwell Graham of Williamwood, for the benefit of decayed gentlefolks of the names of Maxwell and Hutcheson, or their husbands, wives, or descendants, and also for the education of their children. There are seven trustees in Glasgow. The Glasgow Deaf and Dumb Institution was commenced under the same auspices, and on the same system as the Deaf and Dumb Institution at Edinburgh, and became at an early period of its career distinguished for its great efficiency and success. It long occupied a plain house a short distance NW of the cathedral, but in 1870 removed to its present home at Prospect Bank, Crosshill, in a fine Venetian building close to the Queen's Park. The structure is 240 feet long and 150 wide, and has beautiful surroundings and excellent internal arrangements. The number of pupils is about 200, and the income and expenditure amount to about £2000 a year. Strangers are admitted on Wednesdays at 2 p.m.

Reformatories.—The House of Refuge and Reformatory for Boys, for the reception of juvenile thieves and of neglected children, and for giving them a good education and training them to self-support, is in Duke Street, and was built in 1836-38 at a cost of £13,000 raised by subscription. It is a large building in the Italian style. It was for a time entirely dependent on voluntary contributions, but came eventually to receive support from an assessment imposed by Act of Parliament, and is governed, along with the other reformatories and industrial schools, by a board of 12 commissioners and 37 directors, appointed under the Glasgow Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Repression Act passed in 1878. It has usually about 300 inmates. The Girls' House of Refuge and Reformatory originated later, but is under the same management and intended for the same purposes as the reformatory for boys. The building was originally in Parliamentary Road, was thence moved to Reddrie, and new premises were again opened in October 1882 at East Chapelton, about 3 miles NW of Glasgow. This is an Italian building of two stories, with a frontage of 78 feet, and side wings running back for 82 ½ feet. On the lower flat are the school-rooms, work-rooms, dining-room, kitchen, and the matron's room; while on the upper story are two large dormitories, sick-room, lavatory, and other accommodation. In outbuildings are a washinghouse, laundry, and dairy. There is accommodation for 60 girls, and the total cost including site was £9570. There are at present only 25 inmates, and according to the blue book the institution is the most economically managed in the whole kingdom, and it is calculated that about 70 per cent of the girls turn out well. The Juvenile Delinquency Board have also the management of an industrial school for boys, an industrial school for girls, and a day industrial school, all of which provide food, education, religious instruction, and industrial training for destitute children, whether admitted on private application or under a magistrate's warrant. The first is at Mossbank, Hogganfield, on the S side of the Caledonian railway. It was erected in 1869, and was burned down in 1873, the loss being estimated at £14,000, but it was rebuilt in 1874-75, and is a large well-arranged edifice. There are generally about 450 inmates. The Girls' Industrial School was originally in Rottenrow, but has now been transferred to buildings at Maryhill. The number of girls in it is on an average about 200. About 75 per cent. of both boys and girls are found to do well after leaving. The income and expenditure of both institutions amount to about £10,000 per annum. The Day Industrial School is in Green Street. Since the institution of these schools, there has been a gradual decrease in the number of juvenile offenders and destitnte children dealt with by the police. In 1881-82 the income of the Commissioners under the Act of 1878 was £9833, 15s. 7d., and the expenditure £9233, 10s. 11d.

Parishes and Parochial Affairs.—The whole of Glasgow on the N side of the Clyde, with a considerable landward tract around it, formed at the time of the Reformation only one parish, though the cathedral was in 1588 made a collegiate charge. In 1592 the church of St Mary and St Anne, now the Trongate, was repaired and a third minister was added. In 1595 a fourth was added, who officiated in the crypt of the cathedral known as the Laigh Kirk; and in 1596 the landward portion above alluded to was set apart for this last minister as a separate parish, and was called the Barony. This quadruple division of parishes lasted till 1701, when other two were added, and thereafter divisions still went on till the original city parish of the High Church had been divided into the ten parishes of Inner High or St Mungo's, the Outer High or St Paul's, St Andrew's, St David's or Ramshorn, St Enoch's, St George's, St James', St John's, St Mary's or Tron, and Blackfriars or College, which constitute what are now known as the City Churches and City parishes, the maintenance of which costs the city about £2200 a year, which is generally supposed to be provided from the common good, but it is just possible that if all the funds bequeathed of old to the corporation were thoroughly investigated, less of this sum than is imagined might be found to come from that source. Modern Glasgow is quoad sacra divided into a large number of parishes, as will be seen in the section on ecclesiastical affairs, but quoad civilia it is included almost entirely within the Barony, City, and Govan parishes. On the N side of the river, beginning at the E end, the parish of Shettleston extends along the river to the municipal boundary, from the river to Shettleston Sheddings, then on to Cumbernauld Road and along Cumbernauld Road. NW of this is the parish of Springburn, which extends from the line of Cumbernauld Road and Duke Street, along the W side of the Necropolis, the E side of Sighthill Cemetery, and northwards by Keppochhill and Springburn. It contains three detached portions of the Barony, at Broomfield, Mile-End, and Milton. E of the municipal boundary at Shettleston Sheddings, bounded on the S by Great Eastern Road, and on the W by an irregular line drawn from Bluevale Road to Camlachie Foundry, is a detached portion of the Barony. Adjoining Springburn on the W is Maryhill, which is bounded on the S by the canal, from the E end of Garngad Road to near Napiershall. There the boundary turns to the W, crosses Garscube Road, and passes along Well Road, and SE to the junction of New City Road and Great Western Road; along which it runs as far as the Kelvin, where it turns NW following the line of the stream. The parish of Calton extends from the municipal boundary at the E, and adjoins Shettleston. Its limits are the municipal line from the river as far as Great Eastern Road; then along this road to Crownpoint Street, along Crownpoint Road, Abercrombie Street, Millroad Street, King Street, in an irregular line to Great Hamilton Street, along which it runs irregularly till it reaches the edge of the Green at the washing-house. It then proceeds by Greenhead Street, and New Hall Terrace, to the river, which is the boundary back to the original starting point. The City parish follows this line reversed, from Newhall Terrace, to the corner of Great Eastern Road near Camlachie Foundry, then goes irregularly to a point in Duke Street, near the corner of Bluevale Street, along Duke Street to John Knox Street then along Wright Street, and from that in an irregular line N to the canal. The boundary turns along the canal to a point opposite the old fever hospital, and thence back in an irregular line to the corner of Castle Street and Garngad Hill, them along Castle Street, Glebe Street, Albert Street, and behind St Mungo Street to Stirling Road, along which it passes to St James' Road, and along St James' Road to M'Auslan Street, then along it to Parliamentary Road; from this it proceeds in an irregular line down West Nile Street to Argyle Street, along which it turns westward to a point midway between M'Alpine Street and Washington Street, where it turns straight down to the river, and back along the river to the SE corner of the Green. The SE boundary of the main part of the Barony is the line just given from the point on the canal opposite the old fever hospital to the point on the river, midway between M'Alpine Street and Washington Street, from that the line follows the river down to the shipbuilding yard at the E side of the mouth of the Kelvin. It passes along the E and N sides of the yard to the river Kelvin, up which it turns to the Great Western Road, and then passes along Great Western Road by an irregular line passing from the corner of Scotia Street and New City Road to the corner of Cowcaddens, and then along Ann Street to the canal. Between this line from the junction of New City Road and the canal is a detached portion of the City parish, measuring 7 furlongs by 3, and a detached portion of the Barony, measuring 3 by 1 ½ furlongs E of New City Road at Hophill Street. From the line of the Kelvin the parish of Govan sweeps W and S, crossing the river and extending up the S side as far as Malls Mire Burn, beyond which is the parish of Rutherglen. Shawlands and Pollokshaws are in the parish of Eastwood, and Queen's Park and Crosshill in that of Cathcart. which are still farther S.

The Parochial Boards for the city are the City, the Barony, and Govan Combination, the amounts received by which were in 1881 respectively, £154,257, 19s. 11 ½ d. from assessments, and £31, 372, 16s. 8d. from other sources. The City Parochial Board consists of 5 representatives from each of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th wards of the city; 4 members nominated by the magistrates, and 4 members nominated by kirk-sessions. Some sort of poor-rate must have been levied in Glasgow from 1595, for we find that in that year a committee of the general kirk-session was appointed to consider who were able to contribute for the relief of the poor, and in 1638 we find that the poor had, during the sitting of the General Assembly, been kept off the streets, an arrangement which so delighted the magistrates, that they determined that the inhabitants should be stented or taxed for the purpose of keeping them always off the street (as beggars presumably), and maintaining them in their houses, and this plan was carried out, for in 1639 all who had not paid were to have their goods seized to double the value, and were to have their names proclaimed in church; and in 1697 it was further determined to augment the assessment by church-door collections. In 1774, however, the kirk-session found they were no longer equal to the demands made on them, and on this being intimated to the council, the latter appointed 15 assessors who were to impose a rate to produce £1305, 10s. 10 ½ d-, and this board was the forerunner of parochial boards. The first poorhouse that existed in the city was erected in 1733 on a site in Clyde Street, near the present St Andrew's Roman Catholic Church. It was built at the joint expense of the Town Council, General Session, Merchants' House, and Trades' House. It was meant for 152 inmates according to M'Ure, who declares that it was finer than any other hospital in the world except Heriot's Hospital in Edinburgh. The present City Poorhouse or Town's Hospital is an irregularly disposed pile of buildings near the W end of Parliamentary Road. It was originally built for the Royal Lunatic Asylum, but passed by sale to the City Parish Parochial Board in 1843 for £15,000, when the Asylum was removed to Gartnavel. The main buildings are a spacious octagonal structure with four radiating wings and a central dome. There is accommodation for 1587 inmates, and it contains on an average about l000 paupers, of whom about 1/5 are generally lunatics. It is exclusively for the use of the City parish.

The Barony Parochial Board consists of 7 ratepayers from the 1st ward, 6 from the 2d, 5 from the 3d, and 3 from the 4th; 4 members of Barony kirk-session, and 4 commissioners of supply. The poorhouse is a handsome block arranged round two quadrangles, and with two projecting wings and detached governor's house and outbuildings. It is at Barnhill near Springburn, NE of Glasgow, stands within extensive grounds, and has accommodation for 1348 inmates, and contains on an average 1100 paupers. The lunatic asylum for the Barony parish is an extensive range of buildings recently erected at Lenzie, on the N side of, and close to the North British line near Lenzie Junction station.

The Govan Combination Parochial Board consists of 5 representatives from the eastern district, 4 from the central district, 6 from the western district, 5 from the Govan district, 5 from the Partick district, 4 from Govan kirk-session, and 4 from Gorbals kirk-session. The poorhouse was originally in the old cavalry barracks in Gorbals, but was removed in 1872 to new buildings at Merryflat on the Renfrew Road, SE of Govan, under which it is noticed.

Registration.—For registration purposes, Glasgow is now divided into 14 registration districts. Prior to 1875 there were 10, viz :- Central, High Church, Bridgeton, Calton , Clyde, Blythswood, Milton, Anderston, Tradeston, Hutchesontown; but in that year they were rearranged, and the district divided into the Bridgeton, Camlachie, Dennistoun, Calton, Blackfriars, St Rollox, Blythswood, Milton, Kelvin, Anderston, Hutchesontown, Tradeston, Gorbals, and Kinning Park districts. The population in these separately will be found in a subsequent section. The registrars are appointed by the town council.

Ecclesiastical Affairs—Established Churches.—The early division of Glasgow ecclesiastically has been noticed in the last section, and since the division there mentioned many divisions into quoad sacra parishes have taken place in City, Barony, and Govan parishes, as well as in Calton and the parts of Springburn and Maryhill adjoining the city, till there are now in the city and suburbs 66 charges and 18 mission churches, a number of which are at present in course of conversion into separate charges. The original City parish, which comprised 988 .624 acres, has now been carved into the Inner High, the Robertson Memorial, St Paul's, St James', St George's, St Andrew's, St David's, St Enoch's, St John's, Tron (St Mary's), Blackfriars (College), St Peter's, Chalmers' Memorial, and Bridgegate quoad sacra parishes; while St George's-in-the-Fields is in the detached portion of the City parish on the SW. Macleod and Martyrs' have been formed partly from the City parish and partly from Barony. Barony itself, which comprised 3295.612 acres, has been broken up into Barony (attached to the church), Kelvinhaugh, Sandyford, Park, St Vincent's, Anderston, St Mark's, St Matthew's, Blythswood, St Stephen's, Milton, Port Dundas, St Columba's (all in the part W of the City parish), and Bluevale and Parkhead (in the detached portion E of the City parish). Govan has been split up into Govan (proper), Hillhead, Partick, St Mary's (Partick), Dean Park, Bellahouston, Plantation, Kinning Park, Maxwell, Pollokshields, Kingston, Govanhill, Abbotsford, Laurieston, Gorbals, Hutchesontown, and St Bernard's. The parish of Queen's Park to the S has been formed partly from Govan, but mostly from Cathcart. Calton, SE of the City parish, has been divided into Calton (proper), St Luke's, Newlands, Greenhead, Barrowfield, Bridgeton, Newhall, and St Thomas. Springburn has had cut off from its SW corner the parishes of Wellpark and Townhead.

The Cathedral.—The parent church of Glasgow, the cathedral, is particularly interesting as being, along with the churches at Kirkwall and Old Aberdeen, one of the few perfect examples of early architecture which the zeal of the Reformers and the more praiseworthy, but equally objectionable, zeal of the early restorers of the present century have left for us in anything like the original condition. Like all cathedral churches the form is that of a Latin cross, with nave, aisles, transepts, choir, lady-chapel, crypt, and chapter-house. Here the outline has rather an unwonted bareness arising from the fact that the transepts, owing to the non-completion of the original design, project but so slightly beyond the aisles that the long straight sweep of the side walls is hardly broken by them at all. That they were intended to project farther is evident from the Blackadder crypt, which would have afforded support to a S transept. The style is Early English, and all competent authorities are agreed that the building is a very fine example of that period. The best views of the exterior are to be had from the SE corner and from the Bridge of Sighs leading to the Necropolis. The entire length of the building is 319 feet, the breadth 63 feet, and the height 90 feet; while at the junction of the nave and transepts a massive square tower with octagonal spire rises to a height of 225 feet. This central tower measures 30 feet each way in the basement, and rises about 30 feet above the lofty roof of the nave and choir. It presents a four-light window on each of its faces, and terminates in a balustrade with pinnacles at the corners, while the spire rises in four successive stages, with ornamental bands between. The aisles are narrow but lofty, and have a row of windows with double mullions. The clerestory windows are much the same, but have not all double mullions. Over the principal doorway at the W end is the great western window, with four openings separated by beautifully carved mullions, and the great windows of the N and S transepts are much the same. There are massive buttresses all round. On the wall above the spaces between is a line of gorgoils, each showing a monstrous mouth, with a grotesque face sculptured on the under side. However bare may be the look of the exterior all idea of such a feeling vanishes at once on reaching the interior, and taking in at one glance the whole majestic sweep of the nave, which is 155 feet in length, 30 in breadth between the columns, and 90 high. On each side is a series of seven elegant, but massive, clustered columns supporting the triforium, and above this is a row of clerestory windows. At the intersection of the nave, transepts, and choir are four pillars supporting the arches of the tower, and from the angles groins spring towards the centre, leaving there, however, a circular opening for the purpose of raising heavy materials or bells to the upper part of the tower. Up till 1835 a partition wall of rough masonry, constructed in 1648, cut the nave in two from N to S, and the western section was fitted up as a church for the congregation of the Outer High parish. This was, however, removed, together with the fittings of the church, on the erection of the new church of St Paul's, and the nave is now once more to be seen in all its original grandeur. At the E end of the nave beneath the arches supporting the tower is a richly carved roodscreen separating the nave and choir. On either side are niches and flights of steps with carved balustrade leading to the crypt. In the centre is a low elliptic-arched doorway, through which a flight of steps leads to the higher level of the choir, which is 127 feet long, 30 wide between the columns, and about 80 high. On each side are five arches supported on clustered pillars, with beautiful and richly carved capitals with the usual foliage designs, and each differing from all the others. In the restoration operations carried out previous to 1856, this portion of the building was judiciously and successfully altered. The old unseemly seats and galleries were removed, and their place supplied by richly-carved oak fittings in the modern cathedral style; and a fine pulpit constructed from the old oak beams of the roof now occupies the site of the high altar. The floor is executed in tesselated tile-work. During the restoration operations the grave of one of the old bishops was found near the site of the high altar. The remains, which were possibly those of Bishop Joceline, had been wrapped in a cloth embroidered with gold, some of which still adhered to the bones.

At the E end of the choir is the Lady chapel, which is one of the most beautiful parts of the building. Externally it is a low flat-roofed building resting on the eastern part of the crypt. Internally there is a profusion of elaborate ornament, while the columns consist of clusters of slender and graceful shafts, with richly carved and beautiful capitals. It contains a monument to the Protestant Archbishop Law (1615-32). Opening from the N side of the Lady chapel is the chapter-house. It also rests on the crypt, but it is crowned by a high-pitched roof. The interior is 28 feet square, with the roof supported by a central pillar, on which are the arms of the founder, Bishop Lauder (1408-1425). The floor is now laid with tesselated tile-work, and all round are oak seats. Beneath the buildings just described is a series of magnificent crypts, forming in themselves a beautiful and perfect structure. These, which vary very much in height, extend beneath the choir, the Lady chapel, the chapter-house, and beyond the S transept. The portion under the first two is known as Joceline's crypt, that under the chapter-house as Lauder's crypt, and that under the unfinished S transept as Blackadder's crypt. The latter has the roof supported by three richly clustered columns with fine capitals, and exhibits some of the best work in the whole cathedral, while all three show such solidity of construction, such richness of groining, and such beauty of detail in the pillars and varied capitals, as render them artistically of the highest value, and the finest thing of the kind in the kingdom. The crypt known as Blackadder's, under the S transept, ought more properly to be called Fergus' aisle or crypt, for it seems to have been dedicated to the Fergus whose body St Mungo brought with him to Cathures; Mr Macgeorge having pointed out that on a stone in the roof over the entrance is carved a rude representation of the dead saint extended on a vehicle, and beside it the inscription cut in long Gothic letters, 'this is the ile of car Fergus.' At the E end of Joceline's crypt on a raised platform is a tomb with headless and handless recumbent effigy, which tradition, without the slightest grounds, indicates as the tomb of St Mungo himself. There are also two stone coffins, one of them with a shamrock round the margin, dug up within the building, and believed to be as old as the 6th century. In the SE corner is a well 24 feet deep, and with 3 to 4 feet of water in it, known as St Mungo's Well. It was supposed to possess special healing qualities. Originally a place of sepulture, the crypt became after the Reformation, as we have already seen, the church of the Barony parish, and from that time till the beginning of the present century it was one of the most extraordinary places of worship in the country. Sir Walter Scott in Rob Roy makes it the meeting-place of the outlaw himself and Francis Osbaldistone- 'We entered,' he makes Francis say, 'a small, low-arched door, secured by a wicket, which a grave-looking person seemed on the point of closing, and descended several steps as if into the funeral vaults beneath the church. It was even so; for in these subterranean precincts - why chosen for such a purpose I know not - was established a very singular place of worship. Conceive an extensive range of low-browed, dark, and twilight vaults, such as are used for sepulchres in other countries, and had long been dedicated to the same purpose in this, a portion of which was seated with pews and used as a church. The part of the vaults thus occupied, though capable of containing a congregation of many hundreds, bore a small proportion to the darker and more extensive caverns which yawned around what may be termed the inhabited space. In those waste regions of oblivion, dusky banners and tattered escutcheons indicated the graves of those who were doubtless ''princes in Israel.'' . . . Surrounded by these receptacles of the last remains of mortality, I found a numerous congregation engaged in the act of prayer.' After the erection of a separate church for the Barony congregation in 1801 the crypts again became a place of burial, and acquired such an unsightly condition, that the shafts of the fine columns were covered to a depth of 5 feet by the accumulation of débris, while the walls were daubed over with marks of grief - a state of matters which lasted till about 1835.

After the restoration operations had been completed in 1856, a proposal was made to fill the windows of the cathedral with stained glass, and this was taken up so readily by a large and influential body of subscribers that in 1859 the first window was placed in the church, and in 1864 all the windows were filled except those in the clerestory, and that, too, has now been partially accomplished. In all there are 113 windows thus filled - 44 in the nave, transepts, choir, and Lady chapel, 14 in the clerestory, 7 in the chapter-house, 27 in Joceline's crypt, 12 in Lauder's crypt, and 9 in Blackadder's crypt. The great E window was furnished by the Queen, the great W window by the Bairds of Gartsherrie, and the N and S transept windows by respectively the late Duke of Hamilton and Mrs Cecilia Douglas of Orbiston. These represent in order (1) the four Evangelists; (2) the giving of the Law ; the entrance into the Promised Land; the dedication of the Temple, and the captivity of Babylon; (3) the prophets Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Malachi, and John the Baptist; (4) in the lower divisions Noah issuing from the Ark, the gathering of manna, Melchisedec offering bread and wine, Isaac ascending Mount Moriah with the wood of sacrifice, and the priest offering the first fruits; and, in the corresponding compartments above, Christ baptised, Christ the true bread from heaven, Christ instituting the Sacrament, Christ bearing His cross to Calvary, and Christ rising from the dead. The other windows have been contributed by various donors, whose names are inscribed on them. The windows in the nave beginning at the NW angle contain a series of Old Testament characters in chronological order; the choir, illustrations of the parables and precepts of Christ; the Lady chapel, the apostles; the chapter-house, acts of charity and mercy; Joceline's crypt and Blackadder's crypt, various scriptural incidents mainly relating to the life of Christ; and two showing King Rhydderch, St Mungo, and St Columba, and Archbishops Boyd, Burnet, and Paterson; while Lauder's crypt has a series of representations of angels bearing emblems of Christ and the Evangelists. A large number of the windows have been executed at the royal glass-painting factory at Munich, but a few have been executed in London and Edinburgh. The fine organ was made in London, and was erected in 1880, having been presented by the minister of the church, the Rev. Dr Burns.

In dealing with the bishops in the historical section, notice has already been taken of the early history of the cathedral. Mr Honeyman, in his Age of Glasgow Cathedral, is of opinion that the only portion of the building of 1197 is a small pillar and part of the vaulting in the SW corner of the crypt, and the probability is that the present building was commenced by Bishop Bondington (1233 -58), in whose time the crypt and choir were completed. The building was still unfinished in 1277, in Wyschard's time, and the erection of the steeple was begun by Bishop Lauder, and continued and probably completed by Bishop Cameron. The date of the nave cannot be determined, but it was probably built subsequently to the crypt and choir. At the NW end of the nave there was formerly a massive and imposing square tower 120 feet high, and having on each side near the top two fine windows, with rounded arches, and also some grotesque sculptures now lying in the crypt. At the SW corner was another erection not carried up into a tower but finished with gables. It was called the consistory house, and was probably of the same date as the tower opposite, the lower stage of which Mr Billings regarded as forming, along with the W door of the nave, the oldest part of the whole Building. The consistory house was picturesque and interesting, but, this notwithstanding, and though both it and the tower were in a perfect state of preservation, they were in 1854 removed by order of Her Majesty's First Commissioner of Works as excrescences on the original building - a removal which, notwithstanding all that has been alleged to the contrary, must, we fear, be regarded as an act of great barbarity and vandalism. The buildings were old enough and intimately enough associated with the history and original design o-f the cathedral to have inspired greater reverence, and, besides, Mr Macgeorge asserts, and probably rightly, that 'the tower was really essential to the proper balance of the structure.'

Soon after the Reformation the cathedral was ' purged ' of all its altars, images, and other appendages that might remind the people of the old ritual and worship; and so zealous or rather furious were the Reformers in this work of purification, that they also swept away all the monuments which had been erected not only to patriotic prelates, but to eminent laymen, with the single exception of the tomb of the Stewarts of Minto, a family which had supplied provosts and magistrates- to the city through several generations. Though this insane destruction was not altogether the work of a rabble glorying in mischief under any pretext, it is but fair to state that the government, in issuing an order for the destruction of all 'monuments of idolatry,' strongly enjoined the preservation of the buildings themselves, as will be seen from the order:

'To the Magistrates of Burghs.
'Our traist freindis, after maist hearty commendacion, we pray ye fail not to pass incontinent to the Kirk [of Glasgow or other such edifice as might require attention] and tak down the haill images thereof, and bring furth to the kirkzyard, and burn them openly. and siclyke cast down the alteris, and purge the kirk of all kynd of monuments of idolatrye. and this ye fail not to do as ye will do us singular emplesur; and so committis you to the protection of God.
(Signed) 'Ar. Argyle.
'James Stuart.
'Ruthven.

'From Edinburgh the xii of August. 1560.

'Fail not bot ye tak guid heyd that neither the dasks, windocks, nor durris be only ways hurt or broken, either glassin work or iron work.'

Though the occurrence of such an important part of the mandate in a postscript might perhaps be considered as a little significant, yet it was probably the desire of the Lords of the Congregation at this time that the work of demolition should go a certain length, and no farther; but they had raised a spirit which they could not lay again, and the harangues of any furious preacher were received with much greater acceptance than the comparatively moderate injunctions of the civil rulers. The more ardent among the Reformers were not content with a partial demolition, and they resolved that every trace of the Romish superstition should be swept away at the expense of those magnificent structures which had been long the pride and glory of the land. An act was accordingly passed in 1574 by the Estates, at the instigation of the Assembly, authorising a still further purification or dismantling of those churches which had hitherto escaped, and 'thereupon,' says Spottiswoode, 'ensued a pitiful devastation of churches and church buildings throughout all parts of the realm, for every one made bold to put to their hands - the meaner sort imitating the ensample of the greater, and those who were in authority. No difference was made, but all the churches either defaced or pulled to the ground. The holy vessels, and whatsoever else men could make gain of, as timber, lead, and bells, were put up to sale. The very sepulchers of the dead were not spared. The registers of the church and bibliotheques cast into the fire. In a word, all was ruined; and what had escaped in the time of the first tumult did now undergo the common calamity, which was so much the worse, that the violences committed at this time were coloured with the warrant of publick authority. Some ill-advised preachers did likewise animate people in these their barbarous proceedings crying out - "That the places where idols had been worshipped, ought, by the law of God, to be destroyed, and that the sparing of them was the reserving of things execrable." ' The execution of the above-mentioned act for the West was committed to the Earls of Arran, Argyll, and Glencairn, and they, at the intercession of the inhabitants of Glasgow, had spared the cathedral, but Andrew Melvil, acting with more zeal than discretion, kept urging the magistrates to pull the building down and build three churches with the materials. They at length acceded to his request, and the narrow escape of the cathedral in 1579 is thus told by Spottiswoode: 'In Glasgow the next spring there happened a little disturbance by this occasion. The magistrates of the city, by the earnest dealing of Mr Andrew Melvil and other ministers, had condescended to demolish the cathedral, and build with the materials thereof some little churches in other parts for the ease of the citizens. Divers reasons were given for it; such as the resort of superstitious people to do their devotion in that place; the huge vastness of the church, and that the voice of a preacher could not be heard by the multitudes that convened to sermon; the more commodious service of the people; and the removing of that idolatrous monument (so they called it), which was, of all the cathedrals of the country, only left unruined and in a possibility to be repaired. To do this work a number of quarriers, masons, and other workmen was conduced, and the day assigned when it should take beginning. Intimation being given thereof, and the workmen by sound of drum warned to go unto their work, the crafts of the city in a tumult took armes, swearing with many oathes that he who did cast down the first stone, should be buried under it. Neither could they be pacified till the workmen were discharged by the magistrates. A complaint was hereupon made, and the principals cited before the council for insurrection, when the king, not as then thirteen years of age, taking the protection of the crafts, did allow the opposition they had made, and inhibited the ministers (for they were the complainers) to meddle any more in that businesse, saying, ''That too many churches had been already destroyed, and that he would not tolerate more abuses of that kind. " ' The truth of this statement has been questioned, as no entry regarding the intended destruction of the cathedral stands in the council minutes of the day, and because no other historian mentions the affair. It may be presumed, however, that there were good reasons why no notice of the destructive resolution of the magistrates, and of the events which followed, should be placed on the records; and further Spottiswoode is a trustworthy chronicler, and the tradition has been one of almost universal acceptance in Glasgow for nearly three centuries. The details may be slightly inaccurate, but the main fact of the great peril to the cathedral and of its rescue by the crafts, seem to be worthy of all credit. There is indeed reason to believe that the silence may arise from the consent of the council having been passive rather than active, and that Captain Crawford of Jordanhill, then Provost of Glasgow, and the other magistrates yielded even thus far with considerable reluctance, and only that they might clear themselves from any imputation of having an undue tenderness for the memorials of Popery. Newte, in his Tour in England and Scotland (1791), goes farther, and says that the chief magistrate remonstrated and said, 'I am for pulling down the High Church, but not till we have first built a new one.' The respect that the greater part of the citizens bore to it, is evidenced by the provost and council having in 1574 met with the deacons of the crafts and others to consider the ruinous condition of the cathedral, 'throuch taking awaye of the leid sclait and wther grayth thairof in thir trublus tyme bygane, sua that sick ane greit monument will all uterlie fall doun and dekey without it be remedit, and becaus the helping thairof is so greit . . . all in ane voce has consentit to ane taxt and impositioun of twa hundredtht pundis money to be taxt and payit be the tounschip and fremen thairof for helping to repair the said kirk and haldying it wattirfast. In Rob Roy Sir Walter Scott gives a slightly different but decidedly picturesque account of the incident: 'Ay!' says Andrew Fairservice, 'it's a braw kirk-nane o' your whigmalieries, and curliwurlies, and open steek hems about it - a' solid, weel-jointed mason-wark, that will stand as lang as the world, keep hands and gunpowther aff it. It had amaist a douncome langsyne at the Reformation, when they pu'd doun the kirks of St Andrews and Perth and thereawa', to cleanse them o' papery, and idolatry, and image worship and surplices, and siclike rags o' the muckle hure that sitteth on seven hills, as if ane wasna braid eneuch for her auld hinder end. Sae the commons o' Renfrew, and of the Barony and the Gorbals, and a' about, they behoved to come into Glasgow, ae fair morning, to try their hands in purging the High Kirk of Papish nick-nackets. But the tounsmen of Glasgow, they were feared their auld edifice might slip the girths in gaun through siccan rough playsic, sae they rang the common bell, and assembled the train-bands wi' tuck o' drum. By good luck, the worthy James Rabat was Dean o' Guild* that year (and a guid mason he was himsell, made him the keener to keep up the auld biggin'); and the trades assembled and offered dounright battle to the commons, rather than their kirk should coup the crans, as others had done elsewhere. It wasna for love o' Papery - na na - nane could ever say that o' the trades o' Glasgow. Sae they sune cam to an agreement to tak a' the idolatrous statues o' saints (sorrow be on them) out o' their neuks. And sae the bits o' stane idols were broken in pieces by Scripture warrant and flung into the Molendinar Burn, and the auld kirk stood as crouse as a cat when the flaes are kaimed aff her, and a' body was alike pleased.'

* An anachronism. There was no Dean of Guild till 1605.

The repairs continued to occupy the attention of the council from time to time during the rest of the 16th and the early part of the 17th centuries, and the minutes on the subject are numerous, and, before the meeting of the General Assembly in 1638, considerable repairs and improvements were actually made by them, while some of the Protestant archbishops seem to have also, out of their scanty revenues, done what they could; but the building remained in a very dilapidated condition till 1829, when Dr Clelland called attention to its state, and a subscription was started for the repair of the nave. It was in some way interrupted, and nothing more was done till 1854, when the Commissioners of Woods and Forests took up the matter, and under their care the restoration was, by 1856, completely effected, in a manner which - excepting for the removal of the W tower and the consistory house - is worthy of the highest praise. The building is the property of the Crown, but the corporation draw the seat-rents of the High Church-it being one of the ten city churches, - and they have also the care of the churchyard. There are several bells in the tower, and the largest one has an inscription somewhat worthy of notice: 'In the year of grace 1594, Marcus Knox, a merchant in Glasgow, zealous for the interest of the reformed religion, caused me to be fabricated in Holland for the use of his fellow-citizens of Glasgow, and placed me with solemnity in the tower of their cathedral. My function was announced by the impress on my bosom (Me andito venias doctrinam sanclam ut discas), and I was taught to proclaim the hours of unheeded time. One hundred and ninety-five years had I sounded these awful warnings, when I was broken by the hands of inconsiderate and unskilful men. In the year 1790 I was cast into the furnace, refounded at London, and returned to my sacred vocation- Reader, thou also shalt know a resurrection: may it be unto eternal life! '

In the interior, on the lower part of the walls, there are monuments principally to military men connected with the neighbourhood. One is a memorial to the officers and men of the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders who fell during the Crimean campaign. Over it are placed the old colours of the regiment, presented to it by the first Duke of Wellington. Another marble is inscribed to the officers and men of the 71st Highlanders who fell on the NW frontier of India in 1863. A bronze tablet with surmounting ornament is in memory of Lieutenant R. Anderson, who was treacherously captured while in command of a party escorting a flag of truce, and cruelly put to death by the Chinese in 1860In the NE corner of the nave is a marble bust of Dr Chrystal, rector of Glasgow Grammar School, who died in 1830. On the S side of the nave is the memorial brass of the Stewarts of Minto-one of the oldest brasses in Scotland. In the churchyard outside are a number of curious stones. The oldest is said to date from 1223 and the next from 1383. On the E side of the SE entrance is the tomb of Thomas Hutcheson, one of the founders of Hutcheson's Hospital. The monument dates from 1670, but was restored in 1857. On the opposite side of the doorway is a recessed tomb dedicated to the founder of the Baillie Trust, who died in 1873. Rudely scratched on the wall near the N transept is a representation of a gallows, with a ladder leading up to it, and a figure dangling from it, and the date 1638. It marks the ' malefactors burying-ground,' which was directly opposite. The monument of Dr Peter Low, the founder of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, is near the SW corner of the ground. It bears date 1612, and has the following curious inscription:—

' Stay, passenger, and view this stone,
For under it lyes such a one
who cured many whill he lieved,
So gracious he no man grieved-
Zea when his phisics force oft fayled.
His pleasant purpose then prevailed;
For of his God he gott the grace
To live in mirth and dye in peace.
Heaven has his soul, his corps this stone.
Sygh, passinger, and so be gone.'

And beneath:—
' ah me, I gravell am and dust.
And to the grave deshend I most;
O painted peice of liveing clay,
Man, Be not proud of thy short day.'

On another belonging to the Hamiltons of Holmhead with the date 1616, the following tribute is paid to a wife:—

' Yee gazers on this trophie of a tomb.
Send out ane grone for want of her whose life
Once born of earth, and now lies in earth's womb,
Liv'd long a virgin, then a spotless wyfe.
Here lyes enclosed man's griefe, earth's loss. friends' paine,
Religion's lampe. virtue's light. heaven's gaine.
Dumb senseless statue of some lyfeless stones,
Rear'd up for memorie of a blessed soule.
Thou holds but Adam, Adam's blood bemones
Her loss, she's fled. none can her joys controule,
O happy thou, for zeale and christian love.
On earth beloved, and now in heaven above.'

Other Established churches.—St Paul's Church, built in 1835-36 for the congregation of St Paul's or the Outer High parish, which formerly worshipped in the nave of the cathedral, is in High John Street. It is a plain building with a belfry. Blackfriars or College Church stood on the E side of High Street, close to the S side of the old University buildings. It was a quaint edifice, built in 1699, on the site of the previous Gothic building (already described), which was destroyed by lightning in 1688. When this site had to be abandoned to the Union railway, the new church was erected in Wester Craigs Street in 1876-77. The steeple of the old church was at one time used as a prison. St Mary's or the Tron Church stands on the S side of the Trongate behind the Tron steeple, and is on the site of the old church of St Mary's already described. After the Reformation the latter building fell into disrepair, but was in 1592 ordered to be set to rights, and from that date till 1793, when it was destroyed by fire, it was in use as a place of worship. The present plain structure was erected in 1794, and the pulpit was from 1815 till 1819 occupied by Dr Chalmers. St David's or the Ramshorn Church is on the N side of Ingram Street. It is cruciform in shape, has a massive square pinnacled tower, 120 feet high, and is a good example of florid Perpendicular Gothic. The name Ramshorn is taken from the old name of the lands, and is traditionally derived from a miraculous incident connected with St Mungo. A sheep belonging to the Saint's flock having been carried off and killed by some robbers, one of them found his hand permanently encumbered with the head of the animal, and he had to go to St Mungo and confess his crime before he could get rid of his uncomfortable burden, and the lands where the incident took place received the name of ' Ramys Home. ' The first St David's Church-which was then the fifth in Glasgow-was built in 1724 on the same site as the present edifice, which was erected in 1824. St Andrew's Church stands in the centre of St Andrews Square, and was built in 1756. With the exception of the tower, it presents a general resemblance to the church of St Martin's-in-the-Fields in London, and has a hexastyle composite portico, with the city arms sculptured on the tympanum of the pediment. The tower has three stages, and is crowned with a cupolar spire. St Enoch's Church stands at the S end of St Enoch's Square. The chapel in this quarter, dedicated to St Thenew, has been already noticed. The first Presbyterian church, of which the small but elegant steeple still remains, was erected here in 1780. 1782, and was in 1827 replaced by the present building. St George's Church is in St George's Place, on the W side of Buchanan Street, in a line with George Street and West George Street, and was erected in 1807. It is an oblong classic building, and has a steeple 162 feet high, of a rather peculiar design, there being four obelisk finials on the angles, while another surmounts the open cupolar centre. The bell is about 3 feet in diameter, and is inscribed ' I to the church the people call, and to the grave I summon all, 1808. ' It replaced a church erected in 1687, and called the Wynd Church, from the locality in which it was. This was pulled down as soon as St George's Church was finished. St John's Church is in Græme Street, opposite Macfarlane Street. It was erected in 1817-19 at a cost of about £9000, and the parish had for its first minister from 1819 to 1824 Dr Chalmers, who here inaugurated his celebrated movement in support of the opinion that it was the duty of each parish voluntarily to maintain its own poor. The building is Decorated Gothic, and it has a massive square tower with pinnacles. St James' Church is on the S side of Great Hamilton Street. It was built in 1816 as a Methodist Chapel, but when St James' parish was constituted in 1820 it became the parish church. It is a very plain building. The above-mentioned nine parish churches, along with the cathedral-which is the parish church of the Inner High parish-constitute the churches of the original divisions of the old City parish, and the whole are known as the ten city churches, and are under the charge of the town council. The total number of sittings in the whole of them is 11, 617, and the income from the letting of these was, in 1881-82, £1654, 10s. while the payments for ministers' stipends amounted to £3800, the payment being £425 to each except Blackfriars, which received £400, and the cathedral, which receives the original tends. Although the Barony was erected into a parish in 1599, and a minister had been appointed in 1595, the erection was made on the condition that the town was not to be ' burdenit with seaten or biggin of kirks, nor furnishing nae mae ministers, nor they hae already, ' and so the congregation worshipped in the crypt of the cathedral, and had no separate church till 1798, when the present building was erected in Infirmary Square. While the parish is ecclesiastically second in importance only to the cathedral, the aspect of the church is ridiculous and ungainly in the highest degree. The Barony parish has had connected with it a number of eminent ministers, one of the earliest being the celebrated Zachary Boyd, and one of the later, the eloquent, genial, and warmhearted Dr Norman Macleod, who died in 1872. Besides these there are the churches of Abbotsford, Anderston, Barrowfield, Bellahouston, Blackfriars, Blue Vale, Blythswood, Bridgegate, Bridgeton, Calton, St Thomas,, Chalmers, Dean Park, Gorbals, Greenhead, Hutcheson town, Hillhead, Kelvinhaugh, Kingston, Kinning Park, Laurieston, Macleod, Martyrs', Maryhill, Maxwell, Milton, Newlands, Newhall, Park, Parkhead, Partick, and Partick St Mary's, Plantation, Pollokshields, Port Dundas, Queen's Park, Robertson Memorial, St Bernard's, St Columba's, St George's-in-the-Fields, St Luke's, St Mark's, St Matthew's, St Peter's, St Stephen's, St Vincent's, Sandyford, Shettleston, Springburn, Townhead, Well Park, and Whiteinch parishes. There are also the chapels of ease (gradually being converted into quoad sacra parishes) of Barony Mission; Woodside, in Park; of Dalmarnock and St Clement's, in Calton; of Crown Street, in Gorbals; of the Gaelic, Govanhill, Hyndland, Oatlands, and West Church, in Govan; East Park and Possil Park, in Maryhill; Gaelic or Garscube Mission, in St Columba's; Brownfield, in St George's; Hopehill Mission; St Luke's Mission Church, in St Luke's; Millerston, in Shettleston; Hogganfield, in Springburn; Townhead Mission and Cobden Street Church, in Townhead. Few of these call for particular comment, though many of them are very beautiful examples of different styles of Gothic architecture. The number of communicants in the whole of the Established churches in Glasgow, exclusive of Barony Mission, Hyndland, Govan West, Possil Park, Gaelic Mission, St Luke's Mission, Townhead Mission, and Townhead Cobden Street churches, for which there were then no returns, was, in 1881, 51, 396, and the number of sittings about 150, 000.

The Established Church Presbytery of Glasgow comprises all the above-mentioned parishes, and also the adjoining parishes of Banton, Cadder, Campsie, Carmunnock, Cathcart, Chryston, Cumbernauld, Eagles- ham, Kilsyth, Kirkintilloch, and Kirkintilloch St Davids, Lenzie, Rutherglen, and West Rutherglen, and the mission stations of Bishopbriggs, Langside, Condorrat, and Eastfield (Rutherglen). The presbytery meets on the last Wednesday of March and the first Wednesday of January, February, May, June, August, September, October, November, and December, in the Tron Church.

The Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, which meets at Glasgow in April and at Irvine in October, comprises the Presbyteries of Ayr, Irvine, Paisley, Greenock, Hamilton, Lanark, Dunibarton, and Glasgow, which in 1881 included 328 charges and mission stations.

Free Churches—The Free College church has been already noticed in connection with the Free Church divinity hall, beside which it stands. The most prominent of the others are St Andrew's, which is in North Hanover Street; St George's, in Elderslie Street, a quasi-cruciform structure; St John's, in George Street, opposite Anderson's College, which has a lofty and well-proportioned steeple, and is a good specimen of modern Gothic; St Matthew's, at the W end of Bath Street, a handsome church with a very good steeple; St Peter's, in Main Street, in the Blythswood district; Renfield, in Bath Street, E of St Matthew's, a decorated Gothic building with pierced octagonal spire; Tron, in Dundas Street; Kelvinside, in Hillhead, near the Botanic Gardens, which has a very fine steeple; Well Park, in Duke Street; Barony, an ambitious Norman edifice with a square tower; Anderston, in University Avenue, a fine Early English building, with a beautiful interior; Cowcaddens, in the Italian style; and Blochairn, at the junction of Garngad and Blochairn Roads; and connected with this denomination, there are also the Argyle (Gaelic), Augustine, Barrowfield, Bridgegate, Bridgeton, Broomielaw, Buchanan Memorial, Campbell Street, Candlish Memorial, Chalmers', Cranston Hill, Cunningham, Dennistoun, Duke Street, East Park, Fairbairn, Finnieston, Gorbals (formerly the parish church), Great Hamilton Street, Hope Street, Hutchesontown, John Knox's, Kingston, Kinning Park, London Road, Lyon Street, Macdonald, Martyrs', Maryhill, Milton, North Woodside, Paisley Road, Pollokshields, Queen's Park, Renwick, Rose Street, St David's, St Enoch's, St George's Road, St James's, St Mark's, St Paul's, St Peter's, St Stephen's, Sighthill, Stockwell, Tollcross, Trinity, Union, Victoria, West, Westbourne, Whitevale, Wynd, Young Street, Hillhead, Millerston, Partick, Partick Dowanvale, and Partick High, Shettleston, and Whiteinch churches. There are also mission churches at Eaglesham, Partick (Gaelic), and Possil Park. The number of members in all these churches, exclusive of Eaglesham and Possil Park missions, was, in 1881, 31, 819, and the number of sittings about 90,000.

The Free Church Presbytery of Glasgow comprises all the above churches, and also those at Bishopbriggs, Busby, Campsie, Cathcart, Chryston, Cumbernauld, Govan, Govan St Columba's, and Govan St Mary's, Kilsyth, Kirkintilloch St Andrew's, and Kirkintilloch St David's, Rutherglen, and Rutherglen East. The presbytery meets on the first Wednesday of the month at Holmhead Street, in the presbytery house attached to St Mary's (Free Tron) Church.

The Free Church Synod of Glasgow and Ayr, which meets at Glasgow on the second Tuesday of April and October, comprises the presbyteries of Ayr, Irvine, Paisley, Hamilton, Lanark, Dumbarton, and Glasgow, and in 1881 included 247 charges and mission stations.

United Presbyterian Churches.—Albert Street church is a French Gothic building, with medallions of Knox, Ebenezer Erskine, and Dr Chalmers on the front gable. Anderston church, built in 1839, is in the E end of Anderston. It is a plain Italian building, and superseded a previous building erected in 1769 by the first Relief congregation in Glasgow. Greyfriars' Church is on the E side of North Albion Street, and is a handsome edifice with a Grecian portico. It superseded a previous church in Shuttle Street, built in 1740 by the first Secession congregation in Glasgow. John Street church stands at the corner of John Street and Cochrane Street. It has a handsome Ionic colonnade, and superseded a Relief church built on the same site in 1798. Lansdowne Church, on the N side of the Great Western Road, is a cruciform Gothic building, with a spire rising to a height of 220 feet, of good design except for its excessive slenderness. It has a beautiful interior, and a number of stained glass memorial windows. Kelvingrove Church is at the S side of the Kelvingrove Park at the corner of Derby Street and Kelvingrove Street, and is a very handsome Gothic building. St Vincent Street church is on the S side of St Vincent Street at nearly the highest point, and cost about £15, 000. It forms an imposing feature in the western views of the city, and has a lofty Egyptian cupola-capped tower. The style is partly Egyptian and partly Ionic. Woodlands Church is at the corner of Woodlands Road and Woodlands Street, and is one of the most handsome and tasteful Gothic churches in the city. It cost about £14, 000, exclusive of the site. There is a well-proportioned and tasteful spire. Caledonia Road church is a Græco-Egyptian building, with a lofty campanile surmounted by a Latin Cross. Besides these there are also the Bath Street, Belhaven, Bellgrove, Berkeley Street, Burnbank, Calton, Cambridge Street, Campbell Street, Claremont, Cranstonhill, Cathedral Square, Dennistoun, Frederick Street, Gillespie, Greenhead, Henderson Memorial, Kent Road, London Road, Maryhill, Mordaunt Street, Parkhead, Regent Place, Renfield Street, Rockvilla, St George's Road, St Rollox, Sandyford, Shamrock Street, Springburn, Sydney Place, Tollcross, Wellington Street, Whitevale, Partick Downhill, Partick East, and Partick Newton Place, and Whiteinch churches, as well as those at Camphill, Cumberland Street, Eglinton Street, Elgin Street, Erskine, Govanhill, Govan and Govan Greenfield, Hutchesontown, Ibrox, Langside Road, Mount Florida, Oatlands, Plantation, Pollokshaws, Pollokshields, Pollok Street, and Queen's Park. The total number of members of all these was, in 1881, 37, 954, and there are about 100, 000 sittings.

The U.P. Presbytery of Glasgow (North) meets at Greyfriars' Hall, Albion Street, on the second Tuesday of every month, and comprises all the churches mentioned above from Albert Street to Whiteinch church, with the exception of Caledonia Road church. Besides these it also contains Airdrie Well Wynd, and Airdrie South Bridge Street, Baillieston, Bishopbriggs, Bothwell, Campsie, Coatbridge, Kirkintilloch, Lenzie, Lismore, Milngavie, New Kilpatrick, Oban, Portree, Springbank, Stornoway, Uddingston, and Better Hope (Demerara) churches, in all 63 congregations, of which 45 are connected with Glasgow. The U.P.Presbytery of Glasgow (South) meets on the first Tuesday of each month in the hall of the Elgin Street church. It includes all the churches mentioned above from Camphill to Queen's Park and also Caledonia Road church. It contains also Barrhead, Busby, Eaglesham, Rutherglen, Mearns, and Thornliebank churches, in all 25 congregations, of which 19 are connected with Glasgow.

The United Original Secession Church have three churches in Glasgow at Bedford Street, Laurieston; Main Street, off Argyle Street; and William Street, in Bridgeton. The presbytery of Glasgow includes these churches and also others at Kirkintilloch, Pollokshaws, and Shottsburn. The divinity hall is in Glasgow, and the session opens in the beginning of June. The synod meets at Glasgow in May. The Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland has one congregation in Nicholson Street, and this charge, along with those of Paisley, Penpont, and Whithorn, forms the presbytery of Glasgow. The synod meets in Glasgow early in May. There are also congregations of the Free Presbyterian Church (London Street), of the Church of Christ (Brown Street), of the Old Scotch Independents (Oswald Street), of the Society of Friends (North Portland Street), of the John Knox Kirk of Scotland (Margaret Street), of the Free Gospel Church (Charlotte Street), of the Catholic Apostolic Church (Catherine Street), and of the Swedenborgians or New Jerusalem Church (Cathedral Street), as well as two congregations of Unitarians (St Vincent Street and South St Mungo Street), a Christadelphian Synagogue (Sauchiehall Street), a deaf and dumb congregation, a Jewish synagogue (George Street), a seamen's chapel (Brown Street), and barracks in various parts of the town for the Salvation Army, which musters strongly in all the poorer parts of the city, and has its headquarters in St Vincent's Place.

The United Evangelistic Hall is at the corner of Steel Street and James Morrison Street, the main front being to the former. It was erected in 1876-77 at a cost of about £13, 000, provides accommodation in the area and galleries for over 2000 persons, and contains, besides, 3 large committee rooms, 2 rooms for workers, and other apartments.

Independent Churches.—There are in Glasgow twelve places of worship in connection with the Congregational Union. These are at Elgin Place, Ewing Place, Great Hamilton Street, Eglinton Street, City - Road, Claremont Street (Trinity), Belgrove Street (Wardlaw), Park Grove, Bernard Street (Bridgeton), Overnewton (Immanuel), Commercial Road, and Parkhead. Elgin Place church, at the corner of Elgin Place and Bath Street, is a large and massive, but dignified and handsome, Ionic building, with a fine hexastyle portico. Claremont Street church is Decorated Gothic, with a square tower and a lofty octagonal spire. Most of the other churches are also good buildings.

Evangelical Union Churches.—There are in Glasgow in connection with this denomination congregational at Muslin Street, Bridgeton; Montrose Street; East Miller Street, Dennistoun; North Dundas Street; Moncur Street (Guthrie Memorial); West Street, Calton; Nelson Street, Tradeston; Cathcart Road, Govanhill; and Pitt Street (Ebenezer) 9 in all. The pulpit of the Dundas Street church is still occupied by the Rev. Dr Morison who originated the Union in 1843, when he quitted the Secession Church, in which he had formerly been a minister, his charge being at Kilmarnock. The Theological Hall of the body is also at Glasgow, and has a principal and professors of New Testament Exegesis, Systematic Theology, and Hebrew. The session begins in August.

Baptist Churches.—There are in Glasgow, in connection with the Baptist Union of Scotland, congregations at Adelaide Place, Bath Street; Cambridge Street; Canning Street; North Frederick Street; John Street; John Knox Street; Queen's Park; and the corner of Kirk Street and Buchan Street-8 in all.

The Weslyan Methodists have places of worship at the corner of John Street and Cochrane Street (St John's); Claremont Street; Gallowgate (St Thomas'); Cathcart Road; Paisley Road; Raglan Street, North Woodside Road; and Partick-7 in all. The Methodists rented a hall in Stockwell Street in 1779, and there John Wesley himself preached from time to time. The John Street church was built in 1854, the others since; and for the John Street congregation a new church was built in 1880 in Sauchiehall Street at a cost of £8200. There are also in the city two churches and a mission chapel connected with the Church of England, viz., St Jude's, Blythswood Square (a Græco-Egyptian building, the first minister of which was Robert Montgomery); St Silas, near the West End Park, and St Silas Mission Chapel in Hayburn Street, Partick.

The Episcopal Church in Scotland.—There are in Glasgow 9 Episcopal congregations, viz.,-St Andrew's at Willowacre, near the Green; Christ Church, at MileEnd; St John's in Anderston, in Dumbarton Road; St Luke's; St Mary's, Holyrood Crescent; St Ninian's, on the W side of Pollokshaws Road; St Paul's, in Buccleuch Street; All Saints, at Jordanhill; St James', at Springburn; and a mission chapel at Cowcaddens. St Andrew's, dating from 1750, is the oldest church of the Scottish Episcopal communion. Its altar, crucifix, and candlesticks are made of oak from Bishop Rae's 14th century bridge; and in the centre of the altar is the last piece of the high altar of Iona. St Mary's, on the N side of the Great Western Road, a little E of the bridge across the Kelvin, belongs to the Second Pointed style, and was built in 1870-71 after designs by Sir George Gilbert Scott. The estimated cost was £35,000, but the steeple, which is to be a massive square tower, with pinnacles and octagonal spire, is not yet built. The church consists of a nave (100 feet long), with aisles, transepts, and chancel, and has a fine interior, with some handsome memorial windows. None of the others call for particular notice. These churches are in the United -Diocese of Glasgow and Galloway, which also contains the Episcopal churches at Ayr, Annan, Ardrossan, Baillieston, Castle-Douglas, Coatbridge, Dalbeattie, Dumbarton, Dumfries, Galashiels, Girvan, Gourock, Greenock, Hamilton, Hawick, Helensburgh, Jedburgh, Johnstone, Kelso, Kilmarnock, Kirkcudbright, Lanark, Largs, Lenzie, Melrose, Moffat, Newton, Paisley, Peebles, Port Glasgow, Selkirk, and West Linton, a mission station at Cartsdyke, private chapels at Colzium and Dolphinton, and domestic chaplains at Drumlanrig Castle; Ardgowan; Lamington Castle, Biggar; Penninghame, Coodham, and Ravenstone Castle.

Roman Catholic Churches.—The Roman Catholic Church has a strong following in Glasgow, in the poorer and particularly in the Irish quarters of the town. There are altogether the following 19 churches in Glasgow and the suburbs, with date of erection and number of sittings:-St Andrew's Pro-Cathedral (1816; 2500), in Great Clyde Street; St Alphonsus' (1846; 1000), in Great Hamilton Street; St John's (1846; 1700), in Portugal Street; St Joseph's (1850; 1200), in North Woodside Road; St Aloysius' (l866; 1000), at Garnethill; St Mary's (1842; 1700), in Abercromby Street; St Mungo's (1869; 1500), in Parson Street; St Patrick's (1850; 800), in Hill Street, Anderston; St Vincent's (1859; 1000), in Duke Street; St Francis' (1881; 1800), in Cumberland Street; Sacred Heart (1873), in Old Dalmarnock Road; Our Lady and St Margaret's (1874; 800), in Kinning Park; St Michael's (1876; 600), at Parkhead; St Peter's (1858; 650), at Partick; St Aloysius' (l856; 350), at Springburn; Immaculate Conception (1851; 900), at Maryhill; St Agnes, at Possil; St Paul's (1857; 450), at Shettleston; and St Mary Immaculate (1865; 800), at Pollokshaws. St Andrew's Church is in Great Clyde Street, midway between Victoria Bridge and Glasgow Bridge. It superseded an old church built in the Gallowgate in 1797, and the first open place of Roman Catholic worship in the city subsequent to the Reformation. At the time of its erection it cost £13,000, but since 1871 a large sum of money has been spent in altering and improving it. The style is Decorated Gothic, and the building has a fine S front with a richly carved doorway and window, crocketed pinnacles, two graceful octagonal turrets, and, in a niche, a figure of St Andrew. St Mungo's was erected in 1869 to the NW of the cathedral, and has, adjoining it, residences for six priests, and large buildings for schools, and forms, together with these, a large heavy mass of buildings. The Franciscan church of St Francis, designed by Messrs Pugin & Pugin, at present consists of only an aisled six-bayed nave, Early Decorated in style, and 150 feet long, 72 wide, and 94 high; but it will, when completed, form one of the finest ecclesiastical structures in the city. Cardinal Manning assisted at its opening on 1 June 1881. There are also a Convent of Mercy, at Garnethill; a Franciscan convent, in Charlotte Street; the Convent of the Good Shepherd, at Dalbeth; St Peter's Seminary, at Partick Hill; and West Thorn Reformatory. The churches in Glasgow, with others at Airdrie, Cambuslang, Clelland, Cardowan, Baillieston, Blantyre, Carluke, Longriggend, Shotts, Mossend, Chapelhall, Coatbridge, Whifflet, Govan, Hamilton, Lanark, Larkhall, Milngavie, Motherwell, Rutherglen, Springburn, Wishaw, Dalry, Kilbirnie, Saltcoats, Alexandria, Dumbarton, Duntocher, Helensburgh, Kirkintilloch, Barrhead, Busby, Greenock (2), Houston, Johnstone, Largs, Neilston, Paisley (2), Pollokshaws, Port Glasgow, and Renfrew, form the -Diocese of Glasgow presided over by an archbishop.

Municipal Affairs.—The Corporation.—We have already seen that Glasgow was, by William the Lyon, raised to the dignity of a burgh of barony holding of the bishop, and doubtless it was, from that time, governed by a. provost and magistrates, but the first mention of these, still remaining, is in 1268, when a conveyance of land is stated to have been made in presence of the provost, bailies, etc. In 1454 the city was constituted a burgh of regality, and the provost and magistrates would then preside either personally or by deputy in the court of regality. In the early times they were not selected from among the citizens, but were noblemen or gentlemen whose power might, at any moment, have proved useful to the bishop, and so the list of early provosts includes the names of the Earl of Lennox (1578-80), the Earl of Montrose (1583-84), Lord Boyd (1574-77), Lord Belhaven (1541-43), Sir George Elphinstone (1600-1607), Crawford of Jordanhill (1577-78), and, above all, different members of the family of Stewart of Minto. At a late period it even became customary for the provost to be appointed during the life of the archbishop, as in the case of Lord Boyd, who so held office. The provosts did not reside in the city, but came there only when special occurrences required their presence. The bailies seem, however, at an early period to have become jealous of church jurisdiction, for in 1510 we find three of them excommunicated for having recorded in their books that ' none of the citizens of Glasgow ought to summon another citizen before a spiritual judge, respecting a matter which could be competently decided before the bailies in the court-house of Glasgow, ' and this statute had been considered by the chapter to be an infringement of the rights of the Church. The Earl of Lennox, who was provost at the time, and the bailies themselves, at first boldly stood up for their rights and liberties, but finally gave way, and were absolved in the beginning of 1511. In 1560 the right of nomination by the archbishop disappeared with himself; the council meeting after the flight of Beaton declared that the archbishop had been searched for, and that, as there seemed to be no chance of finding him, they were compelled to elect the magistrates themselves; but in 1574 mention is again made of leets of names being submitted to the ' Tulchan ' Archbishop Boyd for his selection, and the same is the case in 1575. In 1578 and 1579 the Earl of Lennox was made provost by the same selection, but in 1580 the bailies had hardly been appointed when an act of the Privy Council was issued, intimating that, as these officials had resigned at the king's request, three others had been appointed. By act of parliament in 1587 the lands of the barony were annexed to the Crown, and in the same year they were granted to the commendator of Blantyre, to whom also the right of selection passed, for we find him nominating the provost and bailies in 1589. In 1600, however, by royal charter the right of selection was given to the Duke of Lennox, and between 1601 and 1605 the council had the right granted it of electing its own magistrates, but this only brought dissension, and in 1606 the king had to name the bailies himself, while in the following year the right of nomination was handed by the council back to the archbishop. In 1611 a new charter of confirmation was granted by the king, disponing the burgh of Glasgow to the magistrates, council, and community, but reserving to the archbishop his right to elect magistrates and exercise jurisdiction within the regality, and in 1633 and again in 1636 other acts were obtained ratifying all privileges, but still reserving to the archbishop the rights before mentioned. In 1639 the archbishop had to flee, and in 1639 and 1640 the council elected their own magistrates, but in 1641 the king interfered and made the selection himself, and though the council protested and sent commissioners to Edinburgh on the subject, no redress was obtained, and so matters remained till 1690 when a royal charter of William and Mary confirmed all former charters, and granted to the city the ' full power, right, and libertie to choise and elect their Proveist, Baillies, and haill other Magistrats in the ordinar manner and at the ordinar tyme, as freelie as any other royall burgh in the said kingdome.' The provost has borne the courtesy title of ' my lord,' and ' the honourable,' since 1688, and the first recorded allowance made to him ' to keep up a post suitable to his station,' was in 1720 when the sum of £40 was allowed yearly, and this payment lasted till 1833. In 1627 the provost, as is duly recorded, had a ' hatt and string ' purchased for him, so he probably wore a hat of office, and in 1720 an act of council was passed providing that his official dress was to be a court suit of velvet. After 1767 the provost and bailies wore cocked hats and gold chains of office, the latter being still in use, but the former disappeared in 1833. In 1875 official robes were adopted for the provost, bailies, and town-clerk. In early times the number of the council seems to have varied, and, in place of the opposite method now in use, the council was elected by the magistrates. In 1586 we find there was a provost, 3 bailies, and 21 councillors, but additions and removals were made at any time in the most haphazard manner. Prior to 1801, the executive of the council consisted of the lord provost, 3 bailies, the dean of guild, the deacon-convener, and the treasurer. In that year two other bailies were added-one from the merchants' rank and the other from the trades' rank. Until the passing of the Municipal Reform Bill, the council was composed exclusively of members from the Merchants' and Trades' Houses, self elected here as elsewhere; but when that measure became law, the royalty was divided into five wards, which returned thirty members by election, and to these two ex officio members were added, viz., the dean of guild, elected by the Merchants' House, and the deacon-convener, elected by the Trades' House.

Prior to 1846 the three districts of Gorbals, Calton, and Anderston,* had burgh jurisdictions of their own, but an Act of Parliament, passed in that year, provided that these should be abolished, and that these places should in future return their proportion of members to the city council. Since that time the council has consisted of 50 members, of whom 48 are elected in thc proportion of 3 by each of 16 wards into which the municipal burgh is now divided, and the remaining 2 are the dean of guild and the deacon-convener elected as before. The ward councillors retain office for 3 years, one-third of them retiring annually by rotation, and the dean of guild and deacon-convener are elected annually, but are generally elected for a second year. The council chooses out of its own members an executive, consisting of a lord provost, 10 bailies, a treasurer, a master of works, a river bailie, and a depute-river bailie. They also appoint the city clerk, city chamberlain, burgh fiscal, burgh registrars, and other officials, with salaries ranging from £200 to £1200 a year. The standing committees are those on finance, accounts, etc.; on the bazaar and city hall, clocks, bells, etc.; and on churches and churchyards; while the committees for special purposes are now (1882) on parliamentary bills, on tramways, on libraries, on new municipal buildings, on additional extramural burying-ground, and on gas supply; and there are sub-committees on gas-works, on gas finance, and on contracts and duties of officials. The council also act as trustees under the Parks and Galleries Trust Act of 1859, the business being managed by a committee, with sub-committees on the Queen's Park, Kelvingrove Park, Alexandra Park, Glasgow Green, Corporation Galleries and City Industrial Museum, Music in the parks, and Finance; as Commissioners for Markets and Slaughter-Houses, the affairs being managed by a committee, with a sub-committee on Finance; as Trustees under the Glasgow Improvement Act of 1866, the business being managed by a committee, with subcommittees on Lodging-Houses and Finance. They are also Commissioners under the Glasgow Corporation Waterworks Act of 1855, the business being managed by a committee, with sub-committees on Finance, Meters and Water-fittings, claims of compensation for lands and damages, and appeals. The council also act as Commissioners of Police under the Glasgow Police Act and Provisional Order obtained in 1877, the business being managed by a magistrates' committee; a committee on Finance; a committee on Statute Labour; a committee on Watching and Lighting; a committee on Health, with sub-committees on Cleansing, Hospitals, and Sewage; a committee for disposing of objections to assessments; a committee on Gunpowder Magazine; a committee on Street Improvements; and a committee on Public Baths and Wash-houses. They are also Bridge Trustees, and return members to the Clyde Navigation Trust, the Court-House Commissioners, and managers for various institutions that have been already noticed. In the year 1700 the corporation income was in round numbers £1764, while the expenditure was £2024, but generally, even in the most corrupt days of the council, the affairs were well managed and cared for. The income is derived mainly from feuduties and ground-annuals, bazaar dues and rents, seat rents of the parish churches, assessments, and miscellaneous properties. The income of the Common Good alone, in 1861, was £l8, 480, 7s. 8d., the ordinary expenditure, £15,457, 17s. 0½d., the extraordinary expenditure, £3046, 7s. 2d., and the debts, £64, 098, 19s. 7d. The income in 1871 was £15,916, 1s. 6d., the ordinary expenditure, £14,808, 1s. 3d., the extraordinary expenditure, £2465, 1s. 9d., the debts, £183,921, 9s. 9d., the assets, £426,116, 14s. 5d. The income in 1881 was £25, 562, 12s. 2d., and the expenditure £18,871, 7s.; the debts were £896,032, 19s. 1d., and the assets £1,298, 249, 13s. 9d., showing a surplus of free assets of £402,216, 14s. 8d., exclusive of £58,115 in tramways sinking fund. The assessment for Municipal Buildings amounted besides, in 1881, to £1l,514, 14s. 7d.; for Registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, to £4318, 0s. 6d.; for Registration of Voters, £2159, 0s. 3d.; for Lands' Valuation, etc., £1439, 6s. 10d.; and for Contagious Diseases (Animals'), £719, 13s. 5d., making an additional total of £20,150, 15s. 7d. For the year ending in May 1882 the ordinary revenue was £22, 736, 14s. 1d., the ordinary expenditure, £23,969, 14s. 8d., the extraordinary revenue, £4028, 16s. 8d., the extraordinary expenditure, £8068, Is. 6d., the debts, £834,085, 10s. l0d., and the assets, £1, 233,248, 9s. 10d. Under the Municipal Buildings Act of 1878 the income was £12, 824, 10s. 9d., the expenditure £12,541, 19s. 11d., the debts £193, 468, 0s. 10d., and the assets £179,176, 0s. 7d.

* Gorbals was originally subject to the archbishop, but became in 1647 subject to the town council of Glasgow; and its magistrates were, down till 1832, appointed by the council. but from 1832 to 1846 were elected by the inhabitants subject to the subsequent approval of the Council. The original burgh comprised only 13 acres. Calton was constituted a burgh of barony by Crown Charter in 1817, and had a town council, consisting of a provost, 3 bailies, a treasurer. and 11 councilors elected by burgesses, the qualification for which was a payment of £2, 2s. Anderston was constituted a burgh of barony by Crown Charter in 1824. and had a town council of the same constitution as that of Calton, elected, however, by proprietors or life-renters of heritable subjects, and by tenants paying £20 or upwards of annual rent.

Tramways.—The corporation are the titular managers of the Glasgow Corporation Tramways authorised by an Act of Parliament passed in 1870, and extended and confirmed by acts and agreements in 1871, 1873, 1875, and 1881. By these acts the corporation were empowered to construct certain specified lines of tramway, their borrowing powers for the purpose being fixed first at £200,000 and then at £300, 000. These lines they were empowered to lease to a company formed at the same time for a period of twenty-three years from 1 July 1871, and under a lease entered into on 21 Nov., the corporation agreed to raise the money for and to construct the lines, while the company agreed to pay all expenses of the act; interest on the cost of construction at 3 per cent. per annum; to set aside the same percentage as a sinking fund for the extinction of the original cost; to pay £150 per annum for every mile of street over which the traffic went; and finally, to deliver up the lines and the street between them in good order at the termination of the lease, and then also to hand over any balance of receipts that may exist. The tramway lines authorised within the city, to the total length of 13 miles 1 furl. 131 yds.-exclusive of suburban extensions outside the municipal boundary, which extend to 10 miles 6 furl. 37 yds., or a total length of 23 miles 7 furl. 168 yds.-have been in course of construction from time to time ever since, and were finished in the present year 1882. Starting from the junction of Jamaica Street and Argyle Street as a centre, lines extend westward along Argyle Street, Main Street (Anderston), and Dumbarton Road to Whiteinch, and eastward along Argyle Street and Trongate to the Cross. Here they break off into three branches, one of which runs southward by Saltmarket, Albert Bridge, Crown Street, and Cathcart Road to Crosshill; a second goes SE by London Street, Great Hamilton Street, and Canning Street, and there breaks off into two branches, one of which runs along the Dalmarnock Road to Dalmarnock Toll, the other runs along London Road to Fielden Street, up which it turns to the N and along Crownpoint Street, at the N end of which it joins the third branch from the Cross, which runs along Gallowgate and Great Eastern Road to Parkhead. From this line a branch turns off to the N at East John Street and passes along Bluevale Street, at the N end of which it turns to the W, and passes along Duke Street and George Street, through George Square and along St Vincent Place to Renfield Street; this line is united to the Trongate line by a branch which passes along the S side of George Square and on by South Frederick Street, Ingram Street, and Glassford Street.

Returning to our original starting point, another line passes S by Jamaica Street, Glasgow Bridge, Bridge Street, and Eglinton Street to the W end of Crosshill. At the S end of Bridge Street it is intersected by a line which, starting from Crown Street on the E, passes W to the goods and mineral terminus of the Glasgow and South-Western and Caledonian railways, where it breaks off into two branches, one extending along Paisley Road, and the other by the Govan Road to Govan. From the S end of Jamaica Street another line passes northwards by Union Street and Renfield Street to the corner of Sauchiehall Street, where one branch turns along Sauchiehall Street, and turning down Derby Street joins the Whiteinch line already mentioned; a second branch passes through Cowcaddens and along New City Road and Great Western Road to Westbourne Terrace. It gives off two branches, one at the NW end of Cowcaddens, which proceeds by Garscube and Possil Roads to the canal at Rockvilla, while the second, turning off at St George's Cross, passes by New City Road to Maryhill. The Tramway Company possess over 200 cars, and of course a correspondingly large number of horses. The various Acts of Parliament and other expenses have been, up to May 1882, £43,317, 6s. 2d.; the lines under the original agreement have cost £186,399, 3s. 4d.; the lines constructed under new agreements (the terms being the same as before, but without a sinking fund), £60,352, 18s. 8d.; and the Dalmarnock and Garscube Road extensions, under an agreement made in 1881 (no interest being payable for four years), £2758, 19s. 5d.

An act to authorise tramways in the Vale of Clyde was passed in 1871, and supplemented in 1873, the proposal being to construct lines to Bothwell and Hamilton, with a branch to Motherwell and Wishaw, and another set of lines to Govan, Paisley, and Johnstone. The line to Govan has been constructed, and that to Paisley is partly made, and proposals for its extension to its original destination, Paisley and Johnstone, arc at present being again brought forward.

Parks and Galleries Trust.—The results of the operations of the council under this act have been already given in the notices of the Public Parks, the Corporation Galleries, and the Kelvingrove Museum, but, notwithstanding the already heavy strain on the finances of the Trust, a proposal is now being made which will greatly enlarge its operations. The insufficiency of the accommodation in the Corporation Galleries in Sauchiehall Street has long been complained of, both as regards the rooms for the exhibition of the pictures and those devoted to the School of Art, while the Museum building at Kelvingrove is, notwithstanding its enlargement, still only sufficient in size for the requirements of a provincial town. To remedy this state of matters, it is proposed to acquire a large space of vacant ground immediately to the W of the present Sauchiehall Street buildings, and separated from them by Dalhousie Street. On this site art galleries would be erected on the E, S, and W sides, while accommodation for the School of Art would be furnished on the N side, and the central square space would be filled by an industrial museum, with a glass and iron roof. The present galleries would then be remodelled to form a home for the Mitchell library. The whole line of frontage would extend along Sauchiehall Street for a distance of 560 feet, and for this distance the street width would be made 90 feet, the site of Dalhousie Street being utilised as the position of a central entrance to both blocks of building. Public subscriptions are now being sought in order to purchase the additional ground, and, by aiding the finances of the Park Trust, allow the operations to be begun at an earlier date than would otherwise be possible.

Markets and Slaughter-Houses.—The operations of the Council under this trust have been already noticed.

The City Improvement Trust.—The City Improvement Act, obtained in 1866, and amended in 1873, and again in 1880, empowered the Town Council to alter, widen, divert, or altogether efface a number of old streets, and to construct new ones, and compulsory powers were given for the purchase of property and the levying of assessments. The number of streets to be altered, widened, or diverted, was 12, while 39 new streets were to be formed; the act was to be in force for 15 years; and the assessment for the first five years was not to exceed 6d. per £1, while for the remaining ten it was not to exceed 3d. per £1. The borrowing limit was fixed at £1,250, 000. The state of certain parts of the city had been attracting notice for many years previous to 1866; but from the value of ground in the densely populated part of the city, nothing had been done, and one of the results was an abnormally high death-rate. What the wynds of Glasgow were may be gathered from the following extract from the report of the ' Commission for Inquiring into the Condition of the Hand-loom Weavers in the United Kingdom,' issued in 1841:-' The wynds of Glasgow comprise a fluctuating population of from fifteen to twenty thousand persons. This quarter consists of a labyrinth of lanes, out of which numberless entrances lead into small courts, each with a dunghill reeking in the centre. Revolting as was the outside of these places, I was little prepared for the filth and destitution within. In some of these lodging-rooms (visited at night) we found a whole lair of human beings littered along the floor-sometimes fifteen and twenty, some clothed and some naked-men, women, and children, huddled promiscuously together. Their bed consisted of a lair of musty straw, intermixed with rags. There was generally no furniture in these places. The sole article of comfort was a fire. Thieving and prostitution constituted the main source of the revenue of this population. No pains seem to be taken to purge this Augean pandemonium, this nucleus of crime, filth, and pestilence, existing in the centre of the second city of the empire. These wynds constitute the St Giles of Glasgow; but I owe an apology to the metropolitan pandemonium for the comparison. A very extensive inspection of the lowest districts of other places, both here and on the Continent, never presented anything half so bad, either in intensity of pestilence, physical and moral, or in extent proportioned to the population.' Almost twenty years later there was but little improvement, for in 1860 a high local authority said to the Social Science Congress respecting some of the portions of the city about the High Street, Saltmarket, Gallowgate, and Trongate:-' From each side of the street there are narrow lanes or closes running like so many rents or fissures backwards to the extent of sometimes 200, sometimes 300, feet, in which houses of three or four stories stand behind each other, generally built so close on each side, that the women can shake hands with one another from the opposite windows; and in each of many of these lanes or closes there are residing not fewer than 500, 600, and even 700 souls. In one case we observed 38 families, or nearly 300 persons, occupying one common stair; and in the Tontine Close, on the N side of Trongate, there are nearly 800 of the most vicious of our population crowded together, forming one immense hot-bed of debauchery and crime.' The preamble of the act itself states-' Various portions of the city of Glasgow are so built, and the buildings so densely inhabited, as to be highly injurious to the moral and physical welfare of the inhabitants; and many of the thoroughfares are narrow and circuitous and inconvenient, and it would be a public and local advantage if various houses and buildings were taken down,' etc. Besides the references already made to the operations of the Trust, we may here notice the feuing of lands at Overnewton and Oaklands in 1871 for the construction of new suburbs, with dwelling-houses adapted to the needs of the working-classes; the prolongation of the line of William Street to High Street, the continuation of Græme Street to High Street, the alteration of the Tontine and the widening of Trongate, the alterations on the Gallowgate, the opening up of Watson Street, Sister Street, and Park Lane, the formation of James Morison Street, John Knox Street, the improvement of Bell o' the Brae from a gradient of 1 in 14 to 1 in 29½, the enlargement of the open space in front of the Royal Infirmary, and the formation of Bridgeton Cross. In no town in the kingdom have changes of the same magnitude and importance taken place in the same time. The improved condition of things is shown by the fact, that while the city death-rate for the five years before the operations of the act was 30 per 1000, it has for the last five years, when they have been pretty well carried out, fallen to under 25 per 1000, which, on a population of 500,000, means a saving of 2500 lives every year. In 1866-67 the tax was at the rate of 6d. per £, from 1867 to 1873 it was 4d. per £, in 1874 it was 3d., and since that time it has been 2d. per £. The borrowing powers, originally fixed at £l,250,000, were by the Act of l880 extended to £1,500,000, and of this £1,150,965, 19s. 3d. has been borrowed, leaving powers of £349,034, 0s. 9d. still unexhausted. For the year ending 31 May 1882 the ordinary revenue of the Trust was £64, 565, 1s. 1d., the ordinary expenditure £54,789, 12s. 10d., the extraordinary revenue £1235, 13s. 5d., and the extraordinary expenditure £4123, 17s. 1d.

In the course of the displacement of the population in the old haunts, and the provision of accommodation for it elsewhere, the trustees erected model lodginghouses in different parts of the city. These, with the total cost up to 31 May 1882, the number of lodgers in the year preceding, and the income and expenditure for the same period are:-Drygate lodging-house for males. £10,910, 18s. 3d., 31,769 nightly- lodgers at 4½d. per night, 70,185 at 3½d. per night, income £1620, 19s. 11d., expenditure £913, 4s. 9d.; Greendyke Street lodginghouse for males, £l1,019, 12s. 8d., 28,671 nightly lodgers at 4½d., 74,423 at 3½d., income £1624, 17s. 5d., expenditure £912, 14s.; Gorbals lodging-house for males, in Portugal Street, £15,991, 11s. 6d., 36,043 nightly lodgers at 4½d., 74, 815 at 3½d., income £1768, 17s. 7d., expenditure £873, 3s. 5d.; Calton lodginghouse for males, in Clyde Street, £14, 641, 10s. 1d., 12,056 nightly lodgers at 4½d., 82,549 at 3½d., income £1432, 7s. 5d., expenditure £829, 12s. 8d.; North Woodside Road lodging-house for males, £17,197, 14s. 4d., 18, 078 nightly lodgers at 4½d., 86, 224 at 3½d., income £1599, 9s. 3d., expenditure £890, 1s. 3d.; Anderston lodging-house, in Hydepark Street, £15, 030, 6s. 8d., 13, 861 nightly lodgers at 4½d., 93,138 at 3½d., income £1620, Is. 2d., expenditure £973, 16s. 7d.; Russell Street lodging-house for unmarried females, £3324, 0s. 1d., 1823 weekly lodgers at 1s. 9d. per week, 13, 027 nightly lodgers at 3d. per night, income £322, 7s., expenditure £303, 5s. 7d.

As the active operations of the Trust have now ceased, we may glance briefly at the results of its work. The cost of the property acquired by the Trust has been (1.) within compulsory areas £1,603, 343, 17s. 5d.; (2.) at Oatlands £42,173, 18s. 3d.; (3.) at Overnewton £42, 899, 13s. 11d.; (4.) cost of erection of two model tenements in Drygate, including site, £3426, 1s. 4d.; (5.) expenditure on formation of streets, squares, sewers, covering Molendinar and Camlachie Burns, etc., £99, 443, 2s. 7d.; (6.) lands of Kennyhill, and cost of forming Alexandra Park, £40, 000; (7.) cost of buildings and sites of seven lodging-houses £87,170, 13s. 7d., or a total outlay for ground, etc., of £1, 918,457, 7s. 1d. Against this the Trust has disposed of ground and feu-duties in the central area to the amount of £838,625, 4s. 2d.; at Oatlands to the amount of £48, 513, 15s. 5d.; and at Overnewton to the amount of £49, 464, 1s. 9d.; while the value of the property and feu-duties still held is estimated at £783, 395, 13s. 1d. This leaves a deficiency of £198,458, 12s. 8d., and if the deficiency on revenue and expenditure be added, £190,167, 12s. 10d., the total estimated cost of the scheme to the ratepayers is brought up to £388,626, 5s. 6d., in return for which they have obtained (1.) Alexandra Park; (2.) 92,722 square yards of ground employed in the formation of 27 new streets, and the improvement of 24, the total space being 28, 052 square yards of street surface beyond what was contemplated in the original scheme; and (3.) the great improvement in the sanitary and social condition arising from the alterations in the sewers, streets, and public works. Should the value of property increase, as it is likely to do before the remaining Trust properties are disposed of, this estimated cost will of course be diminished. Since operations commenced in l876, the sum of £570, 581 has been paid in interest alone.

Water Supply.—Originally all the water the city required was procured from wells, of which there was a considerable number. The most noted seem to have been St Thenew's Well near St Enoch's Square, the Deanside or Meadow Well, Bogle's Well, the Barras yett Well near the foot of Saltmarket, one in Trongate, the Priest's or Minister's Well on the banks of the Molendinar near the Bridge of Sighs, and not far off, on the opposite bank, the Lady Well, a well at the Cross, one at the Vennel, one on the Green, and no doubt many of less note elsewhere, some being private. M'Ure says that in l736 there were ' sweet water wells in several closses of the toun, besides sixteen public wells which serves the city night and day as need requires.' There were seemingly about thirty in all. In 1776 the magistrates ordained the treasurer ' to pay to Dr Irvine £8, 8s. for his trouble in searching round Glasgow for water to be brought into the city,' but nothing seems to have come of the search; and though in 1785 the magistrates employed Mr James Gordon to examine the water at Whitehill, the scheme was again abandoned. By 1804 the supply had become still scantier, and in that year one of the citizens named William Harley brought water from his lands at Willowbank into his yard at what is now West Nile Street, and thence the water was distributed through the town in barrels mounted on wheels and was sold at a halfpenny the ' stoup. ' In 1806 an Act of Parliament was obtained incorporating the Glasgow Waterworks Company with a capital of £100,000 (afterwards increased) in £50 shares. The engineer of the company was Telford, and their operations were carried on by means of reservoirs at Dalmarnock, from which mains passed through the city. In 1808 the Cranstonhill Waterworks Company was formed with a capital of £30, 000 in £50 shares, and borrowing powers to the extent of £10,000. The reservoirs were at Cranstonhill, and the supplies in both cases were drawn from the, as yet unpolluted, Clyde. In 1806 the former company had over 17 miles, and the latter company about 9½ miles, of mains in the city, and in the following year there was a sufficient supply to permit of watering the streets with water carts, all former efforts in the direction of keeping down the dust having been limited to men with watering cans. These companies, after competing with one another for a time, at length amalgamated, and by extending their works to meet the increasing demand, continued to supply the whole of the water used till 1846, when the Gorbals Waterworks Company, formed under an Act passed in 1845, brought in an additional gravitation supply from the hills, 7 miles to the S, where there is a contributing area of about 2800 acres, and a storage capacity of 150, 000,000 cubic feet, the water is filtered and delivered at Gorbals with a pressure of about 200 feet, and the average daily supply for 1881-82 was 3, 797, 347 gallons. The quality of the water supplied by the old companies was rapidly becoming bad from the increasing impurity of the Clyde, and as the works were also inadequate to supply the higher parts of the city, it again became necessary in 1853 to introduce a further supply, and in that year the Glasgow Waterworks Company applied to parliament for a bill for the introduction of water by gravitation from Loch Lubnaig. This was successfully opposed by the town council, who, in 1854, introduced a bill asking for power to acquire the works of the Glasgow and Gorbals companies, and to bring in a fresh supply from Loch Katrine. It was defeated, but having been re-introduced the following year was then successful, and though the works were immediately begun, the long distance from Loch Katrine to Glasgow (34 miles) prevented their completion till l859, when, on 14 Oct., the new water supply was inaugurated by the Queen, who opened the sluice admitting the water to the tunnel at the loch. The water supply is drawn from a water surface of about 4000 acres, with a drainage area of about 45,800 acres. The commencing tunnel t the loch is 8 feet beneath the surface, at a point 2½ miles E of Stronachlachar. It has a diameter of 8 feet, and has to Loch Chon a length of 6975 feet. From this the water is carried by a series of works-comprising numerous aqueducts, some of them from 60 to 80 feet high; 69 tunnels, aggregately l3 miles long; and lines of well- protected iron pipes, 4 feet in diameter, and also extending over a distance of 13 miles-past Loch Ard, and across the valley of the Endrick to a collecting reservoir at Mugdock, in the vicinity of Strathblane. This reservoir lies 311 feet above the level of the sea, and originally occupied 70 acres, with storage accommodation for 500,000, 000 gallons of water, but has since been greatly enlarged and improved so as to be capable of receiving and emitting 50, 000,000 gallons a day, which is the maximum amount of supply from Loch Katrine, Loch Venachar, and Loch Drunkie. From Mugdock, originally two lines of pipe, and since 1872-73 four, 3 feet in diameter, and about 8 miles long in each case, bring the water to the city, where it is distributed to the various districts, to the suburbs, and to other places in the vicinity, including Rutherglen and Renfrew, through a length of mains, which in the city alone is over 100 miles. New aqueducts have also been constructed between Loch Chon and Mugdock, and the original cost of the Loch Katrine operations (about £700,000) has now been brought up to over £1,000,000, while the total cost, including the compensation for land, the cost of the old works (which was £462,133, 16s. 8d.), etc., has amounted to about £2, 000,000. The average daily supply distributed throughout the city and suburbs from this source was, in 1881-82, 34,589,930 gallons, and the water is the purest in the kingdom, containing only -25 gr. of impurities per gallon. The total amount of water distributed in 1881-82 was therefore 38,387,277 gallons, a daily allowance of about 45 gallons a head for the population supplied. The revenue for 1881-82 was £150,504, 0s. 7d., the expenditure £127,659, 18s. 10d., the debts £1,914,016, 1s. 7d., and the assets £2,171, 711, 0s. 11d.; while the sinking fund amounts to £238, 652. The rate inside the compulsory area is 8d. per £ for domestic purposes, and ld. for public purposes; and outside the compulsory area, 11d. per £. The offices are in a good Italian building in Miller Street.

Police.—Till the commencement of the present century Glasgow was protected by the ' watch and ward system,' conducted by a force of thirty or more householders patrolling the streets. In 1644 the council appointed ' ane watche to be keepit neighthe heireftir ' from six o'clock at night till five in the morning. This does not seem to have been working satisfactorily, for in 1659 the order was repeated, and proclaimed by tuck of drum, with the addition that the watch was ' to be sett ilk nicht, be the baillies in dew time,' and that a penalty was to be exacted from those who neglected to take. their turn. This lasted till about 1778, when a superintendent, with a small force of men, was appointed; but this method seems to have again failed, as there was no power of assessing for its support, and a return was made to the old system. In 1788 there was also a small force under a superintendent, but they appear to have been merely to assist the watch kept by the citizens. In 1789 a bill was introduced into Parliament, in which it was proposed to extend the royalty, and to impose an assessment for police purposes, but it was strongly opposed, and was finally thrown out; and in 1790 the city was divided into four districts, and all male citizens between eighteen and sixty, whose rents were over £3, took turns of guard duty, 36 being on patrol every night. By 1800, however, the step could no longer be delayed, and in that year an act was passed authorising the organisation of a police force. New lamps were then erected; sentry boxes were put up for the watchmen; a cleansing department was organised to replace the 3 men, who had hitherto been employed in that service; and a force consisting of a superintendent, a clerk, a treasurer, 3 sergeants, 9 officers, and 68 watchmen, was put in working order. The original assessment was 4d. per £ on rents between £4 and £6; 6d. between £6 and £10; 9d. between £10 and £15; and 1s. on rents of £15 or upwards. The expenditure the first year was about £5400. By 1820 the expenditure had increased to nearly £12,000, and there were then 20 officers, 100 watchmen, and 16 scavengers. In 1842 proposals were made to annex the burghs of Gorbals, Anderston, and Calton, the lands of Milton and the village of Port Dundas, to Glasgow for police purposes; but the scheme met with the most violent opposition. In 1845, on another quarrel of the same sort arising, it was intimated in parliament that unless Glasgow was prepared to put its police force into proper order, the government would have to take the matter in hand, and this led to the great police bill of 1846, which, with subsequent amendments in 1862 and 1877, still remains the police act of the city, though a new bill of great magnitude is at present (1882) under discussion by the Town Council, and will probably, ere long, be introduced into parliament. In 1870 the available force consisted of 1 chief constable, 7 superintendents for the seven divisions-namely, the A or Central, the B or Western, the C or Eastern, the D or Southern, the E or Northern, the F or St Rollox, and the ' Anchor ' or marine division-and 825 subordinate officers and men, while at present there are a chief constable, 7 superintendents, and 1060 subordinate officers and men. In 1881-82, for the year ending 15 May, the ordinary income of the commissioners was, for police purposes (including lighting and cleansing), £255, 046, 1s.; for statute labour, £47, 848, 3s. 3½d.; for the sanitary department, £26, 212, 17s. 4d.; and for street improvement purposes, £18, 276, 17s. 2d.-a total of £347,383, 18s. 9½d. The ordinary expenditure was respectively for the same departments, £205,455, 11s., £38,098, 1s. 2½d., £27,825, 18s. 5d., and £14,204, 6s. 10d.; and the extraordinary expenditure, £17, 641, 5s. 11d., £43,973, 2s. 6d., £5521, 5s. 9d., nil, and £30,827, 9s. 4d. under the Municipal Buildings Act-a total of £383,547, 0s. 11½d., there being thus a balance of new debt of £36,163, 2s. 2d. The total surplus of assets over debts in several of the departments was £295,792, 6s. 9d., and the total surplus of debts over assets in other departments was £278,430, 17s. 5d. The borrowing powers extend to over £700, 000, and of this £72, 677, 2s. 1d. still remains unexhausted. The fire brigade now forms an important and valuable part of the police system. The first fire engine was acquired by the city in 1657, being one of the results of the fire experience of 1652, and it was constructed on the model- of the Edinburgh one of that date. In 1725 a new one was purchased in London for £50. The appliances thus provided look puny when compared with the apparatus of the present day, but the fire brigade itself is of still later growth. In 1818 there were 48 men and 6 fire engines, and in 1870 the force consisted of 70 men, of whom 30 were stationed at the central brigade station, and the others distributed at the district stations. There are now a fire-master and over 120 men, with the most recent and improved steam extinguishing appurtenances, while, scattered throughout the city, there are about 7000 fire-cocks or cleansing-cocks that may be used as such. The average yearly number of fires is about 360.

Attached to the police staff there are also a medical officer of public health, 3 city analysts, and 7 district surgeons, a master of works, a sanitary inspector and inspector of common lodging-houses, an inspector of cleansing, and an inspector of lighting.

Lighting.—Glasgow, like all other places, was formerly dependent on the moon for its night light, and when that was awanting, those of the inhabitants who were abroad at night had to grope their way as best they could, or provide hand-lights for themselves. During the meeting of the General Assembly in 1638 orders were given for the inhabitants to hang out lights, but this was a mere temporary matter, and though there was a feeble attempt in 1718 to make darkness visible by means of conical lamps with tallow candles in them, it was not till 1780 that public lamps were fairly introduced. 1n that year the magistrates and council ordered nine lamps to be placed on the S side of the Trongate, from the Tron Steeple to Stockwell Street, and expressed their willingness to extend the line to the W on condition that the proprietors there laid down a foot pavement. Lighting with gas commenced in the streets in 18l8, and now the number of lamps in streets and courts is over 12, 000, in common stairs about 28, 000, and lit by the Clyde Trust about 600, or over 40,000 lights every night altogether.

In pursuance of an Act of Parliament obtained in 1817, the Glasgow Gas Light Company was formed in 1818, with an authorised capital of £40,000, and a subscribed capital of £30,000, and, in 1843, another was started called the Glasgow City and Suburban Gas Light Company, the former having works at Tradeston, Townhead, and Partick, and the latter works at Dalmarnock. These companies supplied gas for the whole district till 1869, by which time, however, they had been experiencing the greatest difficulty in meeting the ever-increasing consumption. In that year they both found it necessary to apply to parliament for powers to increase their capital and extend their works, and the corporation then stepped in and obtained an Act empowering them to acquire all the old works, of which they got possession in the following year, and another Act has since, in 1871, still further enlarged their powers, as has also a provisional order obtained in the present year, for use in the event of electric lighting becoming economically practicable. The capital of the two companies jointly was, at the date of transference, £415,000, and the annuity fixed to be paid on it was 9 per cent. on £300,000 and 6¾ per cent. on £115,000, Prior to 1872 the council had so improved and extended the works at Tradeston, Dalmarnock, Townhead, and Partick as to make them capable of turning out 9,000, 000 cubic feet every 24 hours. New gasometers, each capable of holding 1,250,000 cubic feet of gas, were constructed for the storage and distribution of this supply, and new and larger mains were laid through the principal streets. They also purchased 22½ acres of ground at Dawsholm, in the vicinity of Maryhill, and on this the first portion of new works was erected in 1872-74. This part, which cost £150,000, had a retort-house 600 feet long by 70 wide, and was capable of producing 3, 000,000 cubic feet of gas every 24 hours. The complete works have other two of these retort-houses, and the total supply will, therefore, be 9, 000,000 cubic feet every 24 hours, which, with the old works (notwithstanding that those at Townhead and Partick have since been abandoned), will give a supply of 17,000, 000 cubic feet per 24 hours. The new works have great facility for coal supply, by branches from the Helensburgh and Stobcross railways and the Forth and Clyde Canal, it being possible to receive 1000 tons of coal in 12 hours. There are machines for charging and emptying the retorts, of which there are in the works at Dawsholm, Tradeston, and Dalmarnock 3010 in operation. The gas is conveyed to the city through a main 4 feet in diameter. The condensers, scrubbers, and purifyers are all of large capacity and improved construction, and adjacent is a chemical work for utilising the waste products of the gas manufacture. The gas revenue in 1882 was £378,133, 13s. 5d.; the expenditure, including £47,894, 7s. written off for depreciation, £302, 400, Is. 8d.; the surplus, after paying interest, £8357. In 1830 the quantity of gas manufactured was 100,068,200 cubic feet; in the year ending in May 1882 it was 2,056,094, 000 cubic feet, of which 1,807,851,000 feet were accounted for, the rest being wasted in various ways.

Paving.—Under the department of statute labour the commissioners attend to the paving of the streets, etc. The original condition of the thoroughfares must have been very poor, but the authorities were at a very early date alive to the necessity of something being done for their improvement, for in 1577 ' a calsaye maker ' was appointed for two years, and as no one in the place had sufficient skill, a man to fill the post was brought from Dundee. In 1662 the street from the West Port to St Enoch's Square was causewayed, and from that time operations went on slowly. In 1728 a contract was entered into by which the magistrates were to get the causeways of the whole of the public streets, lanes, etc., for fifteen years at the rate of £66 per annum, which shows that there could not have been much causeway to uphold. Now the carriage ways of all the principal streets are paved with granite, greenstone, or wood cubes, the latter material being, however, used only in the S part of Buchanan Street, and the sum expended for paving during the period from 15 May 1856 to 15 May 1882 has been £378,602, 11s. 9d. The first footpath was laid in 1777 on the E side of Candleriggs, between Trongate and Bell Street, while now there are footpaths all over the city and suburbs, and even extending some distance into the country round, most of them well laid with stone or with some variety of the many artificial pavements now so widely employed, while on the outskirts such paths are laid with firm gravel.

Sewage.—Under the health department are cleansing, hospitals, and sewage. The hospitals at Belvidere have been already noticed. The cleansing is carried out by means of morning dust carts in the way customary in large towns. Up till 1790 the Glasgowegians managed to exist and defy disease, despite of their having no proper drainage- ; but in that year the first sewers were formed, and within the following 25 years they were laid down in some 45 of the streets, and now there is a thorough sewer system over the whole of the city and suburbs, though in this department much remains to be done to abate the nuisance caused by the condition of the Clyde and Kelvin. The enormous amount of drainage throughout the city, including the issue of poisonous and putrid matter from public works, and the pouring of the whole of this volume into the harbour, rendered sluggish by the depth of the water and the flow of the tide, used to render the river for miles downward from Albert Bridge but little better than one vast open common sewer. The Kelvin is in the same condition, though the construction of a cross intercepting sewer on the Glasgow side will soon materially improve its condition. The nuisance from the open river sewer has occasioned much discussion as to the devising of some grand scheme for the conveyance of the sewage to a point near the head of the firth, and the nuisance created by the sluggish flow and the oxidation of the contents in the sewers beneath the streets has also given rise to arguments as to methods of flushing and ventilation. Sir John Hawkshaw, who in 1876 reported on the pollution of the Clyde and its tributaries, suggested that the best scheme for disposing of the sewage of Glasgow would be to convey it beyond Whiteinch, and there allow it to enter the Firth of Clyde. He estimated the cost of the scheme at £1,500, 000, and recommended the formation of a board of sanitary commissioners, to be selected by the various town councils or sanitary authorities within the area embraced by his scheme, and to be furnished with ample powers to deal with the pollution of the Clyde basin. In 1878 another scheme was submitted by Mr Bateman, and in 1878 other two-one by Dr Wallace and one by Mr Craig. As each involved an expenditure of about £1, 500,000, the matter was left over till it should be seen what effect the removal of the weir above the upper harbour should have on the scour of tho river. After this obstruction had been displaced it was found that the rapidity of the current between Glasgow and Greenock had increased to four times its former rate, and such has consequently been the improvement on the condition of the Clyde that the sewage question has since ceased to be one of the burning municipal topics.

Public Baths.—Under the police commissioners there are public baths at Greenhead, London Road, Kennedy Street, North Woodside, and Cranstonhill ; while another of the same sort, with swimming bath and all the ordinary conveniences, is to be erected on vacant ground near the cathedral. The total assessment for police, etc. , purposes is at present 2s. 2d. per £ on rents of £10 and upwards, and 1s. 5¾d. on rents under £10. The corporation propose to apply to parliament in the ensuing session of 1883 for a bill to transfer to and vest in the corporation the borrowing powers of all or any of the city trusts. Should this pass, the council hopes to be able to borrow money at low rates, such as prevail at Liverpool and Manchester, and should they be able to do this, the saving 'over the rates at present payable would be,' according to Mr J. Wyllie Guild, 'about £18, 600.' In addition to all their other numerous duties already mentioned, the members of council also manage, in whole or in part, the following educational and charitable funds :-William Lamb's bequest, founded in 1869, the proceeds to be divided among the Royal Infirmary, the Blind Asylum, the Deaf and Dumb Institution, deserving poor, etc. ; income, with balance at 15 May 1882, £782, 5s. 7d. ; stock, £13,073, 12s. 8d. : Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Maclean's trust, founded in 1859 for the education of poor and deserving boys in Scotland of the name of Maclean ; 100 boys and 4 bursars are educated ; income for year ending 15 May 1882, £597, 11s. 5d. ; expenditure, £481, 6s. 9d. ; stock, £22,798, 9s. 7d. : James Murdoch's trust, supporting the school already mentioned in St Andrews Square and others in Springburn and Rottenrow ; income, £550, 6s. 10d. ; expenditure, £153, 12s. 2d. ; stock, including value of buildings, £15, 941, 13s. 3d. : John M'Lachlan's free school trust, founded in 1819 (school already noticed) ; income, £382, 16s. 4d. ; expenditure, £291, 6s. 1d. ; stock, inclusive of buildings, £10,159, 0s. 6d. : Rev. Dr Andrew Bell's trust, founded in 1831 for the maintenance of schools and the instruction of children on the Madras system ; income, including balance, £1024, 16s. 2d. ; expenditure, £225, 3s. 3d. ; stock, £9791, 3s. 1d. : the Scotstarvit mortification, founded in 1653 by Sir John Scott of Scotstarvit, originally for the purpose of apprenticing to trades poor boys in Glasgow of the name of Scott, but since 1810 paid to George Wilson's Charity School, already referred to, and applied to the clothing and education of boys ; income, £320, 16s. 2d. ; expenditure, £168, 8s. : Stewart bursaries in the University, 4 of £15 each ; income, £61, 7s. 9d. ; stock, £1570, 1s. 10d. : Maxwell's free school trust, founded in 1825, revenue accumulating : John Anderson's school trust, founded in 1828 for the education of the children of poor persons residing in Calton ; income, £105, 15s. 5d., still accumulating ; stock, £2783, 13s. 8d. : Mary Hood's bequest, founded in 1827 for 'the promotion of education within the burgh of Calton ;' income, £42, 18s. 3d. ; expenditure, £67, 12s. 4d. ; stock, £1307, 3s. 4d. : Robert Buchanan's mortification, founded in 1873 for 'the aid of poor but respectable males or females, not being paupers, natives of Scotland resident in Glasgow for five years before the date of their application, and 60 years of age complete ;' income, £225, 2s. 7d. ; expenditure (on 76 pensioners), £243 ; stock, £4986, 9s. 8d. : James Coulter's mortification, founded in 1787 for the benefit of deserving persons 'in indigent or narrow circumstances,' preference to be given to those named Coulter or Peadie, related, however remotely, to the donor ; income, £54 ; expenditure (on 12 pensioners), £50 ; stock, £1327, 10s. : James Coulter's mortification for inventors, founded by the same donor, for a prize in money or a medal every year to persons 'who have invented or improved or confirmed in practice any machine or method of working a valuable manufacture in Glasgow, or within 10 miles of it,' etc. ; failing claimants, it is to be applied as a source of 'temporary supply' to deserving poor persons ; the judges for inventors are the Lord Provost, the Dean of- Guild, 3 assessors from the Merchants' House and 3 from the Trades' House ; no inventor has claimed for a long time ; income, £9 ; stock, £255, 5s. : St Nicholas' Hospital (already mentioned) ; 10 pensioners ; income, £63, 6s. 4d. ; stock, £585, 11s. 4d. : one-fifth of the free rent of the island of Shuna, bequeathed in 1829 by James Yates to the magistrates of Glasgow for aiding the erection or improvement of any public building, or for any other useful or charitable purpose ; the rental is about £270 per annum, and the remaining four-fifths are disposed of in the proportion of one-fifth to Anderson's College, one-fifth to the Royal Infirmary, and two-fifths to increase the salaries attached to the University chairs of natural philosophy, moral philosophy, botany, and mathematics.

Property.—The rental of Glasgow at different periods is shown in the following table:—

Year. Rental. Year. Rental.
1712, . . £7,840 1871, . . £2,055,388
1803, . . 81,484 1875, . . 2,720,687
1806, . . 152,738 1880, . . 3,406,008
1816, . . 240,232 1881, . . 3,400,517
1856, . . 1,632,168 1882, . . 3,417,263
1861, . . 1,625,148 1883, . . 3,424,490

The rise, nearly double in the three years between 1803 and 1806, is very noteworthy. Previous to 1712 there was no authoritative rental ; but in that year the magistrates and council had a sworn valuation made, by command of the Commissioners of the Convention of Royal Burghs, so that the cess might be properly stented. The rise since the close of last century has been very marvellous, as has also the increase in the value of property. In 1776 the property of Stobcross was sold at the rate of £50 per acre : some of it has since been sold at 35s. per square yard. When Ingram Street, Virginia Street, Buchanan Street, Jamaica Street, St Enoch,s Square, and Argyle Street were laid out, the ground was sold for from 2s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per square yard. In the first five it is now worth from £20 to £25 per square yard, while some sites in Argyle Street have been purchased at £50, £80, and even £100 per square yard.

Population, etc.—The following table shows the population of Glasgow at intervals for nearly 600 years:—

Year. Population. Year. Population.
1300, . . (about) 1,500 1811, . . 100,749
1450, . . (about) 2,000 1821, . . 147,043
1600, . . 7,000 1831, . . 202,426
1660, . . 14,678 1841, . . 255,650
1708, . . 12,766 1851, . . 329,096
1757, . . 23,546 1861, . . 395,503
1791, . . 66,578 1871, . . 477,732
1801, . . 77,385 1881, . . 487,985

This is the population within the parliamentary boundaries. In 1881 the population of Glasgow, municipal and suburban, reached the grand total of 674,095, of which the parliamentary burgh contained, as above stated, 487, 985, while Partick had 27, 410 ; Govan 50,506 ; Rutherglen 13,786 ; Maryhill 12,884 ; Pollokshaws 9363 ; Shettleston 9229 ; Shawlands 798 ; Cathcart, Crosshill, Mount Florida, Langside, and Crossmyloof, 12,198 ; Huchesontown (landward), Polmadie, Jenny's Burn, and parts of Govanhill and Strathbungo, 6950 ; Tradeston (landward), East Pollokshields, and parts of Strathbungo and Crosshill, 5451 ; Kinning Park (landward) 11,552 ; Dennistoun (landward) 6009 ; St Rollox (landward) 945 ; Gorbals (landward) 5010, a total of 186,010, being an increase in the suburbs for ten years, from 1871, of 97,165, or nearly double. Some of the figures are noteworthy. Within the 10 years preceding 1881, the population of Govan had increased more than 2½ times ; Maryhill 3 times ; the district given above as Hutchesontown (landward), etc., more than 6 times ; the district Tradeston (landward), etc., 4 times ; Kinning Park, nearly twice ; Dennistoun, nearly twice ; St Rollox (landward) 4 times ; and Gorbals (landward) more than 3 times. The number of births for the 20 years, from 1861 to 1881, was, on an average, 18,949 every year ; the deaths, on an average, 13,763 every year, so that the natural increase was at the rate of 5186 every year, or the natural increase of population for 20 years was 103,723 ; the actual increase within the last 10 years alone has been 111,598. The Registrar-General's estimate of the population for the present year (1882) is 514,048, but the medical officer of health for Glasgow has, after careful inquiry and the preparation of a partial special census, arrived at the conclusion that this is under the mark, and that the actual population in June 1882 was 531,200, an increase from the time of the census of 20, 384, or, from June 1881, of 19,166. The density of the population to the acre was, in 1871, before the clearances effected by the Improvement Trust 92-5 on an average, while in the quondam Clyde registration district it reached 198. The average is now (1882) 85 .206 to the acre ; and the average number of inhabitants to each house on the basis of the 1881 census is 4 -745. One person in 37 -42 is a pauper. The total number of houses in the municipality in the year 1882 was 119, 707, of which 110,638 were inhabited and the remainder empty, this being exclusive of the houses in course of construction. The municipal electors for the present year number 79, 581, of whom 12, 986 are females, and the school board electors 119,743.

The average yearly number of deaths for the last ten years has been 13,763, of which nearly half are cases where the age was five years or under ; about 1/9 between five and twenty ; about 1/3 between twenty and sixty ; and about 1/6 upwards of sixty ; more than 1/3 of the average number of deaths is due to consumption and acute diseases of the lungs ; about 1/8 to nervous diseases of children ; about 1/11 to scarlet-fever, and other diseases that mainly affect children ; while in more than 1/3 from various other diseases, about 1 death in every forty is due to accidents, or some other sort of violence. The death-rate in the various localities varies very much, being in the districts round High Street more than double what it is in the West end. The annual average for the last ten years is about 23 per 1000. The healthiest month is September, the least so is March. The average yearly number of marriages for the last ten years is about 4800. The average rainfall is about 40 inches, but in many years rain falls to a greater or less degree on 200 days in the year. The average mean temperature is about 48o.

Parliamentary Representation.—The first mention of Glasgow as being represented in the Scottish Parliament is in 1546, and from that time to the Union it fifty-four times sent a representative to the various parliaments held down to 1703, the member, on many occasions, being the provost. After the Union, for a period of 125 years, it had only a fourth part of a member, as the representative was returned by Rutherglen, Renfrew, Dumbarton, and Glasgow conjointly. This came, however, to an end in 1832, when the Reform Bill provided that there were to be two members returned entirely by the electors in the city within the parliamentary boundary, which was then enlarged, and by the Reform Act of 1868 the number of members was further increased to three. The parliamentary electors for 1867 numbered 18,361, for 1868 they numbered 47,854, and for 1882 they number 60, 313.

Royal Visits, etc.—The first royal visit to Glasgow after the overthrow of the kingdom of Strathclyde, seems to have been in 1136, when King David was present at the consecration of the original Cathedral, and from that time there are no indications of a visit again till 1510, when James IV. visited the place in high state. The next royal visit was the historical one paid by Queen Mary to Darnley when he was lying ill in Glasgow in 1567. James VI. seems to have been in Glasgow in 1601 and again in 1617, but details of his visits do not seem to have been preserved. In 1681 the Duke of York, afterwards James VII., paid a visit of two days, during which the council spent a sum equal to £333, 17s. 10d. in his entertainment, including the cost of the gold box in which his burgess ticket was presented, and from that time none of the sovereigns seem to have honoured the city with their presence till 1849, when the Queen, on 14 Aug., landed at the foot of West Street and drove through the principal streets, being everywhere welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm. In 1866 the Duke of Edinburgh, as representing the Queen, came to unveil the statue of the Prince Consort in George Square ; in 1868 the Prince and Princess of Wales visited the city to lay the foundation-stone of the new University Buildings ; and they came again in 1876, when the Prince laid the foundation-stone of the new Post Office ; while finally, in 1882, the Duke and Duchess of Albany paid it a visit for the purpose of opening the Exhibition of the branch of the Royal School of Art-needlework in Glasgow.

The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland met in Glasgow in 1610, and again in 1638 ; and the Free Church Assembly met here in Oct. 1843-the second meeting after the Disruption-and again in 1878. The British Association has met at Glasgow three times- in 1840, in 1855, and in 1876. The Social Science Congress met in Glasgow in 1860, and again in 1874.

The distinguished natives of Glasgow have been so numerous that a considerable space would be occupied by a mere list of them. The city has given the title of Earl in the Scottish peerage since 1703 to the noble family of Boyle. From 1699 till 1703 the title was Baron Boyle of Kelburn, Stewartoun, Cumbraes, Finnick, Largs, and Dalry ; from 1703 Viscount Kelburne and Earl of Glasgow, in the peerage of Scotland ; and from 1815 Baron Boyle of Hawkshead, in the peerage of England. His lordship's seats are Hawkshead House in Renfrew, Kelburn House in Ayrshire, Crawford Priory in Fife, and the Garrison or Big Cumbrae in Bute.

See also, among various authorities, John M'Ure's View of the City of Glasgow (1736, new ed. 1830) ; Andrew Brown's History of Glasgow(2vols., 1795-97) ; Denholm's History of the City of Glasgow (1804) ; James Cleland's Annals of Glasgow (1816) ; Ewing's History of the Merchants' House, 1605-1816 (1817) ; M'Lellan's Cathedral Church of Glasgow (1833) ; Buchanan's Memorabilia of the City of Glasgow, 1588-1750 (1835, new ed. 1868) ; Registrum Episeopatus Glasguensis (Maitland Club, 1843); -Liber Collegii Nostri -Domini (Maitland Club, 1846) ; Pagan's Sketch of the History of Glasgow (1847) ; Spalding's Memorialls of the Trubles in Scotland (Spalding Club, 1850) ; Marwick's Extracts from the Burgh Records of Glasgow (Burgh Records Society) ; Glasgow Past and Present (1851-56) ; Munimenta Universitatis Glasguensis (Maitland Club, 1854) ; John Strang's Glasgow and its Clubs (1856) ; W. West Watson's Reports on the Vital, Social, and Economical Statistics of Glasgow (1863-81) ; Reid's-'Senex'-Old Glasgow and its Environs (1864) ; Peter Mackenzie's Reminiscences of Glasgow and the West of Scotland (1865-66) ; Burnet's History of the Glasgow Water Supply (1869) ; Deas' The River Clyde (1873, enlarged 1876) ; Rental Book of the Dioeese of Glasgow (Grampian Club, 1875) ; Andrew Macgeorge's Old Glasgow, the Place and the People (1880) ; Hill's Hospital and School in Glasgow, Founded by George and Thomas Hutcheson (1881) ; Deas' The River Clyde (1881) ; MacGregor's History of Glasgow (1881) ; Wallace's Popular Sketch of the History of Glasgow (1882). Glasgow and South-Western Railway, a railway in Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, and Dumfriesshire, with connections into Wigtownshire, etc. The system is an amalgamation of various lines constructed at various times, and as it now embraces the first railway made in Scotland under an Act of Parliament, the line may claim to be the oldest railway enterprise in the country. This line, connecting the Duke of Portland's coal-fields near Kilmarnock with the port of Troon, was authorised by an Act passed in 1808, with a share capital of £55, 000 and loans £10, 500, and was long worked by horse haulage, while a passenger car conveyed the inhabitants of the inland weaving town to the 'saut watter,' this being at one time a favourite trip from Kilmarnock. Aiton, in his survey of the agriculture of Ayrshire, speaks of this railway as 'of magnitude unequalled in Scotland,' it being in course of formation when he wrote. The total length of this early railway was about 91/2 miles, or, with branches subsequently made, 12 miles 1 furlong. The construction of this line was of cast-iron rails resting on stone blocks, a method of laying the line which subsisted down to and after the making of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, but was discarded in favour of wooden sleepers laid under both rails, and steadied by 'ballast.'

As early as 1835 the scheme of connecting Glasgow with Carlisle through Nithsdale was advocated in the Ayr Advertiser and the Dumfries Courier, and some years previously there had been proposals made for a railway between Glasgow and Paisley. The first proposal in the latter direction was to convert the Glasgow, Paisley, and Johnston Canal into a railway, and what was proposed in 1830 was not sanctioned for fifty years thereafter, and is only now (1883) in process of being carried into effect. In April 1836 a meeting was held in Glasgow to promote the construction of the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, and Ayr railway, a line which, it may be remarked, only came within 5 miles of Kilmarnock, although bearing that name in its title, the prospectus stating that 'the high ridge which lies to the S of Glasgow' rendered a more direct line impossible. Thirty years later, however, when the art of making and working railways had advanced, a direct line to Kilmarnock was constructed, being the joint property of the Glasgow and South-Western and the Caledonian Companies.

The first act for the construction of part of the system, eventually combined under the general title of Glasgow and South-Western, received the royal assent on 15 July 1837, the capital being fixed at £625,000, with borrowing powers £208,300. The first section of the line, that between Ayr and Irvine, was opened on 5 Aug. 1837, and on 11 Aug. 1840 the line was opened through between Glasgow and Ayr, amidst great rejoicing. In 1844-the intervening period being occupied by the directors in consolidating the line, constructing branches to Irvine, Ardrossan, etc., acquiring and strengthening the Kilmarnock and Troon line, and other works-a movement was made towards the construction of the Dumfries and Carlisle connection. Although promoted as a separate undertaking, the Glasgow, Dumfries, and Carlisle was supported by the Ayrshire company and its board, and in 1850 the lines were amalgamated. The Act was obtained, after much opposition, in 1846 ; and on 16 July 1847 the foundation-stone of the bridge over the Nith at Martinton was made the occasion of a great public demonstration at Dumfries. The line was opened on 28 Oct. 1850, when the two systems became one, the first meeting as the 'Glasgow and South-Western railway' being held in March 1851.

By a series of constructions and amalgamations, the system at the end of July 1882 consisted of 300¼ miles wholly the property of the company, 311/2 partly owned (the Kilmarnock joint line, etc.), 17 leased or rented, and 25 worked by the company. Of the lines maintained by the company there were 233¼ miles of double and 96½ of single line. At the same date the authorised capital of the company was £9,727,770 in stock and £10,340, 998, 14s. 8d. was given as the capital sum expended in the construction and equipment of the railway, including subscriptions to allied or subsidiary railways. As with other companies it is difficult now to say what amount in actual cash was expended in making the line, as a certain amount of nominal stock is comprised in the above totals, including a sum of £987,770 added on the consolidation on an equal dividend basis of certain guaranteed stocks, and an amount of £442, 250 created as 'deferred' stock, to carry certain contingent dibidends that were payable to stock of equal amount, neither of those sums representing actual outlay on the line. Of the share capital, £4, 927,920 stood as consolidated ordinary stock, £748, 360 as 'guaranteed' stock (increased to £935, 450 on equalisation as above described), and £1,949,299 as 'preference' stock at 4, 41/4, and 5 per cent. In the half-year last reported upon the company carried 354,701 first class, 238,344 second class, and 3, 463, 284 third class passengers, besides issuing 3191 season tickets, making a total of 4,059, 520 passengers, yielding a revenue of £191, 906. For parcels, horses, and mails, the company received £221, 963, and the goods traffic (merchandise 495,843 tons, minerals 2, 022,103 tons) yielded a revenue of £313, 861. With some miscellaneous items of receipt the revenue for the half-year was £546,915. To carry this traffic the company owned 280 locomotives, 871 passenger vehicles (including horse-boxes, carriage trucks, post office vans, etc.), and 11, 592 waggons, 7051 of the latter being mineral waggons, and 184 brake-vans for goods trains.

In the half-year those vehicles traversed 1, 042, 340 miles in the passenger, and 1,125, 556 in the goods department. The gross revenue per train mile was 59 -32d., and of this the passenger traffic yielded an average of 51 .11d., and the goods traffic an average of 66 .92 per train mile. The affairs of the company are controlled by a board consisting of chairman, deputy-chairman, and 8 directors, who received an honorarium of £1000 in the half.-year.

As constructed up to the end of 1882, the Glasgow and South-Western railway served a district admirably described by its title, and having for its termini Glasgow, Greenock, Dumfries, Girvan, Castle-Douglas, and Kirkcudbright, with a vast network of intercommunication between the various parts of the district comprised within those limits. The parent line, that from Glasgow to Ayr, passes from Glasgow through a level country sprinkled with villas, villages, towns, and manufactories. Paisley, the first station of importance, is approached by a bridge over the White Cart, with the castellated buildings of the jail prominent in the foreground, and a glimpse is got of the venerable remains of the abbey, 'the cradle of the Empire, , for to the birth of the son of Marjory Bruce, the Queen Blearie of the ringing aisle, the present reigning house traces its right to the British throne. At Paisley the branch to Renfrew diverges. Before reaching Johnstone, the line to Bridge of Weir and Greenock branches off, the section to Bridge of Weir, 33/4 miles, having been sanctioned in 1862, and the Greenock and Ayrshire, 15 miles, in 1865. The former was absorbed in 1865, and the latter in 1872. By the construction of this line, the Glasgow and South-Western obtained an independent access to Greenock, running their passenger trains to Princes Pier, at the W end of the port, where steamers call regularly. The Anchor Line passengers for America are conveyed by special train from Glasgow to Princes Pier, starting some hours after the vessel has left the harbour of Glasgow. From Johnstone the main line proceeds through a fine verdant district, passing Loch Semple, with a station for Lochwinnoch, and immediately entering Ayrshire, where it skirts Kilbirnie Loch, and passes through a picturesque country, with its beauties marred, as so many scenes in the W of Scotland are marred, by the mineral operations which bring the railway and the county their wealth. At Dalry there is a separation of the lines, that to the right proceeding to Kilwinning, from which a branch runs to Saltcoats (with a branch to the harbour) and Ardrossan. Extensions of the latter branch were opened to West Kilbride in 1878 and to Fairlie in 1882, and in the latter year powers were obtained to continue the railway to Largs, further N on the Ayrshire coast. A direct line from Dalry to Fairlie was at one time projected, but owing to the magnitude of the works involved, the powers to make this line were abandoned, and the circumbendibus route to the favourite watering place of Largs has been, after some delays, carried into effect. Leaving out of view some mineral lines in this part of the county, we next on the main line reach the town and harbour of Irvine, from beyond which a cross line by Dreghorn connects, for the first time, the two principal parts of the system, forming a short route between Kilmarnock and Ardrossan. This line skirts the coast, affording a fine view of the lower waters of the Clyde estuary, with Holy Island and the bold hills of Arran to fill up the background, and Ailsa Craig visible in the far distance. On approaching Troon, the old line to Kilmarnock, already spoken of, is met, and a branch strikes off, or rather, the original Troon line, strengthened to suit later requirements, strikes off to the town and harbour. Approaching Ayr, the village of Prestwick is passed, the links round which have been rendered accessible by the railway, and have been adopted as a favourite golfing ground.

S of Ayr we encounter a very interesting chapter of railway history. In the great railway promotion of nearly forty years ago, when the through routes of the county were elaborately reported upon by the Board of Trade, and the merits of various routes were keenly canvassed, an Act was passed in 1846 for the formation of the Glasgow and Belfast Union railway. Although promoted with this comprehensive title, and originally intended as the nucleus of a short route to Ireland via Stranraer, the line was only 22¼ miles in length, reaching to Girvan with a branch to Maybole. The capital was £440, 000 in shares and loans. In 1847, an Act for the construction of the 'Ayrshire and Galloway' railway was obtained, this line reaching to Dalmellington, and being intended to inaugurate a southern route through the Glenkens into Galloway. Although last promoted the Dalmellington line was first constructed. An Act passed in 1853 authorised the formation of this line, 13 miles in length, 4 miles of this being available for the proposed line to Girvan and Maybole should the latter be proceeded with. In 1854 the Ayr and Maybole Junction was promoted, 5¼ miles in length, and the two lines were opened in 1856. In 1858 the Dalmellington railway was amalgamated with the parent line. The Ayr and Maybole Company to this day preserves its autonomy, being worked by the Glasgow and South-Western railway under a perpetual lease agreed to in 1871, at an annual rent of 7 per cent. on the capital, with a lien on the revenue (see Ayr and Maybole Railway). The extension to Girvan, 12½ miles was promoted by a company in 1856 : capital £90, 600, eventually (owing to the works proving more expensive than had been estimated) increased to £145, 600. The line was opened in 1860, and amalgamated with the parent line in 1865, the Maybole section, as already mentioned, standing as a separate property between the two parts of the line then amalgamated. In 1865 powers were obtained to construct several important junctions in Ayrshire, embracing a cross line from Mauchline to Ayr -to bring Ayr into nearer connection with the S-a cross line from the Dalmellington branch to Cumnock, and a transverse railway connecting these two lines through the parishes of Ochiltree and Coylton. Those connections were opened in 1872. For the more southerly connection of the company beyond Girvan see Girvan and Portpatrick Railway and Portpatrick Railway.

Returning to Dalry, the point of divergence noticed m an earlier paragraph, we proceed to Kilmarnock, an important centre. After many negotiations and struggles, the Glasgow, Barrhead, and Kilmarnock joint line was sanctioned, and it is held in equal shares by the Caledonian and the Glasgow and South-Western Railway Companies. This was a compromise, on the abandonment of the Kilmarnock direct, and comprised the Barrhead and Neilston railway, and the Crofthead and Kilmarnock, with junctions and extensions, making a through line, which was opened in 1873. The line from Dalry to Kilmarnock (still an important passenger route, although the expresses take the direct line) was opened in 1843. It was followed by the extensions to Mauchline and Auchinleck, opened in Aug. 1848, and to New Cumnock, opened in May 1850. Meantime, as part of the Glasgow, Dumfries, and Carlisle railway, the line had been opened from Dumfries to Gretna, 24½ miles, in Aug. 1848, and from Dumfries to Closeburn, 11¾ miles, in Oct. 1849. The completing line between Closeburn and New Cumnock, 25¼ miles, was opened as already stated iu Oct. 1850, and at the end of that month the original Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock, and Ayr, and Glasgow, Dumfries, and Carlisle companies were, under agreements previously made, amalgamated under the title at the head of this article. A branch from Auchinleck to Muirkirk, 10¼ miles, was opened in Aug. 1848, and a line from the neighbourhood of Kilmarnock to Galston and Newmilns was opened in May 1850. There are various mineral lines in this district that need not be particularised. By the Caledonian extension from Douglas to Muirkirk, authorised in 1865, a short route from Edinburgh to Ayr, viậ Carstairs and Lanark, was established, using the lines of the Glasgow and South-Western from Muirkirk by Cumnock. From Dumfries the Glasgow and South-Western company runs to Castle-Douglas and Kirkcudbright. To the former town a railway, 19½ miles in length, was sanctioned by an Act passed in 1856, and the Kirkcudbright railway, 10¼ miles in length, was sanctioned in 1861. Both were amalgamated with the Glasgow and South-Western in 1865.

While the engineering works on the system present no feature of world-wide fame, there is throughout an average amount of difficult and costly works in tunnels, bridges, etc. There is a long tunnel at Drumlanrig, rendered necessary by the line being carried along the side of the hill so as to preserve the amenity of Drumlanrig Castle. Between Dumfries and Annan the unstable character of the Lochar Moss gave considerable trouble. But as a rule the line was comparatively easy to construct, its gradients being generally moderate, while its course, laid out in the earlier days of railway construction, formed detours rather than short cuts. The reason given for omitting Kilmarnock in the route of the railway has already been quoted, and in the prospectus it was stated that the summit-level of the line between Glasgow and Ayr, at Kilbirnie Loch, is only 95 feet above sea-level.

The principal station of the railway, at St Enoch's Square in Glasgow, was opened by the Prince of Wales in Oct. 1876, but the works of the station, and the hotel fronting it, were not completed till 1879, when the hotel was opened. Previous to the erection of the new station, the company had its headquarters and principal terminus in Bridge Street, at the S end of Glasgow Bridge. This station, in which the Caledonian holds running powers and partial ownership, has been completely recast, and at present (1883) is of little importance ; its principal terminal traffic being the trains to Wemyss Bay (See Wemyss Bay Railway) and to Johnstone, with the numerous through trains passing to the central station of the Caledonian. The Bridge Street station, although little used, is held by the Glasgow and South-Western in anticipation of any change in traffic that may render it busier, and the company has successfully resisted the endeavours of the Caledonian to obtain a larger share in the property.

The hotel and station at St Enoch's Square take rank with the largest works of the kind in the kingdom. The hotel front to the square presents a splendid façade in Early English Gothic, 240 feet long, with a total height from the street level of 130 feet. The plat form level is approached by a sloping carriage-way, and is 20 feet above street level, the lower front of the terrace thus formed being used as shops. At the NW corner, under a lofty tower, is the entrance to the hotel, and in the centre, under an iron and glass roof, are the entrances to the booking-hall, a fine apartment 90 by 60 feet. The usual luggage-rooms, waiting-rooms, etc., are on this floor, and bounding the N side of the station is a wing 600 feet long, occupied as the headquarters of the company. In the angle subtended by the hotel and this wing is found the station, covered in a one-arched span of iron and glass, presenting a vast airy aspect, and fully accommodating the large traffic brought into the station. The main ribs of this splendid roof, built up in eleven sections, weigh 54 tons each. The hotel, the business of which is retained in the hands of the company, is only exceeded in size by two hotels in the kingdom. In the basement is a spacious kitchen, 85 by 32 feet in size, and with a roof 20 feet high, and the remaining appointments of the hotel are in keeping with this enlarged view of the needs of a first-class modern hotel. Electric-bells, speaking-tubes, and a hoist to carry visitors to the higher floors, are amongst the facilities offered by this finely equipped hotel.

The goods station of the company in College Street, adjoining the College (passenger) station of the North British railway, takes its name from having been built on the site of Glasgow University, of which building part of the front to High Street still remains, being used as railway offices. This district, once crowded with mean streets and narrow closes running down to Molendinar Burn, was levelled up for railway purposes at great expense. The College and St Enoch stations and the lines connecting them were constructed by, and are the property of, the City of Glasgow Union railway, a company incorporated in 1864, and the shares of which are held in equal proportions by the Glasgow and South-Western and -the North British railway companies. The works of this quasi company, extending to little more than 6 miles, have entailed a capital expenditure of two and a half millions of money. In the half-year last reported upon, the Glasgow and South-Western Company paid £28, 743 for the rent of the two stations, and received £6500 as dividend upon its shares in the City of Glasgow Union. At Kilmarnock, Ayr, and Dumfries the company has excellent station buildings, and commodious goods yards, engine sheds, etc. The locomotive works at Kilmarnock are extensive, employing 1500 persons, and performing all work necessary in building and repairing engines, carriages, waggons, etc. At Irvine the company maintains an establishment connected with the maintenance of permanent way. Here signal posts and all the apparatus for the conduct and protection of the traffic are cared for, as well as the rails, sleepers, fish-plates, bolts, etc. , required for the line itself.

It remains to notice that one of the features of the Glasgow and South-Western railway is, that it holds complete possession, so to speak, of the ` land of Burns. , To Ayr, his birthplace, to Dumfries, where he died, to Kilmarnock, Mauchline, Tarbolton (near which is Lochlee), Dalrymple (where the poet attended school), to Ellisland, to Lugar, to nearly every place that can be named in association with Burns, the railway forms the access, and in consequence it presents many attractions to the tourist and to the pilgrim to Burns' shrines. The line presents besides many other points of interest, affording access to such places of historic interest as Caerlaverock Castle, Sweet Heart and Lincluden Abbeys, St Mary's Isle at Kirkcudbright-the 'Selcraig Ha' 'of Paul Jones' well-known exploit-Drumlanrig Castle and the valley of the Nith, the many fine castles on the Ayrshire coast, many places associated with Wallace and Bruce, the island of Arran by steamer from Ardrossan, etc. , etc. See Glasgow and South- Western Railway, its History, Progress, and -Present Position, by William M'llwraith (Glasg. 1880), and Guide to Glasgow and South- Western Railway.

An accompanying 19th C. Ordnance Survey map is available.

Note: This text has been made available using a process of scanning and optical character recognition. Despite manual checking, some typographical errors may remain. Please remember this description dates from the 1880s; names may have changed, administrative divisions will certainly be different and there are known to be occasional errors of fact in the original text, which we have not corrected because we wish to maintain its integrity. This information is provided subject to our standard disclaimer


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