Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

Soldier and statesman. Born in Huntingdon (England), Cromwell was staunchly Calvinist in his religious principles and was regarded as a gifted and forceful general. He led the Parliamentarian army which over-threw King Charles I. Although Charles had surrendered to the Scots, he was handed over to Cromwell who executed him in London (1649). Cromwell brought about an enforced Union between Scotland and England by appointing himself as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. When King Charles II signed the National Covenant, he regained the support of Scotland, causing Cromwell, supported by General Monk, to invade (1650). Monk crushed Scotland within a year, forcing Charles II to flee the France and causing much hunger and poverty. It was only after Cromwell's death and the Stuart restoration in 1660 that conditions improved.

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