St Andrews

A historical perspective, drawn from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical, edited by Francis H. Groome and originally published in parts by Thomas C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works, Edinburgh between 1882 and 1885.

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St Andrews, a royal burgh, market, and university town, and a seaport on St Andrews Bay, near the middle of the sea-coast of the parish just described. It was long the ecclesiastical metropolis of Scotland, and is still the seat of a presbytery. The station, on a branch line of the North British system leaving the main line at Leuchars, is by rail 12 miles E of Cupar, 15 SE of Dundee, and 45 NE of Edinburgh. The country round is low and flat, and the environs are somewhat tame, though from various points of view, particularly from the W and N, the town itself, with its spires and venerable towers and ruined buildings, looks well. The site of the town is a tabular rocky eminence, some 50 feet above sea-level, and about 1 mile long and ¾ broad, falling to the sea on the E and N by steep rocky declivities, and dipping on the landward side into a narrow vale traversed by the Kinness Burn. The situation is somewhat exposed, but the climate is healthy and bracing.

Lines of Street, etc.—The cathedral, a short distance W of the harbour, marks the point from which the town grew, and so we find that the three principal streets run westward from this point, diverging somewhat from one another in their course. The chief of the three is South Street, which is the one farthest S; in the centre is Market Street, and farther N is North Street. The first and last are wide airy streets, measuring 70 feet from side to side, and all well built and well paved. Market Street is broad and spacious in the middle and W end, but the E end is still narrow. They are intersected by a number of cross streets from N to S. From the E end of South Street, Pends Lane passes eastward, farther W are Castle Street (N) and Abbey Street (S) -the latter being continued westward by Abbey Walk -Union Street and College Street-both between Market Street and North Street-Church Street, a continuation of College Street to South Street, North Bell Street and South Bell Street-from North Street to South Street-and at the extreme W are Golf Place, Hope Street, City Road, and Bridge Street. Between North Street and the shore there is another thoroughfare called at one time Swallow Street, the line of which is now occupied by the walk called The Scores. Southward from the centre of South Street is Queen Street, and on the NW of the town is a winding path, called Lead Braes Walk. The railway station is at the E end of North Street. The extreme length of the town is about a mile-counting from the Harbour westward, and the greatest width at the W end is under half a mile. A rough map of the town, made in 1530, shows that since that time no change has taken place in the plan of the main streets. The most of the older houses seem to have been of wood, and one specimen of a dwelling of this sort remained till comparatively recent years on the N side of North Street, near the E end. Subsequent to the Reformation the wooden houses were replaced by more substantial structures, many of them built with stones taken from the castle, the cathedral, or some of the other ecclesiastical buildings that Had been wrecked at the time. The Reformation, however, ruined the prosperity of the town, and the rough and inconvenient state of the streets that had obtained in the end of the 16th century, was but little improved till well into the present century. Prior to 1840, 'there was not a foot of side pavement in any of the streets; filth and squalor abounded unchecked; cows and pigs grazed in front of the colleges; the venerable ruins were fast going, by neglect, to decay, and were littered with rubbish; the lines of the public streets were continually broken by awkward abutments of ungainly houses; there were few visitors of any distinction, even to the splendid links, which lay with all its vast capabilities almost untrodden; and, generally, St Andrews, considering the prestige of its antiquity as an ecclesiastical capital, and its rank as a seat of learning, was at the lowest pitch of miserable neglect and decay.' The St Andrews of to-day, with its wide well-paved streets, handsome public buildings and houses, and its gay season of summer visitors, had still to be created; but in 1842 the hour came, and the man, in the person of Major H. L. Playfair (1786-1861), son of Principal Playfair (1799-1819) of the United College. Major, afterwards Sir Hugh Playfair, quitted the service of the Honourable East India Company-in which he Held High command in the artillery-in 1834, and retired to St Andrews, where he spent the rest of His life. He was elected provost in 1842, and at once set to work on the new reformation, on which his heart was set. The old streets were widened, levelled, causewayed, and provided with side paths, a new quay built, barriers erected to prevent the encroachments of the sea on the links-one achievement being the completion of the Dane's Work on the NE, an unfinished bulwark of rough stones, commenced by one of the priors in 1507, and afterwards abandoned-the formation of The Scores and other walks, the erection of new university and municipal buildings, and of a club-house at the links. The town had a number of ports or gates, but seems never to have had a regular wall, the fences at the backs of the Houses being probably deemed sufficient. One of the gates was at the N end of Castle Street, another at the Harbour Hill, a third at the W end of Market Street, one at the shore on the road to Crail, and one still remains at the W end of South Street.

History.—Like so many of the older Scottish burghs, St Andrews owes its origin and early importance to its connection with the Church. About the 7th century the whole district seems to have been a wild expanse of moorland and forest, forming a hunting-ground for the Pictish kings, and known as Muckross, from the Celtic Muic, 'a pig or boar,' and ross, 'a promontory.' In the grant of this tract to the Bishop- by Alexander I., the name appears as Cursus Apri, or boar chase, and the village of Boarhills seems still to keep up the remembrance of the old title, as do also the city arms, the shield bearing a boar tied to a tree. Hector Boece says it was 'so called from a boar of wondrous size, which, after Having made prodigious Havoc among men and cattle, and having often been unsuccessfully attacked by the huntsmen at the imminent danger of their lives, was at last set upon by the whole of the inhabitants of the district, and killed while endeavouring to make his escape across this tract of ground.' The historian further adds that in His time manifest proofs of the existence of this huge beast were extant in the shape of two tusks, each 16 inches long and 4 thick, which were preserved in the cathedral. Tradition claims for the first religious house at St Andrews, the date of 347 A.d. The full account, as ultimately elaborated, is, that when in 345 Constantine the Great invaded Patras with a large army in order to avenge the martyrdom of St Andrew, an angel appeared to Regulus the bishop and ordered him to remove and Hide some of the relics of the saint. In obedience to this command Regulus concealed three fingers of the saint's right hand, a part of one of His arms, the pan of one of his knees, and one of his teeth; and after Constantine had carried off the rest of the remains to Constantinople, the bishop, again visited by the angel in a dream, was enjoined to sail northwards with his relics, and to found and dedicate a church to St Andrew wherever his ship should be wrecked. Meanwhile the saint himself had appeared in a vision to Hungus, son of Fergns, king of the Picts, who was at the time at war with Athelstan, King of the Saxons, with whom He was about to fight an important battle, and after promising Him the victory, warned him also as to the approach of the relics and the Honour and fame which would gather round the place where they were landed. The Picts vowed to revere St Andrew for ever if they should gain the victory, and as their cause was successful and Athelstan was killed, they were quite prepared to extend a warm welcome to Regulus, who, after sailing about for a year and a half, was at last wrecked in St Andrews Bay somewhere near the present harbour. Regulus, weary with His long voyage, rested for seven days, and then leaving part of his company at the place where He Had landed, he set out with the relics for Forteviot, where He was kindly received by Hungus' three sons, 'who, being anxious as to the life of their father, then on an expedition in the region of Argathelia, gave a tenth part of Forteviot to God and St Andrew.' The king returned safe, and farther grants of land were made to the clerics, Hungus Himself going with them to Muckeross or Chilrymont, where they had been wrecked, and 'making a circuit round a great part of that place immolated it to God and St Andrew for the erection of churches and oratories,.. with waters, meadows, fields, pastures, moors, and woods as a gift for ever, and granted the place with such liberty that its inhabitants should be free and for ever relieved from the burden of hosting and building castles and bridges, and all secular exactions.' Such is the completed legend, the older forms of which make, however, no mention of Regulus at all; in a subsequent form He is introduced as a monk and abbot; and in the latest form he is a bishop. Dr Skene, who Has compared and analysed all the stories, is of opinion that the early part of the legend belongs entirely to the relics, and was tacked on to the latter part of the story in order to give the dedication to St Andrew a fictitious date, so that the foundation might seem to Have a greater antiquity than that of Iona. to be the Angus who ruled over the Picts from 731 to 761, and the adoption of St Andrew as the national saint must lie somewhere between those dates. It must have been subsequent to 731, for when Bede finished his -Ecclesiastical History, in that year the national saint was St Peter, to whom Nectan had dedicated the land of the Picts in 710, and it must have been prior to 747, for in that year Tighernac records the death of Tuathalan, abbot of Kilrymont. Under the date of 736 the same annalist records that Angus devastated Dalriada, so that the latter year is probably that of the foundation of the see and of the mediæval prosperity and importance of the town. The dedication to St Andrew and the great veneration in which he was thereafter held seems to Have been borrowed from the Saxons of Northumbria, where Wilfred, Bishop of York, who was the leader of the Roman party in the Northumbrian Church, had erected a church dedicated to this saint, at Hexham, in 674; and there is a vague tradition that Acca, Bishop of Hexham, who was driven from his Northumbrian bishopric in 732, founded a see among the Picts. Whether St Regulus or St Rule is to be connected with the earlier or later portion of the legend is doubtful, and in all probability there is a confusion of two different persons, viz., St Regulus the first Bishop of Senlis in Gaul, and St Riaguil of Muicinsi in Ireland; for while the ordinary day assigned in Scotland for the commemoration of St Rule is the 17th October, the day of the Irish saint is the 16th, and the Aberdeen Breviary has a St Rule commemorated on the 30th March. It is also highly probable that the mystification may be intentional so as to take in an older church dedicated to the Irish St Rule who was a contemporary of St Columba, and erected in the end of the 6th century during the mission to St Cainich-one of the companions of St Columba-who is said to have had a church at Kilrymont, although it is possible that the word in the particular passage where this is mentioned may refer rather to the district generally than to the position of the modern town.

In those early days of St Andrews the primacy was at Abernethy, but it must have been removed to St Andrews during the next century and a half, whether by Kenneth II. or Grig cannot now be settled, for in 908 Bishop Cellach of St Andrews appears as the leading churchman in the great council held by King Constantine at the Mote Hill of Scone. Cellach was the first bishop, and he was succeeded by ten Culdee bishops, the last being the second Fothad or Modath, who performed the ecclesiastical rites at the marriage of Malcolm Ceannmor and Margaret. The next three bishops all died before consecration, and for about 16 years after the death of Malcolm the bishopric appears to have been vacant. The thirteenth bishop was Turgot, Queen Margaret's confessor, who ruled from 1109 to 1115-the first bishop not of native birth-during whose episcopate the Culdee influence began to decline. At some period prior to 1107 the Culdee community had split up into two sections, each of which carried with it a portion of the spiritualities and temporalities which we may reasonably -conceive had been originally combined. On the one side were a prior and twelve brethren representing the old foundation, and as clerical vicars performing divine service, and Holding part of the estates as well as receiving the minor dues; the other party consisted of the bishop and the representatives of the abbot and other greater officers, secularised, yet enjoying another portion of the estates and the greater ecclesiastical dues. The appropriation of church revenues by secular officials began early in the 12th century to be regarded as a scandal, and a further blow was dealt at the practice in the time of the seventeenth bishop, Robert (1121-59), by the establishment in 1144 of a body of canons regifar, to whom was granted the hospital as well as a large amount of other ecclesiastical property, and thus 'there were now two rival ecclesiastical bodies in existence at St-Andrews-one, the old corporation of secular priests, who were completely thrown into the shade, and shorn of many of their privileges and possessions; and the other, that of the regular canons, who virtually represented the secularised portion of the old institution, and entered on the enjoyment of their estates. But this rivalry or co-existence was very distasteful to the chief authorities, both lay and ecclesiastical, as soon became manifest. 'Immediately upon the foundation of St Andrews, King David, as He did also in the case of Lochleven, made an ordinance that the prior and canons should receive into incorporation with them the Keledei of Kilrimont, who were to become canons provided they would conform to canonical rule. If they refused they were to be merely liferented in their possessions, and as they died out regular canons were to be appointed in their room. The influence of the Culdees was, however, strong, for, notwithstanding this edict, Malcolm IV. confirmed them in their possessions in 1160, and though every pope from 1147 to 1248 issued an injunction that from the time of his edict vacant places should be filled by regular canons, it seems never to have been possible to enforce the order. In 1199 they had a quarrel with the regular prior, and compromised matters by giving up their rights as to dues, while they were allowed to hold the tithes of their own lands. They clung to their prescriptive right to take part in the election of a bishop, down to 1273, when they were excluded under protest, and in 1332 they were absolutely excluded, and seem to have abandoned their claim. They, however, retained possession of their lands in the Cursus Apri, and although the name of Culdee does not appear after the early part of the 14th century, the institution remained under the names of 'Præpositura ecclesiæ beatæ Mariæ civitatis Sancti Andreæ, 'the' ecclesia beatæ Mariæ de Rupe, 'and' the Provostry of Kirkheugh 'till the Reformation, when the provostry became vested in the Crown, and in 161 6 it was annexed to the see of St Andrews (see Dr Reeves' Culdees). What was the size of the bishopric as originally established is not known, but in the time of Malcolm IV. it embraced the counties of Fife, Kinross, and Clackmannan, the three Lothians, Berwickshire, Roxburghshire, and parts of Perthshire, Forfarshire, and Kincardineshire, and though it was afterwards lessened by the erection of new sees, the extent and importance of St Andrews always remained very great, and at the Reformation the archbishop held the patronage of 131 beneficies, and administered the affairs of 245 parishes, the diocese being divided into 2 archdeaconries and 9 rural deaneries. The benefactions of some of the bishops are subsequently noticed. The last bishop was James Kennedy (1440-66)-the thirty-sixth from Cellach-his successor, Patrick Graham (1466-78), having obtained from Pope Sixtus IV. a bull erecting the see into an archbishopric. The document is lost, and the exact date is not known, but it seems to have been issued in 1471 or 1472. The bishop of York had originally the supervision of the portion of the kingdom of Northumbria, along the S side of the Firth of Forth, and, after the introduction of the line of bishops of English birth beginning with Turgot, he repeatedly claimed the bishop of St Andrews as his suffragan, and though the claim was always indignantly set aside by the Scottish authorities, it was revived from time to time down to this period, when St Andrews became the metropolitan see of Scotland, the suffragans being the bishops of Dunkeld, Dunblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, and Orkney. Poor Graham did not, however, long enjoy his new dignity, for the jealousies and quarrels in which his elevation involved him seem to have driven him mad, and after a formal trial in 1477 he was early in 1478 deposed by a bull of Pope Sixtus IV. and imprisoned first at Inchcolm and afterwards in the priory at Lochleven. Including Graham there were eight Roman Catholic archbishops-the most famous being James Beaton (152239) and his nephew Cardinal Beaton (1539-46), and the last John Hamilton who was executed on a charge of treason in 1571. The bishops and archbishops were lords of regality and ultimate heirs of all confiscated property within their domains; they levied customs; and they seem also to have had, at times at all events, the power of coining money. The archbishops also presided at synods, controlled the appointment of abbots and priors, were included with the king in the oath of allegiance, and took precedence next after the royal family, and before all Scottish noblemen whatever. After the Keformation there were three Tulchan bishops, the last of whom, George Gladstanes, had also from 1610 till his death in 1615 some real ecclesiastical functions. He was succeeded by the well-known John Spotiswoode (1615-39), after whose time there was no archbishop till James Sharpe (1661-79), who was assasinated at magus Mum, and who was succeeded by Alexander Burnet (1679-84). Burnet was succeeded by Arthur Ross (1684-88), who was the last of the archbishops till the re-establishment of the titular dignity by the Roman Catholic Church in 1878. The modern bishopric in connection with the Episcopal Church was originally constituted in 1720 as a bishopric of Dunkeld, Dunblane, and Fife, but this title was, at the synod held at Aberdeen in 1844, exchanged for that of Bishop of St Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. This see has been already noticed.

The town, which has been the scene of some of the most memorable events recorded in Scottish history, is of great antiquity, and must indeed have originated soon after the first settlement of the churchmen. The great creator of royal burghs, David I., granted it a charter about 1140, the first provost being a Fleming called Maynard; but the oldest charter existing is a confirmation by Malcolm IV. 'to the burgesses of the bishop of St Andrews of all the liberties and privileges which my burgesses have in common over the whole of my dominions, and at whatever parts they may land.' This grant of free trade led in 1369 and the following years to a long dispute with the burgesses of CuparFife, who had just obtained a charter from David II., and who wished to prevent the citizens of St Andrews from trading within the bounds of Cupar without payment of customs, but the dispute was settled by parliament in favour of St Andrews. In 1408 John Reseby, an Englishman, was burned alive on a charge of heresy, his chief offence seemingly being his upholding the doctrines set forth by Wyclif; and here also perished in 1432 Paul Crawar or Craw, a German physician, accused of propagating the doctrines preached by Huss and Jerome of Prague; and in 1527 Patrick Hamilton, lay Abbot of Fearn, suffered the same fate. He was a young man of great accomplishments and of powerful family, as he was the son of Sir Patrick Hamilton of Kincavel, and Catherine, daughter of the Duke of Albany, and a nephew of the Earl of Arran; but this did not save him from Archbishop James Beaton and his court, who, having 'founde the same Mr Patrike many wayes infamed wyth heresie, disputing, holding and maintaynyng divers heresies of Martin Luther and hys folowers, repugnant to our fayth,' therefore declared 'the sayde Mr Patrick Hameltone, for his afnrmyng, confessing, and maintayning of the foresayd heresies, and his pertinacitie (they being condemned already by the Church, general Councels, and most famous Universities), to be an hereticke,' and so handed him over to the secular power to be punished, and he was burned in the open space in front of St Salvator's Church. Within a few years this execution was followed by that of a young Benedictine named Henry Forrest, who, for the heresy of declaring that Patrick Hamilton had been put to death unjustly, was burned ' at the North Church stile of the Abbey Church of St Andrews, to the intent that all the people of Angus might see the fire, and so might be the more feared from falling into the like doctrine.'

In 1538 King James V. came here to receive Mary of Guise, who, says Pitscottie, 'landed in Scotland, at the place called Fyfeness, near Balcomy, where she remained till horse came to her. But the king was in St Andrews, with many of his nobility, waiting upon her home-coming. Then he, seeing that she was landed in such a part, rode forth himself to meet her, with the whole lords, spiritual and temporal, with many barons, lairds, and gentlemen, who were convened for the time at St Andrews in their best array; and received the Queen with great honours and plays made to her. And first, she was received at the new Abbey-gate, upon the east side whereof there was made to her a triumphant arch, by Sir David Lindsay of the Mont, lyon-herald, which caused a great cloud come out of the Heavens above the gate, and open instantly; and there appeared a fair lady most like an angel, having the keys of Scotland in her hands, and delivered them to the queen, in sign and token that all the hearts of Scotland were open to receive her grace; with certain orations and exhortations made by the said Sir David Lindsay to the queen, instructing her to serve her God, obey her husband, and keep her body clean, according to God's will and commandments. This being done, the queen was received unto her palace, which was called The New Inns, which was well decored against her coming. Also the bishops, abbots, priors, monks, friers, and canons regular, made great solemnity in the kirk, with masses, songs, and playing of the organs. The king received the queen in his palace to dinner, where was great mirth all day till time of supper. On the morn, the queen past through the town, she saw the Blackfriers, the Gray-friers, the old college and the new college, and St Leonards; she saw the provost of the town and honest burgesses: But when the queen came to her palace, and met with the king, she confessed unto him, she never saw in France, nor no other country, so many good faces in so little room, as she saw that day in Scotland: For she said it was shewn unto her in France, that Scotland was hut a barbarous country, destitute and void of all good commodities that used to be in other countries; but now she confessed she saw the contrary: For she never saw so many fair personages of men, women, young babes and children, as she saw that day; 'and so' the king remained in St Andrews the space of forty days, with great merriness and game, as justing, running at the lists, archery, Hunting, hawking, with singing and dancing in maskery, and playing, and all other princely game, according to a king and a queen.,

After the appointment of Cardinal Beaton to the archbishopric the city was in 1545 the scene of the martyrdom of George Wishart, who was burned in front of the Castle for heresy, an execution that led to the speedy death of the Cardinal himself in the following year, when he was murdered by a number of Wishart's friends. Norman Leslie, eldest son of the Earl of Rothes, his uncle John Leslie, Kircaldy of Grange, and others, Having, with a small body of followers, obtained admission to the Castle early in the morning, when the drawbridge was lowered to admit some workmen, made themselves quietly and in a very short time masters of the building, and having succeeded afterwards in forcing their way into the Cardinal's chamber, they put him to death with their swords and daggers, one of their number telling him, ere he stabbed him, that the blow he was about to deal was not the mercenary one 'of a hired assassin, but the just vengeance which Hath fallen on an obstinate and cruel enemy of Christ and the holy Gospel. 'The workmen and servants who had been driven out of the Castle had meanwhile raised the alarm in the town, and 'the provest assembles the communitie, and cumis to the fowseis syd, crying,' 'What have ye done with my lord cardinall ? Whare is my lord cardinall ? Have ye slayne my lord cardinall ? Lett us see my lord cardinall! " Thei that war within answered gentilye-' 'Best it war unto yow to returne to your awin houssis; for the man ye call the cardinall has receaved his reward, and in his awin persone will truble the warld no more." But then more enraigedlye thei cry,' 'We shall never departe till that we see him." And so was he brought to the east blokhouse head and schawen dead ower the wall to the faythless multitude, which wold not believe befoir it saw: How miserably lay David Betoun, cairfull cardinall. And so thei departed, without Requiem æternam, and Requiescat in pace song for his saule. 'The body lay for a time, as is noticed under the Castle, at the bottom of a vault in the sea-tower, but was ultimately buried either at Kilrenny or in the churchyard of the Blackfriars monastery. The band of conspirators numbered at first only sixteen, but others soon gathered to them, and so strong was their position, that they held out for fourteen months against the royal forces, but were at last compelled to surrender by a French force which assailed the Castle by land and sea, and battered it with cannon placed on the tops of the town steeples; and so 'at last they concluded that they would give it over to the King of France's will, as they did. Then the Frenchmen entered the castle, and spoiled very rigoronsly, where they got both gold, silver, clothing, bedding, meat and drink, with all weapons, artillery, and victuals, and all other plenishing, pertaining to the said- castle, and left nothing behind them that they might get carried away in their galleys; and took all the captains and keepers of the said castle as prisoners, and had them away to the king of France. 'In April 1558 Walter Mill, parish priest of Lunan, a decrepit old man of over 80 years of age, was burnt for heresy in front of the main gate of the Priory, but so strongly was the popular resentment expressed on the occasion, that he was the last of the Reformation martyrs. One of the garrison that had defended the Castle was John Knox, who was carried off to France with the others and condemned to service in the galleys, but who was destined to return in triumph in 1559, when, meeting the Earl of Argyll and Lord James Stewart, by appointment, at St Andrews, he preached there in spite of the threats of the bishop, who had sent word- 'to him that if he appeared in the pulpit he would give orders to the soldiers to fire upon him.' His sermons, at this time, on the 14th of June and the three following days, led up to the popular outbreaks that made the Lords of the Congregation masters of the whole kingdom. Queen Mary was at St Andrews in 1563 and in 1564, and it was on the former occasion that Chatelar was Here tried and executed for the crime of forcing his way into the queen's apartment while she was resting at Burntisland for a night. In 1583 James VI. having obtained permission from the Earls of Mar, Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, into whose hands he had fallen at the Raid of Ruthven, to visit his uncle the Earl of March, who was living at the Priory of St Andrews, entered the Castle and caused the governor immediately to shut the gates and refuse admission to the adherents of Gowrie, who had accompanied him from Falkland. When he had- thus gained his liberty he soon gathered a body of nobles about him and issued a proclamation 'commanding all the lieges to remain quiet, and discharging any noblemen or gentlemen from coming to court accompanied by more than the following number of attendants: viz., fifteen for an earl, fifteen for a bishop, ten for a lord, ten for an abbot or prior, and six for a baron, and these to come peaceably under the highest penalties.' Whether it was from this circumstance or from its being a seat of learning, certain it is that James retained a strong liking for St Andrews, and visited it often while He remained in Scotland; and when, in 1617, He revisited his native country with 'a salmon-like instinct to see the place of His breeding,' he convened an assembly of the clergy at St Andrews, and addressed them in a speech of considerable length, in which he proposed the introduction of Episcopacy, and upbraided them with what He called 'Having mutinously assembled themselves and formed a protestation to cross his just desires.' In 1586 and again in 1605 there was a violent outbreak of plague in the city, and in 1609 it was the scene of the trial of Lord Balmerinoch, one of the Secretaries of State, who, being found guilty of having surreptitiously procured the king's signature to a letter addressed to the pope, was sentenced to have his hands and feet cut off, and His lands and titles forfeited, but the first part of the sentence was remitted. In 1650 Charles II. visited St Andrews, and was received at the West Port by the provost and magistrates, who presented Him with silver keys; and afterwards Dr Samuel Rutherford made Him a long address in front of St Mary's College. During the subsequent troubles the importance of the town rapidly diminished, and its affairs had become so bad by 1655, that in that year the council humbly represented to General Monk, Commander-in-chief in Scotland, that in consequence of the total failure of trade the town was utterly unable to pay the assessment of £43 imposed by him. So far had this process of decay gone in 1697 that a proposal was made to remove the university to Perth, some of the reasons-given being that the 'place being now only a village, where most part farmers dwell, the whole streets are filled with dunghills, which are exceedingly noisome and ready to infect the air, especially at this season (September) when the herring guts are exposed in them, or rather in all corners of the town by themselves; and the season of the year apt to breed infection, which partly may be said to have been the occasion of last year's dysentire, and which from its beginning here, raged through most part of the kingdom.'

From this time its deserted condition became still worse, till by 1830 it had become, as has been already described, little more than a country village, with but the spacious streets and fine ruins to serve as marks of its former grandeur, a state from which it was revived by the vigorous exertions of Sir Hugh Lyon Playfair. It was then quite neglected by tourists, and deemed too secluded and bleak to be thought of as a watering-place, but by 1855 there was such a change, that on the 1st January of that year Provost Playfair was able to tell the citizens that' In consequence of the cleanliness of the streets and the taste displayed in ornamenting the houses, the fame of St Andrews has spread abroad. This well-deserved celebrity is rapidly extending. Strangers from every quarter are induced to reside amongst us.' This progress was greatly aided by the opening of the railway in 1853, and now what Lord Teignmouth desiderated, viz., that it should be visited by strangers in some due proportion to' its own picturesque situation, the extent, diversity, and grandeur of the remains of its ancient secular, and ecclesiastical establishments, the importance of the events which they attest, and the celebrity which it has derived from the records of historians, and the descriptions of topographical writers '-has more than come to pass, and though the ancient university is not in such a flourishing state as might be wished, the town has become one of the most fashionable summer resorts on the E coast of Scotland, 'the season' lasting from June to October. The great summer amusement is golf, tho practice of which has been much encouraged everywhere by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, established in 1754 by a body of 22 gentlemen, headed by the Earls of Elgin and Wemyss. The club holds two great meetings annually, one in May and the other in October, at which various medals are competed for, among them being the highest honour of the year-the gold medal presented by King William IV. in 1837- the contest for which takes place in October. The captain for the year wears a gold medal gifted by Queen Adelaide in 1838.

Antiquities, etc.—The ruins of the cathedral are close to the shore, at the E end of the town, between the point where the three main streets branch off westward and the harbour. The first building was begun by Bishop Arnold (1159-62) in 1159, but was not finished till the time of Bishop Lamberton (1297-1328) in 1318, the work having been carried on by eleven successive bishops. During its progress in 1276 the eastern end was greatly injured during a violent tempest, and in 1378, only sixty years after completion, the roofs of the choir, east aisle, and transepts, and part of the great central tower, were much damaged or totally destroyed by an accidental fire said to have been caused by a jack daw carrying a lighted brand to its nest about the roof of the cathedral. The restoration was begun at once by Bishop William Landel (1341-85), and completed in the time of Bishop Henry Wardlaw (1404-40), who in 1430 greatly improved the interior by laying fine pavements in the choir, transepts, and nave, and also filled in the windows of the nave with stained glass, and formed a large window in the eastern gable. From about 1440 the building remained in all its grandeur till 1559, when it was destroyed by a `rascal multitude' of Reformers, who had been urged on to their work of destruction by four successive days of the fiery eloquence of John Knox in those famous sermons against idolatry, wherein he `did intreet [treat of] the ejectioune of the buyers and the sellers furthe of the temple of Jerusalem, as it is written in the evangelists Matthew and John; and so applied the corruptioune that was then to the corruptioune in the papistrie; and Christ's fact to the devote [duty] of thois to quhome God giveth the power and zeill thereto, that as weill the magistrates, the proveist and baillies, as the commonalty, did agree to remove all monuments of idolatrie, quhilk also they did with expeditioune,' with such expedition indeed that in a single day the magnificent building which had cost so many years of labour and so much toil and thought was utterly ruined amid

'—Steir, strabush and strife
Whan. bickerin' frae the towns o' Fife,
Great bangs of bodies, thick and rife
Gaed to Sanct Androis town,
And. wi' John Calvin i' their heads,
And hammers i' their hands. and spades,
Enrag'd at idols. mass, and beads,
Dang the Cathedral down.'

From this time the ruins were used as a convenient storehouse of building materials, whence every man `carried away stones who imagined he had need of them,' down till 1826, when the Barons of the Exchequer took possession of what remained, and clearing away the débris exposed the bases of the pillars, and did whatever else they could to conserve the ruins. The total length inside has been 350 feet, the width across the nave and choir 62 feet, and the width across the transepts 160 feet. The nave and choir had lateral aisles, and the transept an aisle on the E side, while at the extreme E end was a projecting lady chapel about 33 feet square. `All that remains of the edifice is the east gable part of the west front, the wall on the south side of the nave, and that of the west side of the south transept. In this last may still be seen the remains of some interlaced arches, and the ruins of the steps by which the canons descended from the dormitory to the church to perform their midnight services. The standing walls contain thirteen windows, of which the six nearest the west have pointed arches with single mullions, and the remaining seven semi-circular arches. This transition from the latter style to the former took place in the 13th century, just at the time when we know the church was about one-half completed. The great central tower was built on four massive piers, the bases of which may still be seen at the intersection of the nave with the transepts, though of the precise form of the tower we have no account. The bases of a few of the pillars also exist; those of the nave being oblong, uuequally-sided octagons seven feet by six, while those in the choir are circular and beautifully clustered, five feet and threefourths in diameter. The east gable consists of three very ancient oblong windows, with semicircular arches and a large window above them. These are situated between two turrets which terminate in octagonal pinnacles. In these turrets are yet seen the terminations of the three rows of galleries, one above the other, which, when entire, ran round the whole clerestory, passing in some places within the thickness of the walls, and in other places opening by arcades into the interior of the church. The west front consists of a pointed arched gateway, ornamented with rich mouldings. Immediately above it were two windows, of which only one is entire; and above these again there appear to have been two arches of somewhat larger dimensions. Only one of the turrets of the west front is standing; it is of delicate and elegant workmanship, and terminates in an octagonal lantern pinnacle. There is no appearance of buttresses in any part of the ruins except at the north-east angle of the Lady Chapel, where there is the base of a very substantial one. There was, doubtless. another at the corresponding south-east angle. ' The wall near the S transept, with a number of stone seats, formed part of the chapter-house. At the opening between the cloister and the chapter-house is a richlycarved gateway. The bells from the various turrets are said to have been sent away by sea to be sold, but the ship on board which they were sank in St Andrews Bay. The architecture is partly Norman, partly Early English. Near the site of the high altar is a large, flat, blue stone, probably marking the burial-place of one or more of the bishops. In the churchyard around are a number of interesting tombstones. On that of the celebrated Dr Samuel Rutherford the following verses are added after the epitaph:—

'What tongue, what pen or skill of men
Can famous Rutherfoord commend.
His learning justly raised his fame,
True godliness adorned his name.
He did converse with things above,
Acquainted with Emanuel's love;
Most orthodox he was and sound,
And many errors did confound,
For Zion's King and Zion's cause,
And Scotland's covenanted laws
Most constantly he did commend,
Untill his time w as at an end.
Then he wan to the full fruition
Of that which he had seen in vision.'

On an old tablet on which is a rude carving of two figures with joined hands, and an inscription in memory of `Christiane Bryd, spous to James Carstairs, Baillie of St Andrews,' is a line with the curious play upon words `Yet rede my name, for Christ-ane Bryde am I.' Among more recent monuments may be noticed a finely executed female figure looking up to a cross. It was designed and cut by Mr Hutchison, R.S.A., in 1881.

About 120 feet SE of the E end of the cathedral is the unique little Romanesque church of St Regulus or St Rule, with its lofty square tower. It probably occupies the site of the older Culdee cell, and was used by the Roman party as the church before the erection of the cathedral. The greater portion of it has in some mysterious way been preserved from the destruction that has befallen the surrounding buildings. What now remains consists of a square tower 112 feet high and 20 feet 8 inches broad at the base. The choir is 31 feet 8 inches long and 25 feet broad; the height from the floor to the top of the side walls is 29 feet 7 inches, and to the apex of the original high-pointed roof, as shown by the mark on the tower wall, is 55 feet 5 inches. Marks of three successive roofs may be seen on the tower wall. The arches are round-headed and very plain, the tops of the narrow windows being carved out of one slab. The chancel arch, and indeed all the proportions of the building are highly remarkable for the great height in proportion to width. Whether there ever was a nave is doubtful, as no remains of one have ever been discovered, but on the other hand, some of the early seals represent a church - sometimes presumed to be this one - with a central square tower and nave and choir. The masonry is good and substantial, and the stone of such excellent quality that the walls do not look so much weatherworn as those of the cathedral, though they must be much older. The exact date of the structure can be only vaguely assigned to the 10th, 11th, or 12th centuries, most probably the beginning of the latter, if we are to identify it with the church erected by Bishop Robert (1126-58) in 1144. It is just possible, however, that the tower may be older, and be akin to the round towers of Abernethy and Brechin, and like them intended as a place of security. If this be so, it was probably erected by the devotees of the Celtic Church, but Bishop Robert, finding it suited for his purpose, added to it the little church he erected here on the introduction of the canons-regular in 1144, after cutting openings in the E and W walls to provide access to the nave and choir. The St Andrews sculptured stones and the famous sarcophagus were found near this tower. There was originally no stair or trace of stair in it, but the present one was introduced in 1789 when the rubbish about the building was cleared away and the walls repaired at the expense of the Exchequer. Further repairs were executed in 1841. There is an excellent view from the top of the tower. St Rule's cave is subsequently noticed, and both cave and church were long much resorted to by pilgrims as sung by Scott in Marmion

`But I have solemn vows to pay.
And may not linger by the way,
To fair St Andrews bound,
within the ocean-cave to pray,
where good Saint Rule his holy lay,
From midnight to the dawn of day
Sung to the billows' sound.'

A very old chapel, possibly the first one erected by the Culdees, and known as the Church of St Mary on the Rock, is said to have stood on the Lady's Craig, a reef near the pier, but no trace of it now remains. Another chapel, also dedicated to the Virgin, stood on the Kirk Heugh, immediately W of the harbour, and was known as the Chapel of the King of Scotland on the Hill, whence, according to some, the early name of the Place - Kilrimonth. All traces of it were for a long time lost, but in 1860 the foundations were discovered, and show it to have been, in its later form at anyrate, a cruciform structure 99 feet long, 20 feet wide across the nave, and 84 feet wide across the transepts.

The Priory or Augustinian Monastery, to the S of the cathedral, founded by Bishop Robert (1126-58) in 1144, and one of the finest structures of the class in Europe, has now almost disappeared. The precinct, comprising about 20 acres, was enclosed about 1516 by Prior John Hepburn (1482-1522), by a magnificent wall, which, starting at the NE corner of the cathedral, passed round by the harbour and along behind the houses, till it joined the walls of St Leonard's College on the SW. This, about a mile in extent, is all that now remains, but it must at one time have passed back from the college to the cathedral. The wall is 20 feet high and 4 thick, and has 13 turrets, each of them with canopied niches for an image. The portion towards the shore has a parapet on each side, as if designed for a walk. There were 3 gateways, of the chief of which, now called the Pends, on the SW, considerable ruins still remain. These consist of walls 77 feet long by 16 broad, with a pointed arch at each end, and marks of 3 intermediate groins. One of the other gateways is near the harbour, and the third on the S side. Martine, the secretary of Archbishop Sharpe, who wrote in 1683, though his account was not published till 1797, mentions in his Reliquiœ DiviAndreœ that in his time 14 buildings were discernible besides the cathedral and St Rule's Chapel. Among these the chief were the Prior's House or the Old Inn, to the SE of the cathedral, of which only a few vanlts now remain; the cloisters, W of this house, now the garden of a private house, in the quadrangle of which the Senzie Fair used to be held, beginning in the second week of Easter, and continuing for 15 days; the Senzie House or house of the sub-prior, subsequently used as an inn, but now pulled down and the site occupied by a private house; the refectory, on the S side of the cloister, which has now disappeared; the dormitory, between the prior's house and the cloister, from which, as Fordun relates, Edward I. carried off all the lead to supply his battering machines at the siege of Stirling, now also gone; the Guest Hall, within the precinct of St Leonard's College, SW of Pends Lane; the Tiends' Barn, Abbey Mill, and Granary, all to the SW; and the New Inn, the latest of all the buildings of the monastery, erected for the reception of Magdalene, the first wife of James V. The young queen, who was of delicate constitution, was advised by her physicians to reside here, and the New Inn was built for her accommodation in, it is said, a single month. The queen, however, did not live to occupy the house, as she died on the 7th of July 1537, six weeks after her arrival in Scotland. It was, however, for a short time the residence of Mary of Guise, when she first arrived in Scotland, and after the priory was annexed to the archbishopric in 1635, the building became the residence of the later archbishops. The prior had superiority over the priories of Pittenweem, Lochleven, Monymusk, and the Isle of May, and was also a lord of regality. As a baron, he took precedence in parliament of all priors, and he, his sub-prior, and his canons formed the chapter of the cathedral. From 1144 to 1535 there were 25 priors; from 1535 to 1586 the lauds were in possession of the Earl of Murray and Robert Stewart, the latter entirely and the former most of the time being merely lay commendators; from 1586 to 1606 they were held by the Crown; from 1606 to 1635 by the Duke of Lennox; from 1635 to 1639 by the Archbishop of St Andrews; from 1639 till 1661 by the University; from 1661 till 1688 by the archbishops again; and from 1688 by the Crown. The part within the abbey wall was sold by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests to the United College for £2600, the intention being to convert them into a botanical garden, but the design has never been carried out.

A Dominican Monastery, which stood on the S side of South Street, near the West Port, was founded in 1274, by Bishop Wishart (1273-79), and was governed by a prior, who was not subject to the Episcopal control. The site and the adjacent ground passed at the Reformation to Lord Seton, and was subsequently made over to the town council as a site for a grammar school, and passed thereafter into the hands of Dr Bell's trustees. The ruin of the N transept of the chapel still stands on the street line, in front of Madras College. An Observantine or Greyfriars' Monastery, which stood immediately N of the West Port, at the W end of Market Street, was founded about 1450 by Bishop Kennedy (1440-66), and was completed in 1478 by Archbishop Graham (1466-78). It was governed by a warden, but the buildings, partially destroyed at the Reformation, have entirely disappeared. The grounds belonging to it were granted to the town council by Queen Mary.

The ruins of the Castle stand on a rocky promontory overhanging the sea, NNW of the cathedral. The original building is said, on the authority of Martine, to have been erected by Bishop Roger (1188-1202) as an Episcopal residence, the bishops having previously lived in the Culdee monastery at Kirkheugh, or in the Priory. From the first it seems to have been a place of military importance, and when in 1332 the discontented Scottish barons, with Edward Baliol at their head, landed in Fife, the Castle fell into their hands, and was held by them till 1336, when it was recovered for David II. by Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, who dismantled it. About 1390 a new building was erected by Bishop Trail (1385-1401), and in 1402 the Duke of Rothesay set out to make an attempt to seize it, but was stopped by Albany at Strathtyrum and carried off to die at Falkland. It is sometimes stated that ho was confined here for a short time, but there seems to be no foundation for the assertion. James III. seems to have been born here, for in the `Golden Charter' James II. speaks of the `birth of his first-born son in the chief mansion of the city of the blessed Andrew.' In 1514, during a dispute about- the succession to the archbishopric vacant by the death of Archbishop Stewart (1509-13), the Douglases seized, and for a short time held, the Castle on behalf of Bishop Gavin Douglas, who was one of the candidates, but they were driven out by Prior John Hepburn as vicar-general for the time. In 1526 Archbishop James Beaton (1522-39) sided with the Lennox faction against the Douglases, and so after the battle of Manuel, in which the latter party were victorious, they visited Fife and plundered the Castle, `but he was,' says Pitscottie, 'keeping sheep in Balgrumo with shepherd's clothes on him like as he had been a shepherd himself., As, however, he was `a great man and had many casualties of tacks and tithes to be gotten at his hand,' the Douglases soon came to terms with him, and he returned to his see. He became involved in other plots later, and was for a short time, in 1533, imprisoned in his own castle, as was also his nephew and successor, Cardinal David Beaton (1539-46), in 1543 by Arran when regent; though it is doubtful how far this latter imprisonment was real. In 1546 the Cardinal was murdered here, as has been already noticed, by a party of the Reformers, who held the Castle till the following year, when it was captured by a body of French troops, an expedition sent by Henry VIII. to their assistance having arrived too late. Many of the defenders, John Knox among others, were carried off to France and sent to the galleys. There is a very picturesque account of the siege in Pitscottie's History. The Castle, which had been much injured, was repaired by Archbishop Hamilton (1549.71), and in 1583 afforded refuge to James VI. till he freed himself from the power of the lords who had seized on his person in the Raid of Ruthven. In 1606 the Castle was gifted to the Earl of Dunbar, but was restored to the archbishop (Gladstanes, 1610-15) about 1612, for in the following year, during a meeting of the bishops at St Andrews, they were entertained by Gladstanes in the Castle. After the battle of Philiphaugh a number of the prisoners were confined here, among others being Gordon of Haddo, Ogilvie of Inverquharity, and Sir Robert Spotiswood, the first and last of whom, as well as some others of smaller note, were executed. After this time the building passed into the possession of the town council, who proved but sorry guardians, for in 1654 they ordered its `sleatts and timmer' to be used for the repair of the pier. The small portion that remains is now cared for by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. The encroachments of the sea in its neighbourhood have been considerable, for Martine says that in his time there were people still living who remembered seeing bowls played on flat ground to the E and N of the Castle where now there is none, and in 1801 a considerable portion of the seaward walls of the building itself were undermined and fell. In the centre of the grass-grown court-yard is a rock-cut well about 50 feet deep, but the chief point of interest is the old bottle-shaped dungeon at the NW corner beneath the sea-tower. It is cut out of the solid rock, and is 7 feet in diameter at the top and 16 at the bottom, the depth being 18 feet. Many of the early Reformers with whose names St Andrews is associated are said - whether truly or not, none can tell - to have been confined in its dismal depths. It was also the original burial-place of Cardinal David Beaton after his murder in 1546. `Now because the weather was hot,' says Knox, `and his funerals could not suddenly be prepared, it was thought best. to give him great salt enough, a cope of lead, and a nuke in the bottom of the Sea-Tower, a place where many of God's children had been imprisoned before, to await what exsequies his brethren the bishops would prepare for him.' The open ground in front of the Castle was the scene of George Wishart's martyrdom in 1546.

Public Buildings, etc.—The town-house and tolbooth were long in the centre of Market Street, but they have, since 1858-62, been superseded by the New Town Hall on the S side of South Street, at the corner of Queen Street. It is Scottish in style, and contains a council room, a police station, and public hall, with retiring rooms. The great hall is 75 feet long, 35 wide, and 24 high, and has accommodation for 600 persons. The Town Church, or properly the Church of the Holy Trinity, on the N side of South Street, near the centre, was originally built in 1112 by Bishop Turgot, and subsequently by Bishop Bernham dedicated to the Holy Trinity. It had, in the palmy days of the Roman Catholic Church, thirty altarages, each with a separate priest and fifteen choristers; and it was here that John Knox preached the sermon that led to the destruction of the Cathedral and the monastic buildings, as is afterwards noticed. The original building was a beautiful structure, partly Norman in style and partly First Pointed, but in the end of last century it underwent vigorous restoration of the only kind then known. The groined roofs were removed from the side aisles, and the outer walls raised nearly to the height of the original clerestory walls, the space so gained being utilised in the provision of galleries by which the church, which is 162 feet long and 63 wide, was made capable of accommodating 2500 people, and, architecturally, ruined for ever. In it is preserved a fine specimen of the old Scottish branks, usually called the Bishop's Branks, and said to have been fixed on the heads of Patrick Hamilton and others of the earlier Scottish martyrs when they were put to death. This tradition seems, however, to be untrue, and its present name may be traced to the fact that Archbishop Sharpe made use of it for silencing a woman who had promulgated scandal about him openly before the congregation. From the top of the steeple there is a good view. The pulpit was not occupied by an Episcopalian clergyman from the time of the Revolution in 1688 till 16 March 1884, when the Bishop of St Andrews (Dr Wordsworth) preached on behalf of the University Missionary Society. In the interior, to the right of the main entrance, is a monument of black and white marble, erected in memory of Archbishop Sharpe, by his son, Sir William Sharpe of Scotscraig and Strathtyrum. Executed in Holland, it shows an angel about to place the crown of martyrdom on the archbishop's head; above is a bas-relief representing him as propping up a falling church, while below another represents the murder. On an urn is a long Latin inscription of a most extravagant description, which describes the archbishop as `a most pious prelate, a most prudent senator, and a most holy martyr, ' and declares that Scotland `saw, acknowledged, and admired' him `as a chief minister of both her civil and ecclesiastical affairs;' Britain `as the adviser of the restoration of Charles II. and of monarchy;' and the Christian world ` as the restorer of Episcopacy and good order in Scotland.' `Whom all good and faithful subjects perceived to be a pattern of piety, an angel of peace, an oracle of wisdom, an example of dignity; and all the enemies of God, of the King, and of the Church found the implacable foe of impiety, of treason, and of schism.' Sir William also gave a sum of money to be applied to the relief of the poor on condition that this monument was kept in good repair in all time coming, and in 1849-50 the parochial board expended about £130 in restoring it to good condition. At this time the vault was opened, but no remains of the archbishop could be found. His skull and bones were probably removed, either when the church was altered in 1798, or in 1725 when the town council offered a reward of £10 sterling for the discovery of the person or persons who had entered the church and injured the monument. Some of the communion plate was presented to the church by Archbishop Sharpe. St Mary's Church, near the W end of Market Street, built in 1840, and greatly improved in 1870, contains 560 sittings. It has a fine oak pulpit and several stained-glass windows, two of them having been introduced in memory of the Rev. Dr Robert Haldane, by whose exertions the church was erected, and who was its first minister. A previous church of St Mary, of ancient date, and sometimes called the Kirkheugh Church, has been already noticed. St Leonard's or College Church, afterwards noticed, contains 396 sittings. A tall square tower somewhat resembling that at the cross of Glasgow rises at the W end of the church, and is surmounted by a stumpy octagonal spire. The Free church (Martyrs), on the opposite side of North Street, built in 1844, has a good front; it contains 864 sittings. The original U.P. church, built in North Street in 1826, had 380 sittings, but the present building with a spire in Market Street, built in 1865, has accommodation for 700. The Congregational church was originally a small building in Market Street, with 320 sittings, but the present place of worship, with 360 sittings, was erected in South Bell Street in 1856-58. The Baptist church in South Street, built in 1842, has 250 sittings. The original Episcopal church (St Andrew), in North Street, to the E of the College Church, was erected in 1825 at a cost of £1400, and enlarged in 1853 so as to have 180 sittings, but it was superseded by the present building, erected in 1867-69, consecrated in 1878, and containing 530 sittings and a fine organ. Dr Rowand Anderson was the architect, and the style is that of the 13th century. Funds are now being raised for the completion of the tower and spire, whose height is to be 160 feet. The Gibson Memorial Hospital, founded and endowed by the late Mr William Gibson of Duloch, for the sick, aged, and infirm poor of the city and parish of St Andrews and of the parish of St Leonards, was erected in 1882-84 at a cost of £4000. The Recreation Hall with tennis courts, constructed at a cost of £2000 in 1883-84, contains the largest public hall in Fife, the room measuring 100 by 50 feet, and being about 30 feet high. In Market Street is a handsome fountain, erected in 1880 in memory of Major Whyte Melville, the well-known novelist, and one of the four memorials of him instituted by his friends after his death, the others being a tombstone at Tetbury where he died, a monument in the Guards, Chapel, Wellington Barracks, London, and a sum forming the nucleus of an annuity fund in connection with the Hunt Servants' Benevolent Society. The fountain here, which cost about £800, is of red sandstone from Dumfriesshire, with steps, columns, and copings of Dalbeattie granite. The diameter is 14 feet, and the total height about the same. It rises in a series of three basins, and on the second, which is very elaborately carved, are four white marble medallions, one showing a bas-relief bust of Major Whyte Melville, executed by J. C. Boehm; other two respectively, the family arms and the arms of the Coldstream Guards; and the fourth the following inscription:—

'This fountain is erected by many friends. rich and poor, to the beloved memory of George John whyte Melville of Mount Melville, Bennochy, and Strathkinness; born 19th July i821; died 5th December 1878, from an accident in the hunting-field near Tetbury, Gloucestershire. His writings delighted; his conversation charmed and instructed; his life was an example to all who enjoyed his friendship, and who now mourn his untimely end.

Immediately to the W of the Castle is the ladies, bathing place, and about 150 yards farther W is the cave, or rather rock chamber, formerly known as St Rule's Cave, but now as Lady Buchan's, from having been fitted up by that eccentric person (the mother of Lord Chancellor Erskine), at the close of last century, for tea parties. It is much worn away. A hundred yards NW of the Castle are the public baths, and farther W still are the Witch Lake and the Witch Hill, where, if the witch escaped death by the water ordeal at the former, she suffered worse doom at the stake on the latter. St Andrews was long troubled with witches, and we find it stated that even such a grave man as the Earl of Murray repaired to St Andrews in 1569, `quhair a notabill sorceres callit Nicniven was condemmit to the death and burnt.' Some have been inclined to believe that she is the same witch mentioned* in Law's Memorials as having been burnt in 1572, and that the regent of the time would therefore be Morton. The author of the Historie of King James the Sext, who tells the story, also adds that `a Frenchman callit Paris, quha was ane of the designeris of the King's [Darnley's] death, was hangit in St Andro, and with him William Steward, lyoun king of armes, for divers pointes of witchcraft and necromancie;' and again in 1588 Alison Pearson, in Byrehills, was convicted and burnt on her own confession. She seems to have been a 'wise woman,' and to have by means of her prescriptions cured Archbisbop Adamson of an illness, which she was alleged to have transferred to a white pony, which died in consequence. Here, as elsewhere, a horrible form of death seemed to have no effect, for reputed witches continued to be found in Fife till the end of the 17th or the beginning of the 18th century, when the last one - a woman named Young, who lived in North Street - was burnt at the Witch Hill. Their fame, too, seems to have sometimes spread abroad, for in 1643 we find Spalding breaking off an account of the `annoyans' of the king's subjects over the Solemn League and Covenant to record that `about this tyme many witches are takin in Anstruther, Dysert, Culross, Sanctandroiss, and sindrie uther pairtis in the cost syde of Fyf. Thay maid strange confessionis, and war brynt to the death. ' The bay, between the Witch Hill and the point called The Step, is now the gentlemen's bathing-place. To the W of this is the Bow Butts, a sort of natural amphitheatre, where the citizens used anciently to practice archery, and where, from 1681 to 1751, the members of an archers' club competed annually for the right of affixing a medal with the name of the best shot to a silver arrow. The practice of archery was revived in 1833, but did not prosper; but now the pastime is carried on by many of the lady visitors. Immediately S of the Bow Butts is the Martyrs' Monument, erected in 1842-43 to commemorate the martyrs of the Scottish Reformation who suffered at St Andrews. It is an obelisk on a graduated base, and rises to a height of 45 feet. Farther W is the Golf Club House, a plain square building of 1854, containing a principal room, a billiard room, a reading-room, dressing-rooms, and stewards' apartments; and from the club-house the famous links extend north-north-westward to the mouth of the river Eden, a stretch of 1 ½ mile. They are simply sandy plains covered with coarse herbage and interspersed with bunkers and bent hills, but their now classic connection with the game of golf has been the making of modern St Andrews. They belong to the estate of Strathtyrum, but the community have the privilege in perpetuity of playing golf over them within certain marks, and they are kept in order by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club. There are nine holes out and nine in, the whole round being almost 3] miles. The average number of strokes for very good players is from 87 to 97.

Educational Institutions.—The University of St Andrews is the oldest in Scotland, St Mary's College having been founded by Bishop Wardlaw (1403-40) in 1411, and in 1413 a series of 6 Bulls were obtained from Pope Benedict XIII. sanctioning the foundation and constituting a Studium Generale or University, where instruction was to be given in theology, canon and civil law, medicine, and the liberal arts, and power was also granted to confer degrees. The classes, which were under the care of 21 doctors or lecturers, were at first scattered throughout the city, each teacher being in a separate room, but the bishop soon provided accommodation for them in a building called the Pedagogy, in South Street. Under the royal patronage of James I., who confirmed all the charters in 1432, the young seat of learning prospered; and in the time of James II., in 1455, Bishop Kennedy (1440-66) founded and endowed a second college, which he dedicated to Christ, under the name of St Salvator. The foundation was confirmed by Pope Nicholas V., and subsequently fresh privileges were granted to the college by Pope Pius II. in 1458, and Pope Paul II. in 1468, the latter granting power to confer degrees in theology and arts. In 1512, Prior John Hepburn (1482-1522), in conjunction with Archbishop Alexander Stewart (1506-13), founded St Leonard's College, and endowed it with the revenue of an hospital, originally founded for the maintenance of poor pilgrims who had come to visit the shrine of St Andrew; and in 1537, Archbishop James Beaton (1523-39), with the approval of Pope Paul III., added to the endowments of the original Pedagogy, and erecting new buildings, dedicated the college to the Virgin Mary; while, in 1553, Archbishop John Hamilton (1546-71) granted additional endowments and obtained a fresh Bull of confirmation from Pope Julius III. In 1580 Andrew Melvil was transferred from Glasgow to St Andrews as principal, and the whole arrangements of the colleges were remodelled, St Mary's being entirely set apart for the teaching of theology. The troubles of this and the following century greatly injured the university, and in 1697 a proposal was made that its seat should be transferred to Perth, some of the reasons given being that, at St Andrews, `the climate is very severe; that the town is out of the way; that provisions are dear; that the streets are foul and full of noisome pestilence; that endemics and epidemics are common; and finally that the town's-folk do not look favourably upon learning, and frequently mob the students.' The scheme was abandoned, but a suspicion, in 1718, that both students and professors were tainted with Jacobitism and leanings towards Episcopacy led to a visitation by royal commission, and made matters still worse. By 1747 the revenues of the colleges of St Leonard and St Salvator were so much diminished that in that year an act of parliament was obtained, providing for the union of the two institutions, and the restriction of their teaching to arts and medicine, while in St Mary's, theology alone was to be taught. This arrangement still holds good, and the University consists of the two corporations of the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard, with a principal and 9 professors, distributed into a Faculty of Arts and a Faculty of Medicine; and St Mary's College with a principal and 3 professors, forming a Faculty of Theology. In the Faculty of Arts the chairs, with the dates of foundation and patrons, are: - Greek (instituted at foundation of colleges; University Court); Humanity (1620; Scot of Scotstarvit, Duke of Portland); Logic and Metaphysics (instituted at the foundation of the colleges; University Court); Moral Philosophy (instituted at the foundation of the colleges; University Court); Natural Philosophy (instituted at the foundation of the colleges; University Court); Mathematics (1668; Crown). In the Faculties of Arts and Medicine both, is the Chair of Civil and Natural History, originally founded in 1747 as a chair of civil history only, but by an ordinance of the University Commission of 1858, the professorship is now practically devoted to Natural History, and falls under the Faculty of Medicine. The patron is the Marquess of Ailsa. In the Faculty of Medicine are the Chairs of Medicine and Anatomy (1721; University Court); Chemistry (1808, but no professor appointed till 1840, as the endowment did not become available till then; the Earl of Leven). There is also a principal appointed by the Crown, and apart from either faculty is the Chair of Education, founded by the Bell Trustees in 1876. In St Mary's, in the Faculty of Theology, are the Chairs of Systematic Theology (instituted at the foundation of the college, and held always by the principal; the Crown); Divinity and Biblical Criticism (instituted at the foundation of the college; the Crown); Divinity and Ecclesiastical History (suppressed for some time for want of funds, but revived and endowed in 1707; the Crown); Hebrew and Oriental Languages (suppressed for some time for want of funds, but revived in 1668, and received additional endowment from William III. in 1693; the Crown). There is a parliamentary grant in aid of the professorial salaries of about £2200, but, beyond this and the class fees, the incomes are mostly dependant on land, and as the value of the college lands has been seriously affected by the present agricultural depression, the United College has for several years been labouring under monetary difficulties which have seriously affected the amount paid to the occupants of the several chairs. Connected with the University there are bursaries and fellowships worth nearly £4000 per annum, of which about £1300 are or may be shared with other Scottish universities. Of what belongs to St Andrews alone, £450 belongs to 8 scholarships, all connected with the Faculty of Arts, and the rest is divided among 93 bursaries attached to the United College, varying in value from £5 to £50 per annum; 22 bursaries shared partly with St Mary's College, varying in value from £14 to £30; and 19 bursaries belonging to St Mary's alone, varying in value from £6 to £30. There are also a number of important prizes in books or money open to students in the different classes. The University corporation consists of the chancellor, rector, two principals, the professors, the graduates, and the matriculated students, the government being vested in the University Court and the Senatus Academicus. The officials of the University are the chancellor (appointed for life by the General Council), the rector (appointed for three years by the matriculated students), the two principals, and the professors in the three faculties. The senior principal for the time being is principal of the University. The University Court consists of the rector, the senior principal, an assessor nominated by the chancellor, an assessor nominated by the rector, an assessor elected by the General Council, and an assessor elected by the Senatus Academicus. It acts as a court of appeal and supervision for the senatus, and appoints to some of the chairs. The General Council consists of the chancellor, the members of the University Court, the professors, and all graduates who have been registered; and since 1881 this registration has been compulsory. The Senatus Acadcmicus consists of the principals and professors who manage the affairs of the University and confer degrees. The session of the United College begins in the first week of November and closes in the end of April, and that of St Mary's College begins about 10 days later, and closes in the end of March. The students of the United College wear red frieze gowns with crimson velvet collars, those of St Mary's have no distinctive dress. The number of matriculated students averages about 160, of whom from 130 to 140 are in the Faculty of Arts and the rest in that of Divinity. In session 1883-84, in arts 19 took the degree of M.A., and 1 that of B. Sc.; and in medicine 10 took the degree of M. D. The University has the privilege of granting the degree of M.D. to ` any registered Medical Practitioner above the age of 40 years, whose professional position and experience are such as, in the estimation of the University, to entitle him to that degree, and who shall, on examination, satisfy the Medical Examiners of the sufficiency of his professional knowledge.' Formerly the number of such degrees that could be granted was unlimited, but it is now restricted to 10 every year, and the fee for the degree is fifty guineas. The General Council for 1883-84 contained 1519 members. It meets twice a year on the last Thursday of March and the last Friday of November. Under the Reform Act of 1867 St Andrews University unites with that of Edinburgh in returning a member to serve in parliament, the electorate consisting of the members of General Council. Among the distinguished rectors since 1859 have been Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, J. S. Mill, J. A. Froude, Lord Neaves, Dean Stanley, and Sir Theodore Martin; while connected with the University, either as professors or students, have been John Major, George Buchanan, John Knox, Andrew Melvil, James Melvil, Napier of Merchiston, the Admirable Crichton, Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, Rohert Rollock, the Marquis of Montrose, Samuel Rutherford, James Gregory (the inventor of the Gregorian telescope), Alexander Pitcairn, John Hunter, William Tennant (the author of Anster Fair), Thomas Chalmers, Sir David Brewster, James D. Forbes, John Tulloch, William Spalding, J. F. Ferrier, John Veitch, J. C. Shairp, Lewis Campbell, R. Flint, M. Forster Heddle, and H. A. Nicholson. Besides these the bishops and archbishops, from 1411 downwards, are all intimately associated with the history of the University.

The buildings of the United College stand near the centre of the N side of North Street, where they occupy three sides of a large quadrangle, 230 feet by 180. The site was originally that of St Salvator's College. the church of which occupied the S side of the quadrangle, while on the other three sides were the common hall, library, classrooms, and students' apartments. The church still remains, though greatly altered; but the other buildings having become ruinous were removed after the report of the University Commission of 1827, and the present classrooms on the N and E sides of the quadrangle were erected between that date and 1847 at a cost of £18,600, the money being granted by Government. The entrance to the quadrangle is underneath a lofty tower at the W corner of the S side. It is a tall square structure, with a stumpy octagonal spire, the whole rising to a height of 156 feet. The College of St Leonard's church, immediately to the E, is now looked on as the parish church of St Leonards, its use for that purpose dating from the early part of last century. It contains a very elaborate monument to Bishop Kennedy, the founder of the college (d. 1466), said to have cost a sum equal to £10, 000 sterling. It was greatly injured by the fall of the stone roof of the church about the middle of last century. The tomb was opened in 1683, when six silver maces were found in it, of which three were presented to the other Scottish Universities and the remaining three were retained by the University of St Andrews. One of these last, which was made in Paris by Bishop Kennedy's orders in 1461, is very fine. In the vestibule of the church is a flat stone marking the grave of Dr Hugh Spens, principal of the College 1505-29; and on the N wall is a marble monument erected by his brother officers to the memory of the eldest son of the late Provost Playfair - Lieutenant W. D. Playfair, who fell at Sobraon in 1846. There is a good museum; and in the hall are portraits of John Hunter, Sir David Brewster, James D. Forbes. all of whom were principals; of Professors Ferrier and Macdonald, and others. At the union of the colleges of St Leonard and St Salvator in 1747 the buildings of the former, which were in South Street, near the E end, were sold, and now the ruined walls of the chapel alone remain. When Dr Johnson and Boswell were so hospitably entertained by the St Andrews professors this building was used as a `kind of greenhouse,' and, adds the Doctor, `to what use it will next be put I have no pleasure in conjecturing;' but, as he had always been hindered by some excuse from entering it, he admits that it was `something that its present state is at least not ostentatiously displayed. Where there is yet shame there may in time be virtue.' It was afterwards used as an outhouse, but the virtue came in 1838, when it was cleared out, and since then the ruin has been properly cared for. It contains a fine monument to Robert Stuart, Earl of March, who died in 1611, and another in memory of Robert Wilkie, principal of the college (1589-1611). The official residence of George Buchanan when he was principal here (1566.70), a short distance S of the chapel, was the property and residence of Sir David Brewster when he was principal of the United College (1838-59). St Mary's College occupies the site of the old Pedagogy on the S side of South Street, the college buildings and University library forming two blocks at right angles, the library and the principal's residence being on the N, and the lecture rooms and old dining-hall on the W. The library, a plain structure, built at the expense of the University in 1764, and since greatly improved in 1829, superseded an older building which had been used as a provincial meeting-place for the Scottish parliament. It is divided into four large halls, the principal one 76 feet long, 28 wide, and 28 high. There are portraits of Cardinal David Beaton, George Buchanan, John Knox, Adam Ferguson, Bruce of Grangehill and Falkland (professor of logic at Edinburgh), Archbishop Spottiswoode, George Wishart, and several of the chancellors. The nucleus of the present library was established in 1610 by the union of the libraries of the three colleges, and James VI., under whose auspices this took place, made a valuable gift of books to the new institution. Subsequent benefactors have been numerous, and there are now about 100, 000 printed volumes and 150 MSS. Among the rarities may be specially mentioned a copy of the Koran that belonged to Tippoo Saib, a copy of Quinctilian (1465), a Latin translation of the Iliad (1497), and the Phrases of Stephanus, both of which belonged to George Buchanan, and contain notes in his handwriting; a copy of the Canons of the Council of Trent that belonged to James Melvil, a fine MS. of the works of St Augustine, a MS. of Wyntoun's Cronykil, written in the latter part of the reign of James IV.; and the original copy of the Solemn League and Covenant, subscribed at St Andrews in 1643, and containing upwards of 1600 signatures. To the S of the buildings are the college gardens. St Andrews College Hall, to the SSW of the Cathedral, opened in 1861, and belonging to a joint-stock company with a capital of £5000, serves as a residence for young gentlemen attending the University. It has accommodation for about 30 students, and is conducted by a warden, a tutor, and such other teachers as may be required.

The Madras College, off the S side of South Street near the W end, was opened in October 1833, and superseded the old grammar and burgh schools. It was founded in terms of a bequest by Dr Bell, who was the first to introduce the monitorial or Madras system of school management. Dr Bell, who was the son of a hairdresser in St Andrews, and was educated at the University here, became, after various vicissitudes of fortune, superintendent of a male orphan asylum at Madras under the Honourable East India Company, and there originated his monitorial system. At his death he left a very large fortune, £120,000 of which was to be spent in the erection and maintenance of schools on his favourite system, and of this sum £60,000 was set apart for St Andrews, while the sums of £52 and £25 paid by the town as salaries to the masters of the former grammar and burgh schools has, since the opening of the new institution, been paid over to its funds. At first there were only two masters, but now there are masters of English, classics, arithmetic and bookkeeping, mathematics, modern languages, writing, drawing, and gymnastics; second masters in English and classics, and a teacher of sewing. The grounds cover a space of about 4 acres, and the school buildings are ranged round a quadrangle near the centre. A detached building to the W, built subsequently, contains 3 additional classrooms, and accommodation is provided altogether for 1540 scholars. At the two front corners of the ground adjoining South Street are houses for the English and classical masters, which provide accommodation for a considerable number of boarders. The trustees of the institution are the provost, the ministers of the first and second charges, and the sheriff of Fife. Connected with it is the Madras College Club, founded in 1871. Under the burgh school board the East End and Infant schools, with accommodation for 250 pupils each, had in 1883 attendances of 204 and 174 respectively, and grants of £164, 3s. and £135, 15s. There are also 5 private boarding and day schools for boys, and 3 private schools for girls.

Trade, etc.—During the 15th and 16th centuries St Andrews was one of the most important seaports to the N of the Forth, and was resorted to by merchant vessels from Holland, Flanders, France, and all the trading districts in Europe. The number of vessels in port at the time of the great annual local fair called the Senzie Market - held in the priory grounds in April - is even said to have been from 200 to 300, but if this be so they must have been of small tonnage, and probably not larger than a fair-sized herring boat. The trade, however, seems to have departed during the Reformation troubles, and in 1656 Tucker, one of Cromwell's Commissioners of Customs - who described the town as 'a pretty neat thing which hath formerly been bigger, and although sufficiently humbled in the time of the intestine troubles, continues still proud in the ruines of her former magnificence' - mentions that there was only 1 vessel of 20 tons burden belonging to the port, while upwards of a century later we find that there were only 2 small vessels. By 1838 these had increased to 14 vessels of, aggregately, 680 tons, and bonded warehouses having been subsequently fitted up, the place became a head port and yielded a customs revenue of about £700 a year. A great trade also sprung up in the export to iron-works on the Tyne of calcined ironstone from workings near Strathkinness, but this did not last, and the port sank again to the position of a sub-port, and the shipping trade, particularly since the opening of the railway, has become very small, and is confined to export of grain and potatoes; and import of coal, timber, guano, salt, and slates. The harbour, formed along the small natural creek at the mouth of the Kinness Burn, has a pier extending eastward for about 420 feet from high-water mark, and outer and inner basins. At low water it is dry except for the stream flowing through it, and even at high water there is not sufficient depth of water to admit fully-laden vessels of more than 100 tons, and the entrance, which is narrow, and is exposed to the roll of the sea when the wind is easterly, is dangerous. Two guiding lights - the one a red light at the end of the pier, and the other a bright white light on a turret of the cathedral north wall - when brought into line indicate a vessel's course for the harbour. There were belonging to the port, in 1882, 33 first-class, 16 second-class, and 5 third-class boats, engaged in the herring fishing, and connected with them were 145 resident fisher men and boys.

Municipality, etc.—Created a royal burgh in 1140, St Andrews is now governed by a provost, 4 bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 22 councillors, who also under the General Police and Improvement Act are police commissioners, but the police force itself forms part of that of the county. The corporation revenue is about £1500 per annum. The burgh boundaries were extended in 1860, and a thorough system of drainage was introduced in 1864-65. The old water supply has recently proved insufficient, and the question of a new supply is at present agitating the minds of the inhabitants. Gas is supplied by a private company, with works near the harbour. The town has a head post office, with money order, savings' bank, insurance, and telegraph departments, branch offices of the Bank o Scot and, Clydesdale Bank, Commercial Bank, and Royal Bank, a National Security Savings' Bank, agencies of 30 insurance companies, and several excellent hotels. A newspaper - the St Andrews Citizen and Fife News (1871) - issued on Saturday, is printed at Cupar-Fife. The public reading-room and library was established in 1845, and acquired in 1847 the books belonging to the old subscription library. In 1867, the books of the St Andrews subscription library were acquired by purchase, and subsequently in return for a sum of money voted by the town council from the Bell Fund, for the- purpose of clearing off debt, the whole library was declared public property. Other institutions and associations are a branch of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, with a lifeboat; a volunteer life brigade, with a rocket apparatus; a troop of the Fife Volunteer Light Horse, a battery of artillery volunteers, a company of rifle volunteers, a drill hall, baths, a cottage hospital, a literary and philosophical society (1838), 2 masonic lodges, a young men's Christian association, a horticultural society, an amateur choral society, an archery club, a curling club, the St Andrews Golf Club (the Mechanics from 1843 to 1851), the St Andrews Thistle Golf Club (1865), and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club already noticed. There is a weekly corn market on Monday, a fair on the second Monday of April, and feeing markets on the second Tuesday of August and the Monday after the 10th November. Sheriff small debt courts for the parishes of St Andrews, St Leonards, Kingsbarns, Dunino, Cameron, Forgan, Ferry Port on Craig, and Leuchars, are held on the third Mondays of January, April, July, and October. Justice of peace courts for granting licences for the sale of exciseable liquors for the county are held on the third Tuesday of April and the last Tuesday of October; and burgh licensing courts are held on the second Tuesday of April and the third Tuesday of October. The burgh unites with Cupar, Easter and Wester Anstruther, Crail, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem in sending a member to parliament (always a Liberal since 1837), and is the returning burgh. Parliamentary constituency (1885) 842; municipal constituency (1884) 1105. Valuation (1856) £15, 404, 11s. 11d., (1885) £36,083, 4s. 6d. Pop. of royal burgh (1801) 3263, (1831) 4462, (1881) 6406; of the municipal burgh, with enlarged boundary (1861) 5141, (1871) 6244, (1881) 6458, of whom 3636 were females, and 6452 were in the parliamentary burgh. Houses (1881) 1235 inhabited, 73 uninhabited, and 7 being built. See also Martine's History and Antiquities of St Rule's Chapel (St Andrews, 1787), and his Reliquiœ Divi Andreœ (St Andrews, 1797); Grierson's Delineations of St Andrews (1807; 3d ed. 1838); Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancte Andree (Bannatyne Club, 1841); C. J. Lyon's History of St Andrews (1843); C. Roger's History of St Andrews (1849); a paper on the 'Early Ecclesiastical Settlements of St Andrews,' by Dr Skene, published in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland for 1860-62; Walter Wood's East Neuk of Fife (Edinb. 1862); Ballingall's Shores of Fife (Edinb. 1872); and J. M. Anderson's University of St Andrews (Cupar, 1878).

* She seems to have been a very bad specimen, for she is declared to have said openly that she cared not whether she went to heaven or hell; but on a white cloth ` like a collore craig with stringis whairon was mony knottis,' being taken from her person, she gave way to despair, and exclaimed, `Now I have no hoip of myself.'

An accompanying 19th C. Ordnance Survey map is available, or use the map tab to the right of this page.

Note: This text has been made available using a process of scanning and optical character recognition. Despite manual checking, some typographical errors may remain. Please remember this description dates from the 1880s; names may have changed, administrative divisions will certainly be different and there are known to be occasional errors of fact in the original text, which we have not corrected because we wish to maintain its integrity. This information is provided subject to our standard disclaimer

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