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Arbroath

(Aberbrothock)

A historical perspective, drawn from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical, edited by Francis H. Groome and originally published in parts by Thomas C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works, Edinburgh between 1882 and 1885.

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Arbroath (anc. Aberbrothock, Celt. ` ford of the Brothock '), a royal, police, and parliamentary burgh, a seaport, and a seat of manufacture on the SE coast of Forfarshire, at the month of the Brothock Burn. It stands at the junction of the Arbroath and Forfar railway, opened in 1839, the Dundee and Arbroath Joint line, opened in 1840, and the Arbroath and Montrose railway, opened in 1881; and by rail is 14½ miles SE by E of Forfar, 15¾ SSW of Montrose, 57½ SSW of Aberdeen, 16¾ ENE of Dundee, 38½ ENE of Perth, 59¾ NNE of Edinburgh (viâ Tayport), and 100¾ NE of Glasgow. Its site is chiefly a little plain, engirt on the land sides by eminences of from 100 to 200 feet, which command an extensive view of the sea, of Forfarshire, and of the elevated parts of Fife. The old royal burgh consisted chiefly of one main street less than 1 mile in length, crossed by another smaller street, and by a few still smaller lanes. But the modern town has spread widely from Arbroath into St Vigeans parish. Newgate, Seagate, Marketgate, New Marketgate, Grimsby, Millgate, Lordburngate, Applegate, Rotten Row, and Cobgate, mentioned in an official document of 1445 as crofts or rural thoroughfares, are all now, and have long been, edificed streets. Newgate is the only one of them not built upon till recent times; Grimsby was feued in the latter part of last century; and Rotten Row and Cobgate are the parts of High Street respectively above and below the present parish church. One portion of the St Vigeans extension, about 35 acres of the Almerieclose estate, was covered with streets and factories in an incredibly short space of time; and others were added till what was at first a trivial suburb became coequal with all the original town. Two or three of the modern streets are handsome, several more are neat or tolerably good, and many possess some excellent houses; but most are narrow and more or less mean. Much improvement, in various ways, has been made at many periods, particularly since 1871; yet fails to give the town, on the whole, an architectural appearance proportionate to its size or importance. Yet in 1773 Dr Samuel Johnson was pleased to say, referring to the abbey, that he should scarcely have regretted his journey, had it afforded nothing more than the sight of Aberbrothock.

The Town-house, built in 1803, is a handsome edifice, and contains a large elegant apartment, a town-clerk's office, a small debt court-room, and a council chamber. The Guild Hall, a plain building, was completely destroyed by fire (10 Oct. 1880), but has been since rebuilt in a handsome style. The Trades' Hall was erected in 1815 at a cost which weighed heavily on the incorporations, and, having been sold, is now in private hands. The Market House was erected in 1856, at a cost of about £7000, and is an ornamental structure. The Public Hall was erected in 1865, and contains a museum and a large hall for concerts and public meetings. The museum is open to the public on every lawful day, and in 1870 was enriched with a valuable collection of fishes, minerals, and other subjects, gifted by Mr James Renny of Edinburgh, and with three-fourths of the late Professor Fleming's collection of insects, shells, and fossils. The public subscription library contains 13,000 volumes. The mechanics' institute has a library of more than 1500 volumes and a reading-room. Other institutions are a public subscription reading-room, a scientific and literary association, an educational institute, science and art evening classes, cricket, football, and curling clubs, an infirmary and dispensary, 2 destitute sick societies, a ladies' clothing society, a town mission, a female home mission, and 12 charity funds or mortifications, bequeathed between 1738 and 1880. The infirmary, opened in 1845, received 220 cases in the year 1879-80, besides treating 877 out-patients; its income for that year was £881, 5s. 2d., and its endowment had reached £8000.

Arbroath has 22 places of worship, divided among 12 denominations, and all of them modern but one. The Old or parish church, built about 1590, with the materials of the abbey dormitory, and enlarged or repaired in 1762, 1788, 1823, and 1869, has a handsome Gothic spire added in 1831 at a cost of £1300, and 152 feet high, also old carving in its pews, and 2 bronze alms-dishes, taken probably from the abbey. Abbey Church, built in 1797 at a cost of £2000, was greatly altered, though hardly improved (1876-78), at a cost of £2000 more, new windows being struck out, and old ones closed, a flat panelled ceiling inserted, the gallery stairs transferred to the outside, etc. Inverbrothock Church was built in 1828, Ladyloan in 1838, the latter being adorned in 1875 with two memorial stained-glass windows; and all these three, Abbey, Inverbrothock, and Ladyloan, have been raised from chapels of ease to quoad sacra churches in respectively l869, 1855, and 1865. St Margaret's chapel of ease was erected (1877-79) at a cost of £6000, exclusive of a spire to be added. Free churches are East (rebuilt at Brothock Bridge 1875), Inverbrothock (1846), High Street (the former Episcopal chapel, 1856), Knox's (1867), and Ladyloan (1845), in connection with which last a mission meeting-house was opened in 1872. The United Presbyterians have 3 churches, Erskine (1851), Princes Street (1867), and Park Street (1826); whilst each of the following bodies has 1-United Original Seceders (1821), Evangelical Union (1863), Congregationalists (1866), Baptists (1873), Wesleyans (opened by Wesley himself, 1772), ` Balchristians' (1783), and Irvingites (1865). St Mary's Episcopal church (1852-54) is a good Gothic building with spire; the Catholic church of St Thomas of Canterbury (1848) was in 1880 beautified by the insertion of 4 stained-glass windows. The Academy, built in 1821, in 1861 took the name of High School, on amalgamation with the Educational Institution (1844), and in 1872 passed to the charge of the school-board; with a rector, 8 under-masters, and accommodation for 609, it furnishes higher-class education to over 300 pupils. The Abbey, Hill, Keptie, Inverbrothock, Ladyloan, and Park Street public schools are also all under the board, which in June 1880 reported the number of children on the school rolls as 3501, of children in average attendance as 3099, whilst the aggregate grants to the above 6 schools amounted (1879) to £1811.

An ancient abbey, now in a state of picturesque decay, is much the most imposing object in the town. This stands in High Street, near the parish church. It was founded in 1178 by William the Lyon, and dedicated to SS. Mary and Thomas a Becket. Becket had been martyred at the high altar of Canterbury Cathedral only seven years before, and William the Lyon had recently suffered shameful defeat and ignominious capture by the English at Alnwick; but William had been personally acquainted with Becket, and is supposed to have regarded him as a private friend. ` Was this the cause, ' Cosmo Innes asks, ` or was it the natural propensity to extol him, who, living and dead, had humbled the crown of England, that led William to take St Thomas as his patron saint, and to entreat his intercession when he was in greatest trouble? Or may we consider the dedication of his new abbey, and his invocation of the martyr of Canterbury, as nothing more than the signs of the rapid spreading of the veneration for the new saint of the high church party, from which his old opponent himself, Henry of England, was not exempt? ' The abbey received great endowments, not only from William, but from many subsequent princes and barons; received also, in 1204, a charter of privileges from King John of England; and was one of the richest in Scotland. Its monks were of the Tyronensian order; and the first ones were brought from Kelso. Its abbots had several special privileges; they were exempted from assisting at the yearly synods; they had the custody of the Brecbennach, or consecrated banner of Columba; they acquired from Pope Benedict, by Bull dated at Avignon, the right to wear a mitre; and they, in some instances, were the foremost churchmen of the kingdom. The last abbot was Cardinal Beaton, at the same time Archbishop of St Andrews. The abbey was not completed till 1233; and, after the death of Beaton, it felt the blows of the iconoclastic Reformers. Its property then was converted into a temporal lordship in favour of Lord Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of Chatelherault; passed soon to the Earl of Dysart; and passed again in the reign of James VI. to Patrick Maule of Panmure, ancestor of the Earl of Dalhousie.

A stone wall, from 20 to 24 feet high, enclosed the precincts of the abbey, and was 1150 feet in length along the E and W sides, 706 along the N side, and 484 along the S side. A tower, 24 feet square and 70 high, stood at the NW corner; was used for some time as the regality prison; was afterwards, in its ground - flat, converted into a butcher's shop; and is still entire. Another tower, somewhat smaller, stood at the SW angle; had raised upon it a slated spire; served for many years as a steeple to the parish church; but, becoming ruinous, was taken down in 1830, to give place to the church's present steeple. A stately porch, in the N wall, formed the main entrance; seems to have been furnished with a portcullis, which now forms the armorial bearings of the town; and was demolished as insecure about 1825. Another entrance, called the Darngate, far inferior in architectural structure to the main entrance, stood at the SE corner. The church stood in the northern part of the enclosure; measured 276 feet from E to W; seems to have been 67 feet high from the pavement to the roof; and had two western towers, and a great central tower. The nave, of nine bays, was 148, and the three-bayed choir 76½, feet long; the central aisle was 35, and each of the side aisles 16½, feet wide; whilst the transept was 132 feet long and 45½ wide. The whole structure is now in a state of chaotic ruin, and mingles with fragments of the cloisters and other attached buildings in prostrate confusion; yet, by attentive observation, can still be traced as to its cruciform outline, and considerably re-constructed, in imagination, as to its several parts and its main details. The great western doorway is still entire, and forms a grand object. A rose window, seemingly of great size and much beauty, surmounted the great western doorway, and has left some vestiges. Another of smaller size is yet seen on the upper part of the wall of the S transept. The S wall and part of the E end are still standing; and they retain some windows, or portions of windows, and some other features, which distinctly show the characteristic architecture. The pillars which supported the roof are all demolished, but can still be easily traced in their sub-basements or foundations; and those at the intersection of the nave or transept have been so much larger than the others as evidently to have been piers supporting the central tower. The architecture was partly Norman, but mainly Early English; and it exhibits these styles in a closeness of blending, and in a gentleness of transition to be seen elsewhere in only a very few buildings. The great western door is Norman, in rather peculiar mouldings, but evidently of the later or latest Norman type; and the gallery above the interior of that doorway has the Early English arch resting on the Norman pillar and capital. The building material, however, was a dark-red sandstone so very friable that the mouldings and tracery, excepting only at a few places, are very much obliterated. Large masses of the pile, too, have fallen at comparatively recent periods-one of them immediately before Pennant visited the ruins in 1772. Operations were undertaken by the Exchequer to prevent further dilapidation; but these, though well meant and in some sense highly serviceable, have introduced flat new surfaces of masonry, utterly discordant with the rugged contiguous ruins. A building, said to have been the chapter-house, adjoins the S transept on the E; consists of two vaulted apartments, the one above the other; and is in a state of good repair. The cloisters appear to have stood in front of that building and of the S transept, but have been utterly destroyed. The abbot's house stood at a short distance from the S wall of the nave; and a portion of it is still inhabited as a private mansion. The tomb of King William the Lyon, who was buried before the high altar 9 Dec. 1214, was discovered in 1816 during the Exchequer's operations; it consists of hewn freestone. There are also several interesting monuments, among them the effigies of three of the thirty-two abbots of Arbroath. One of these is in blue sandstone; another has pouch and girdle of madrepore. Many tombs or gravestones of a very remote antiquity are in the graveyard near the church; but they want distinctive character, and are remarkable mainly for having the primitive form of the cross among their sculptures.

Arbroath has a head post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments; 3 hotels; offices of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Co., the Clydesdale, Commercial, and Royal banks; a local savings' bank (1815); 39 insurance offices; a plate-glass insurance association; a Montrose and Arbroath freight association; three vice-consulships, of respectively the North German Confederation, Sweden and Norway, and Belgium; a custom-house; and a Liberal Saturday paper, the Arbroath Guide (1842). Saturday is market-day, and hiring fairs are held on the last Saturday of January, 26 May, 18 July, and 22 Nov., provided these days are Saturdays, otherwise on the Saturday following. The manufacture of brown linens was introduced in the early part of last century; took a great start, about the year 1738, from a local weaver's discovery of the mode of making osnaburgs, and by a few local capitalists then engaging in the manufacture; and made such progress that, in the year 1792, so many as 1,055,303 yards of osnaburgs and brown linen, valued at £39,660, were stamped in the town. The making of sailcloth, in the same year, employed nearly 500 weavers, and was almost as productive in point of Valne as the other manufacture- The making of linen thread was introduced about 1740, prospered for nearly half a century, and then dwindled rapidly to extinction. The spinning of flax by steam power was introduced in 1806, came to a crucial trial in the Inch mill about 1808, and then took root as a permanent employment. A grand rush of increased business in the various departments of the linen trade occurred between 1820 and 1826, but was greatly impelled by over-speculation; and, in the latter part of 1825, and the early part of 1826, it received a tremendous check in a most disastrous crisis. The linen manufacture seemed, at the instant, to be overwhelmed; and it went on for a time with faltering progress and extreme caution; yet it eventually resumed its previous breadth, and became as vigorous as ever. The spinning mills were 16 in 1832,19 in 1842, when the quantity of flax spun was about 7000 tons, the value of the yarn about £300,000, the number of linen weavers 732 (about a third of them women), and the number of canvas weavers 450 (about a fifth of them women). In 1851 the nominal horse-power of the engines was 530, the number of spindles 30,342, of power-looms 806, and of persons employed 4620. The mills in 1867 were 18, but aggregately had larger space and did more work than the same number in 1842, their nominal horse-power being 892, and the number of spindles 36,732, of power-looms 830, and of persons employed 4941. In 1875 there were 34 spinning mills and factories, all driven by steam, with 40,000 spindles, and fully 1100 power-looms, which, together, turned out weekly about 450,000 yards of cloth. There are also bleachfields, calendering establishments, tanneries, engineering works, asphalt and tar factories, chemical works, and a shipbuilding yard, in which 3 sailing vessels of aggregately 400 tons were built during 1875-80; fishing employs 154 boats of 953 tons, and about 280 men and boys.

The Abbot's Harbour (1394), a wooden pier projecting from Danger Point, ` was not much liked by mariners; ' accordingly, the Old Harbour was formed (1725-42) to the westward, at a cost of over £6000. Its W pier was rebuilt (1789), a lighthouse erected (1798), and a patent slip laid down (1827); but it admitted vessels of only 100 tons at low tide, of only 200 at spring tide. Between 1841 and 1846, then, £58,000 was expended on the improvement of the Old and the construction of the New Harbour; this, with a breakwater, admits at spring tides ships of 400 tons; had conveyed to it the property and shore dues of the Old Harbour on payment of £10,000 to the community; and is administered by a body of 23 trustees, comprising the provost, 10 parliamentary burgh electors, 4 county representatives, &c. Lastly, between 1871 and 1877, at a cost of more than £29,000, including £20,000 from Government, the Old Harbour has been converted into a wet dock, the New Harbour and the entrance from the Bar have been deepened, and a new patent slip lias been formed for ships of 700 tons. In 1880 the harbour revenue was £4776 (£4245 from shore-dues); whilst the aggregate tonnage registered as belonging to the port was 900 in 1781,1704 in 1791,6700 in 1833,15,251 in 1851, 13,320 in 1860,11,915 in 1870,10,256 in 1878, and 8118 in 1880, viz., 38 sailing vessels of 7581 and 3 steamers of 537 tons. The following table gives the aggregate tonnage of vessels that cleared and entered from and to foreign and colonial ports and coastwise in cargoes and in ballast:-

Entered. Cleared.
  British For'gn Total British For'gn. Total
1873 32,532 7106 39,638 32,022 8099 40,121
1878 36,561 8306 44,867 36,940 8345 45,285
1880 31,525 6846 38,371 33,425 6828 40,253

Of the total, 334 vessels of 38,371 tons, that entered in 1880,60 of 8905 tons were steamers, 32 of 1588 tons were in ballast, and 275 of 24,813 tons were coasters; whilst the total, 355 of 40,253 tons, of those that cleared included 63 steamers of 9248 tons, 250 vessels in ballast of 30,744 tons, and 348 coasters of 39,048 tons. The trade is mainly, then, an import coastwise one; and coal is a chief article of import, 28,187 tons having been received here coastwise in 1878,25,652 tons in 1879. Other imports are flax, hemp, jute, cordilla, hides, oak bark, bones, timber, and groceries, the total value in 1879 of foreign and colonial merchandise being £194,793 (£445,335 in 1877); of exports, £1934 (£4214 in 1878); and of customs, £18,273.

Till then most probably a burgh of regality, Arbroath in 1599 received a charter of novodamus from James VI., by which it became a royal burgh. It is governed by a provost, 3 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 12 councillors. The corporation property comprises common lands, houses, mills, feu-duties, entries, customs, and imposts; and, in Oct. 1870, was estimated to be worth £40,593,10s. 1d. The general purposes' revenue was £4207, and the expenditure £4484, for the year ending 15 May 1881, when the whole bonded debt of the commissioners amounted to £25,200. The corporation revenue, in 1788, was £864; in 1838, £3859; in 1842, £1692; in 1874, £1495; in 1881, £1667. The annual value of real property in 1881, within the parliamentary burgh, was £79,365, of which £519 was for railways, and £40,232 was within the parish of St Vigeans. There is a guildry incorporation; and there are incorporated trades of hammermen, glovers, shoemakers, weavers, wrights, tailors, and bakers, the first dating from 1592, the last from 1653. The General Police and Improvement Act of Scotland was adopted prior to 1871. A police court, with the magistrates as judges, sits every Monday; a justice of peace court on the first Monday of every month; and a sheriff small debt court on the third Wednesday of January, March, May, July, September, and November. The police force, in 1880, comprised 16 men, and the salary of the superintendent was £230. The number of persons in 1879 tried at the instance of the police was 479; convicted, 468; committed for trial, 9; charged, but not dealt with, 1. The Nolt Loan water supply, with reservoir, pumping-engine, and numerous street wells, was provided in 1871, at a cost of £1700; the gas corporation's revenue was £8972 in 1880, its expenditure £8211. The burgh unites with Montrose, Forfar, Brechin, and Bervie in sending a member to parliament, and in 1881 its municipal constituency was 3366, its parliamentary 3383. Pop. of municipal burgh (1861) 7984, (1871) 20,068, an increase due to extension of the burgh's boundaries. Pop. of parliamentary burgh (1831) 13,795, (1841) 14,576, (1861) 17,593, (1871) 19,973, (1881) 21,758.

From a fishing hamlet under the abbey's protection, Arbroath grew up in the 14th century to be a place of some foreign trade. A parliament assembled in the abbey in April 1320, adopted a solemn address to the Pope on behalf of Scottish independence, and is remark able as the earliest parliament in which we find distinct evidence of a formal representation of the burghs.

Jurisdiction over the criminal affairs of the abbey and over its prison was resigned by the monks to a layman; and in the year 1445 the election to this office led to very disastrous consequences. The monks that year chose Alexander Lindsay, eldest son of the Earl of Crawford, and commonly known by the appellation of The Tiger or Earl Beardie, to be the bailie or chief-justiciar of their regality; but he proved so expensive by his number of followers and high way of living, that they were obliged to remove him, and appoint in his stead Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity, nephew to John Ogilvy of Airlie, who had an hereditary claim to the place. This occasioned a cruel fend between the families; each assembled their vassals; and ` there can be little doubt,' says Mr Fraser Tytler, ` that the Ogilvies must have sunk under this threatened attack, but accident gave them a a powerful ally in Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, afterwards Earl of Huntly, who, as he returned from court, happened to lodge for the night at the castle of Ogilvy, at the very moment when this baron was mustering his forces against the meditated assault of Crawford. Seton, although in no way personally interested in the quarrel, found himself, it is said, compelled to assist the Ogilvies, by a rude but ancient custom, which bound the guest to take common part with his host in all dangers which might occur so long as the food eaten under his roof remained in his stomach. With the small train of attendants and friends who accompanied him, he instantly joined the forces of Inverquharity, and proceeding to the town of Arbroath, found the opposite party drawn up in great strength on the outside of the gates.' As the two lines approached each other, and spears were placing in the rest, the Earl of Crawford, anxious to stay the fight, suddenly appeared on the field, and, galloping up between the two armies, was accidentally slain by a soldier. The Crawfords, assisted by a large party of the vassals of Donglas, and infuriated at the loss of their chief, thereupon attacked the Ogilvies with a desperation which quickly broke their ranks, and put them to irreclaimable disorder. Such, however, was the gallantry of their resistance, that they were almost entirely cut to pieces. Nor was the Ogilvies' loss in the field their worst misfortune; for Lindsay, with his characteristic ferocity, and protected by the authority of Donglas, let loose his army upon their estates, and the flames of their castles, the slaughter of their vassals, the plunder of their property, and the captivity of their wives and children instructed the remotest adherents of the justiciar of Arbroath, how terrible was the vengeance which they had provoked. During the war in 1781, this coast was annoyed by a French privateer, the Fearnought of Dunkirk, commanded by one Fall. On the evening of the 23d of May, he came to anchor in the Bay of Arbroath, and fired a few shots into the town; after which he sent a flag of truce on shore, with the following letter:-

' At sea. May twenty-third. ' Gentlemen, I send these two words to inform you, that I will have yon to bring to the French colour, in less than a quarter of an hour, or I set the town on fire directly; such is the order of my master the king of France I am sent by. Send directly the mair and chiefs of the town to make some agreement with me, or I'll make my duty. It is the will of yours. `To Monsieurs Mair of the town called) Arbrought, or in his absence, to the chief man after him, in Scotland.

The worthy magistrates, with a view to gain time to arm the inhabitants, and send expresses for military aid, in the true spirit of subtle diplomacy gave an evasive answer to Monsieur Fall's letter, reminding him that he had mentioned no terms of ransom, and begging he would do no injury to the town till he should hear from them again. Upon this Fall wrote a second letter to them in the following terms:

` -At sea. eight o'clock in the afternoon.
` Gentlemen, I received just now your answer, by which you say I ask no terms. I thought it was useless, since I asked you to come aboard for agreement. But here are my terms; I will have £30,000 sterling at least, and 6 of the chiefs men of the town set fire to it. I am, gentlemen, your servant. I sent some of my crew to you; but if some harm happens to them. you'll be- sure will hang up the main-yard all the preseners we have aboard.
'To monsieurs the chiefs men of
Arbrought in Scotland.'

The magistrates having now got some of the inhabitants armed, and their courage further supported by the arrival of some military from Montrose, set Fall at defiance, and ` ordered him to do his worst, for they would not give him a farthing.' Whereupon, says the worthy historian of this memorable transaction in the annals of Arbroath, terribly enraged, and no doubt greatly disappointed, he began a heavy fire upon the town, and continued it for a long time; but happily it did no harm, except knocking down some chimney-tops, and burning the fingers of those who took up his balls, which were heated. Arbroath is the ` Fairport ' of Scott's Antiquary;- and both in itself and in its surroundings, it can easily be identified with his descriptions. Among its illustrious natives are David Pierson (flo. 1628), author of the-rare Varieties; David Carey (1782-1824), poet and novelist; Neil Arnott, M. D. (1788-1874), scientific inventor; and Wm. Sharpey, M.D. (b. 1802): it was also the residence, from 1793 to 1814, of Alex. Balfour, poet and novelist. The parish of Arbroath is bounded N and NE by St Vigeans, SE by the German Ocean, SW by a detached portion of St Vigeans and by Arbirlot. Its outline roughly resembles that of a boot, with the sole resting on the shore. Its length from NW to SE is about 3 miles; its breadth varies from 1 to 10 furlongs; and its land area is 943 acres. The coast extends about 1½ mile; has a flat surface, with a rocky bottom; forms the terminal portion of the level seaboard extending from the mouth of the Tay; and adjoins a high mural reach of Lock-coast, pierced with caves, and torn with fissures, in the parish of St Vigeans. The land rises gradually behind the town, onward to the north-western boundary, and attains there an elevation of more than 200 feet above sea-level. The Brothock Burn comes in from St Vigeans, and has a course of only about ¼ mile within Arbroath parish to the sea. A small lake called Bishop's Loch lay about 2 miles from the town, but has long been drained. The rocks are chiefly Devonian. The soil along the coast is light and sandy, behind the town is black loam, and in the NW is reclaimed moor on a clay bottom. Two landowners hold each an annual value of £500 and upwards, 36 of between £100 and £500,70 of from £50 to £100, and 197 of from £20 to £50. Arbroath is seat of a presbytery in the synod of Angus and Mearns; its living is worth £428. Valuation of landward portion (1881) £1419,14s. Pop. of entire parish (1831) 6660, (1861) 9847, (1871) 9877, (1881) 9900.—Ord. Sur., shs. 49,57,1865-67.

The presbytery of Arbroath comprises the old parishes of Arbroath, Arbirlot, Barry, Carmylie, Guthrie, Inverkeilor, Kinnell, Kirkden, Lunan, Panbride, and St Vigeans, the quoad sacra parishes of Abbey, Carnoustie, Colliston, Friockheim, Inverbrothock, and Ladyloan, and the chapelries of St Margaret's and Auchmithie. Pop. (1871) 33,811, of whom 8702 were communicants of the Church of Scotland in 1878, when the above-named congregations raised £4074 in Christian liberality. -A Free Church presbytery of Arbroath has churches at Arbirlot, Barry, Carmylie, Carnoustie, Colliston, Friockheim, Inverkeilor, and Panbride, besides the 5 at the town itself, these 13 congregations numbering 4456 communicants in 1880.-A U.P. presbytery of Arbroath has 3 churches there, 3 at Brechin, 3 at Montrose, and others at Carnoustie, Forfar, Johnshaven, and Muirton, the 13 numbering 3977 members in 1879. See Liber S. Thomœ de Aberbrothoc 1178-1329, edited for the Bannatyne Club by Cosmo Innes and P. Chalmers (1848); Billing's Antiquities (1852); D. Miller's Arbroath and its Abbey (1860); C. Innes' Sketches o-f -Early Scotch History (1861); and Geo. Hay's History of Arbroath (1876).

An accompanying 19th C. Ordnance Survey map is available, or use the map tab to the right of this page.

Note: This text has been made available using a process of scanning and optical character recognition. Despite manual checking, some typographical errors may remain. Please remember this description dates from the 1880s; names may have changed, administrative divisions will certainly be different and there are known to be occasional errors of fact in the original text, which we have not corrected because we wish to maintain its integrity. This information is provided subject to our standard disclaimer

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