(Dùn Èideann)

A historical perspective, drawn from the Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical, edited by Francis H. Groome and originally published in parts by Thomas C. Jack, Grange Publishing Works, Edinburgh between 1882 and 1885.

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Edinburgh, the metropolis of Scotland and county town of Midlothian, is situated 2 miles S of the Firth of Forth. Its Observatory on the Calton Hill stands in lat. 55° 57' 23" N, and long. 3o 10' 30£ W. It is SSW of Aberdeen, S by W of Dundee, S by E of Perth, E by N of Glasgow, NE of Ayr, and N by E of Dumfries. Its distance in straight line, as the crow flies, is 186 miles from John o' Groat's House, and 337 from London. Its distance, by road, is 35½ miles from Stirling, 42 from Dundee, 42¾ from Glasgow, 44 from Perth, 49 from Hawick, 57 from Berwick-upon-Tweed, 71 from Dumfries, 92½ from Carlisle, 108 from Aberdeen, 156½ from Inverness, and 392 from London; while, by railway, the distance is 36 miles from Stirling, 45 from Perth, 47½ from Glasgow, 49½ from Dundee, 53 from Hawick, 57¾ from Berwick-upon-Tweed, 88 from Ayr, 90 from Dumfries, 98 ¼ from Carlisle, 112¾ from Aberdeen, 163 from Stranraer, 189 from Inverness, and 398½ from London by way of the Trent Valley or Midland Railway, 402 by way of Carlisle and Birmingham or London and North-Western, 407½ of Berwick and York, Great Northern and East Coast.

Site.—The city is built on ridges of east-and-westward extension of varying height, and on the valleys between or the slopes beyond. The hills are partly overlapped by, and partly extend beyond, the city; they occupy an area within a circuit of about 6 miles; and, at their northern margin, about 2 miles from the Firth, are bounded by a slightly inclined plain, which extends from them to the shore. These hills consist mainly of erupted rocks, thrown up from what was once a flat surface by a series of upheavals, and afterwards much modified by denudation and other causes; and, in their natural state, before they were taken possession of by man, must have formed a singularly striking and imposing group. Arthur's Seat, to the SE of these, rises 822 feet above sea-level, sloping or rolling to the E over a base of nearly a mile, and presenting to the W a bold, precipitous, diversified-face of rugged rock, with an outline, as seen at short distances a little to the S of W, resembling that of a lion couchant. A sloping valley lies along the W base of this hill, known as the Hunter's Bog, which, though not long ago as solitary as any remote Highland glen, is now used almost daily by the Edinburgh garrison and local volunteers as a range for rifle practice. Westward of this valley the ground rises regularly over a base of about 700 yards, till it attains a height of 574 feet above sea-level; then in a semicircle, sweeping round convexly from the S to the N, breaks sheer down in the rugged greenstone precipices of Salisbury Crags. At the base of these crags there is a footpath several feet in width, vulgarly known as the Radical Road, from which a most commanding and beautiful prospect is obtained. A belt of low ground, variously flat, sloping, and undulating, lies round the skirts of these two hills, the whole attached to the royal grounds of Holyrood, and included in what is now called the Queen's Park. The Calton Hill, which commences about 200 yards NW of the N end of the Salisbury semicircle, rises, in somewhat rounded contour, to an altitude of 348 feet above sea-level, and represents, to the NW, an abruptly sloping face, overlooking what was an old village, called Greenside; but, in other directions, the declivities, though rapid, are by no means steep, and it has here been so terraced by art as to afford room for rows all round of elegant private houses. It bears on its shoulders and summit various public buildings and monuments; and, like the loftier hills to the SE, is distinguished for the magnificence of the views which it offers, as well as the additional feature it contributes to the general aspect of the city.

The ground to the W of the hollow at the base of Salisbury Crags rises in rapid gradient, till, at the distance of 500 yards, it attains an elevation in St Leonard's Hill of 248 feet; and forms thence a broadbacked ridge of about 1400 yards from E to W. This ground declines from its summit to a flanking ravine on the N, and slopes S by imperceptible gradation, till, at the distance of a mile, it merges in flat or softly undulating open country. It is covered over nearly all its area by the streets and suburbs of the more modern section of the Old Town. The ravine stretching E and W along the N base of this ridge is occupied by an ancient street known as the Cowgate, once the abode of the nobles and grandees of Scotland, but now a haunt of the poorest classes, bearing nearly the same relation to Edinburgh as the district of St Giles bears to London. A hill, which has been aptly compared to a long wedge lying flat on the ground, ascends gradually westward from the hollow between Salisbury Crags and the Calton Hill, to a distance of 1800 yards, flanking closely the N side of the Cowgate. It commences on the E at level ground in front of Holyrood Palace, and terminates on the W, at an altitude of 437 feet above sea-level, in the frowning citadel crowning the grandly massive precipice of the Castle rock. It was along the ridge of this hill that the original city was at length built, which consisted, as it still does, of one long street stretching steadily upwards from the Palace to the Castle, flanked all the way by tall tenements, and sending off no end of close lanes of similar piles in downward slope to the right and left, so that the whole has been compared to some huge reptile figure, of which the closes were the lateral members, Holyrood the tail, and the Castle the head. A vale, averaging about 200 yards wide, extends along the N base of this wedge-shaped hill, which, where it lies under the wing of the city proper, was formerly the bed of a sheet of water, called the Nor' Loch; but is now drained, being occupied partly by public gardens, partly by railway lines and a station, and crossed by a mound and bridges. An eminence, or very gentle and broad-backed ridge, with features much less salient than those of any of the other rising-grounds, ascends northward from the vale to a distance of about 250 yards, and descends thence, in the main, in a long easy slope, to the plain between the city and the Firth. It swells, near its eastern extremity, into a considerable rounded shoulder, terminating at that end in a curving gorge which separates it from the Calton Hill; declines, at its W extremity partly in almost imperceptible slope to the environing low ground, partly in considerable declivity to the banks of the Water of Leith; and bears, on its southern half, the original New Town, and on its northern half and western slopes, the second New Town.

Most travellers who have visited both cities have remarked a resemblance, as to site and general appearance, between Edinburgh and Athens. Stewart, the author of The Antiquities of Athens, was the first to remark and describe the similarity; and he has been followed by Dr Clarke, Mr H. W. Williams, and any other descriptive writers well qualified to form a correct judg ent, so that Edinburgh has, by almost general consent, been called `Modern Athens,' and the `Athens of the North.' `The distant view of Athens from the Ægean Sea,' says Mr Williams, `is extremely like that of Edinburgh from the Firth of Forth, though certainly the latter is considerably superior.' `There are,' he adds, 'several points of view on the elevated grounds near Edinburgh, from which the resemblance between the two cities is complete. From Torphin in particular, one of the low heads of the Pentlands immediately above the village of Colinton, the landscape is exactly that of the vicinity of Athens as viewed from the bottom of Mount Anchesmus. Close upon the right, Brilessus is represented by the Mound of Braid; before, in the abrupt and dark mass of the Castle, rises the Acropolis; the hill Lycabettus, joined to that of the Areopagus, appears in the Calton; in the Firth of Forth we behold the Ægean Sea; in Inchkeith, Ægina; and the hills of Peloponnesus are precisely those of the opposite coast of Fife. Nor is the resemblance less striking in the general characteristics of the scene; for, although we cannot exclaim, "These are the groves of the Academy, and that the Sacred Way! " yet, as on the Attic shore, we certainly here behold " a country rich and gay, broke into hills with balmy odours crowned, and joyous vales, mountains and streams, and clustering towns, and monuments of fame, and scenes of glorious deeds, in little bounds." It is, indeed, most remarkable and astonishing that two cities, placed at such a distance from each other, and so different in every political and artificial circumstance, should naturally be so alike. 'When comparing the two cities as to their interior structure, however, Mr Williams sees a considerable difference between them, and pronounces Edinburgh to be the superior. He says, `The epithets Northern Athens and Modern Athens have been so frequently applied to Edinburgh that the mind unconsciously yields to the illusion awakened by these terms, and imagines that the resemblance between these cities must extend from the natural localities and the public buildings to the streets and private edifices. The very reverse of this is the case; for, setting aside her public structures, Athens, even in her best days, could not have coped with the capital of Scotland.'

Scenery.—Edinburgh, from whatever point the eye regards it, presents a variety of scenic groupings of such singular effect as is met with in no other city of the world. Though there is nothing gorgeous or sumptuous in any one feature, neither is there anything mean; it is, in a scenic regard, a city all over, and bespeaks a presence as of something at once grand and venerable. A stranger coming within fair view of it from any quarter sees no aërial dome towering above a sea of of humbler piles as in Rome and London, and no grove of turrets shooting up from some majestic cathedral as in Milan and York; but, wherever he turns, there is presented to him a rich and varied assemblage of substantial, often imposing, structures-now retiring into the valleys, now climbing the acclivities, now spreading over the slopes, and anon crowning the summits of its romantic hills. He observes nowhere, as in so many of the other cities of world repute, a mere dingy conglomeration of commonplace houses, clustered round some magnificent edifice, or hugging the environs of some handsome airy street, but on all hands elegance, beauty, variety, and grandeur struggling for ascendancy, and contributing by their harmony to produce the most unique and superb effects. Plainness, poverty, unsightliness, even offensive squalor, as well mal-arrangement and positive confusion, do, as in all our large towns, indeed challenge censurable regard; but these do not strike the eye with such obtrusiveness as to mar the general effect, or, if they do, it is often with some redeeming feature or association as to contribute to, rather than detract from, the impression the city as a rule imparts. Nor, as the eye surveys them, are the surroundings, far as well as n ear, of the city, the framework in which the jewel is set, less striking than the interior. These extend from the Lammermuirs on the SE to the Grampians on the NW, and from the open sea of the German Ocean to the very sources of the Forth; and, besides what may still further be regarded as back-ground, consisting of high lands and low, they embrace nearly the whole of the Firth, a great part of Fife, and a still greater part of the richly cultivated, fairly wooded, hill-and-dale expanse of the Lothians; so that, if we except the moodily desolate, the wildly grand, and the savagely terrible, there is hardly a single aspect of Nature to be met with elsewhere of which we may not trace some feature here. It is thus these scenes are described by Delta in the well-known lines-

'Traced like a map the landscape lies,
In cultured beauty stretching wide;
There Pentland's green acclivities,
There ocean with its azure tide,
There Arthur's Seat, and, gleaming through
The southern wing, Dunedin blue;
While in the Orient Lammer's daughters,
A distant giant range, are seen,
North Berwick Law, with cone of green,
And Bass amid the waters.'

Picturesque views of the city, either by itself or in combination with strips of foreground, may be obtained from various points all round and beyond the outskirts, each one of which, as it embraces separately distinct features and groupings, will be found to be more or less substantially different from the others. One at hand on the W, especially from the lands of Coates, takes in the new princely piles in the neighbourhood, the spire of St Mary's Cathedral, the dome of St George's parish church, the campanile of Free St George's, with, farther back, the tower and pinnacles of St John's, and the massive, bastioned, mural rock of the Castle; while at a station more remote, particularly from Corstorphine Hill, a view of wider range is obtained, which, besides including the objects mentioned in diminished proportions, embraces a great part of the New Town as it slopes down to the shores of the Forth, with the heights of the Old declining away eastward, dominated by the smoke-veiled cliffs of Salisbury Crags with Arthur's Seat in their rear. A near view from the N side, especially one from Warriston Cemetery and another from the Botanic Garden, comprises all the New Town to the N as it slopes upward to the Old Town with its towers and castle-battlements invading the sky, flanked to the right by the heights above the Dean, and to the left by the Calton Hill with its monuments, and another sideward view of Arthur's Seat and the Crags. Farther N this view, though always of course on a smaller scale, becomes more and more picturesque, till, as you approach and land on the Fife shores right opposite, the whole assumes a toy-box dimension, with the ports of Leith and Granton on the foreground and the blue ridges of the Lammernirs and the Pentlands traced on the vault behind. Views of the city from the E may be obtained from the Calton Hill, Salisbury Crags, and Arthur's Seat. That from the Calton Hill, from which the view all round is of a kind to baffle description, overlooks the city along the line of Princes Street with the New Town, backed- by the western hills, on the right, as it first rises with its spires and monuments, and slopes away down to the N; and the Old Town on the left, as it slopes upwards, flanked by the Crags, from Holyrood to the Castle summit, with the hazy Pentlands looming in the background.

The view from the face of Salisbury Crags is thus described by Sir Walter Scott: `The prospect, in its general outline, commands a close-built, high-piled city, stretching itself out in a form which, to a romantic imagination, may be supposed to represent that of a dragon; now a noble arm of the sea, with its rocks, isles, distant shores, and boundary of mountains; and now a fair and fertile champaign country, varied with hill, dale, and rock, and skirted by the picturesque ridge of the Pentland mountains; but as the path gently circles around the base of the cliffs, the prospect, composed as it is of these enchanting and sublime objects, changes at every step, and presents them blended with, or divided from, each other in every possible variety which can gratify the eye and the imagination. 'The view from the top of Arthur's Seat is much the same as that from Salisbury Crags, except that it is more sweeping, and has the crest of the crags on the western foreground. A good view from the E of the city proper, exclusive of the environs, is obtained from St Anthony's Chapel. Here at his feet the spectator sees on the right the northern section of the Queen's Park, with Holyrood Palace and the Chapel Royal; beyond these, the terraced ascent of the Calton Hill, with its tiers in rows and separate piles of remarkable architectures and sculptures; in front the valley between the Old Town and the New, spanned by the lofty North Bridge; and toward the left, all the old city itself, towering upward from the point of the wedge, ridge above ridge, and grandly fretted and crowned with heaven-pointing spires and defiant battlements. The views from the S, both near and distant, are at once numerous and excellent, most of these affording distinct profiles of Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags on the right and of the Castle rock and ramparts on the left, with much of the intermediate architecture of the Old Town and the suburb of the city in the foreground, which already all but occupies the entire southern slope. One of the noblest on this side is the view from Blackford Hill, and is thus described by Sir Walter Scott as seen by Lord Marmion, `fairer scene he ne'er surveyed:'

'The wandering eye could o'er it go,
And mark the distant city glow
With gloomy splendour red;
For on the smoke-wreaths, huge and slow,
'That round her sable turrets flow,
The morning beams were shed,
And tinged them with a lustre proud
Like that which streaks a thundercloud.
Such dusky grandeur clothed the height
where the huge castle holds its state,
And ail the steep slope down,
Whose ridgy back heaves to the sky,
Piled deep and massy, close and high,
Mine own romantic town!
But northward far, with purer blaze,
On Ochil mountains fell the rays,
And as each heathy top they kissed,
It gleamed a purple amethyst.
Yonder the shores of Fife you saw;
Here Preston Bay and Berwick Law;
and broad. between them rolled,
The gallant Firth the eye might note,
Whose islands on its bosom float,
Like emeralds chased in gold.'

The views of the city from the interior are often no less striking than those from without, and the former as well as the latter often give rise to impressions that are quite unique. Not to mention the ore artificial adornments, architectural and other, with their grouping and array, there are the imposing natural features, with beetling cliffs and hollow or open dells, and rich interspaces of wooded lawn, tended by the art of the gardener, and interspersed or bordered here and there with gay parterres. The streets also, even in the central parts, afford, through abrupt openings, numerous prospects, both charming and extensive, along unobstructed vistas, or over asses of house-tops, away, by varied landscape, over firth and dale, on to the often far-off mountains, and in one direction the open sea. `The finest view from the interior,' says Alexander Smith, `is obtained from the corner of St Andrew Street, looking W. Straight before you the Mound crosses the valley, bearing the National Gallery buildings; beyond, the Castle lifts, from grassy slopes and billows of summer foliage, its weather. stained towers and fortifications, the halfmoon battery giving the folds of its standard to the wind. Living in Edinburgh there abides, above all things, a sense of its beauty. Hill, crag, castle, rock, blue stretch of sea, the picturesque ridge of the Old Town, the squares and terraces of the New-these things, seen once are not to be forgotten. The quick life of to-day sounding around the relics of antiquity, and overshadowed by the august traditions of a kingdom, makes Edinburgh more impressive than residence in any other British city. What a poem is that Princes Street! The puppets of the busy any-coloured hour move about on its pavement, while across the ravine Time has piled the Old Town, ridge on ridge, grey as a rocky coast washed and worn by the foam of centuries, peaked and jagged by gable and roof, windowed from basement to cope, the whole surmounted by St Giles's airy crown. The New is there looking at the Old. Two Times are brought face to face, and are yet separated by a thousand years. Wonderful on winter nights, when the gully is filled with darkness, and out of it rises, against the sombre blue and the frosty stars, that mass and bulwark of gloom, pierced and quivering with innumerable lights! There is nothing in Europe to match that. Could you but roll a river down the valley, it would be sublime. Finer still, to place one's self near the Burns' Monument and look toward the Castle. It is ore astonishing than an Eastern dream. A city rises up before you painted by fire on night. High on air a bridge of lights leaps the chasm; a few emerald lamps, like glowworms, are moving silently about in the railway station below; a solitary crimson one is at rest. That ridged and chimneyed bulk of blackness, with splendour bursting out at every pore, is the wonderful Old Town, where Scottish history mainly transacted itself; while, opposite, the modern Princes Street is blazing throughout its length. During the day the Castle looks down upon the city as if out of another world; stern with all its peacefulness, its garniture of trees, its slopes of grass. The rock is dingy enough in colour; but, after a shower, its lichens laugh out greenly in the returning sun, while the rainbow is brightening on the lowering sky beyond. How deep the shadow which the Castle throws at noon over the gardens at its feet where the children play! How grand when giant bulk and towery crown blacken against sunset! Fair, too, the New Town sloping to the sea. From George Street, which crowns the ridge, the eye is led down sweeping streets of stately architecture to the villas and woods that fill the lower ground and fringe the shore; to the bright azure belt of the Forth, with its smoking steamer or its creeping sail; beyond, to the shores of Fife, soft blue, and flecked with fleeting shadows in the keen clear light of spring, dark purple in the summer heat, tarnished gold in the autumn haze; and further away still, just distinguishable on the paler sky, the crest of some distant peak carrying the imagination into the illimitable world. ' The finest close view of the northern half of the city is seen at the head of the Castle Hill, from the N side of the Castle esplanade; or, still better, from the bomb-battery of the Castle itself, where the lovely space between the Old Town and the New appears almost perpendicularly under the eye, with the Scott Monument on its further verge, the Melville Monument rising a little beyond, and the greater part of the New Town all around.

'Saint Margaret, what a sight is here!
Long lines of masonry appear;
Scott's Gothic pinnacles arise.
And Melvilie's statue greets the skies,
And sculptured front and Greeian pile
The pleased yet puzzled eye beguile;
From yon far landscape where the sea
Smiles on in softest witchery;
Till, riant all, the hills of Fife
Fill in the charms of country life.'

Geology.—Edinburgh has always been a favourite field for geological investigation. Ever since the days of Hutton, the volcanic rocks which are so well developed on Arthur's Seat, the Calton Hill, and at the Castle, have been the subject of careful study among geologists. The striking features to which these igneous rocks give rise, arrest the attention even of the non-scientific observer. Indeed, few cities present such remarkable facilities for examining the structure and physical relations of ancient volcanic rocks. The literature bearing on the geology of Edinburgh and its environs is rather voluminous. Amongst the various writers on the subject, the names of Hutton, Playfair, Sir James Hall, Hibbert, Jamieson, Hay Cunningham, Edward Forbes, Hugh Miller, Charles M `Laren, A. Geikie, R. Chambers, Miller Home, and Judd, may be entioned. Special reference ought to be made to the admirable volume on The Geology of Fife and the Lothians, by Charles M 'Laren, and to Professor A. Geikie's lucid description of the Geology of Edinburgh. *

* Geological Survey Memoir accompanying Sheet 32 of the 1-inch Map.

With the exception of Blackford Hill, which is a continuation of the Lower Old Red Sandstone volcanic rocks of the Pentlands, the newer portion of Arthur's Seat, and several isolated veins of igneous rock, the solid rocks which underlie the city of Edinburgh and Leith belong to the lowest divisions of the Carboniferous system. On account of the strata being largely impregnated with lime, they were appropriately named by M 'Laren the Calciferous Sandstone Series-a term which is now generally applied to them. They may be arranged in three divisions:-

3. An upper division of white sandstones, black and blue shales, containing nodules of clay ironstone.
2. A middle division of interbedded volcanic rocks, consisting of basalts, porphyrites, and tuffs, with intercalated beds of sandstone.
Red Sandstone
1. A lower division of red and mottled sandstones, red, green, and grey shales and marls, with calcareous nodules and bands merging occasionally into pure limestones. Coarse conglomerates occur at the base of this group.

The members of the lowest division occupy an irregular area, bounded by the Braid Hills on the S, Arthur's Seat on the E, and the Calton Hill on the N, while the western limit is sharply defined by the great fault extending from Craiglockhart north-eastwards by Merchiston and the Castle esplanade, to the NW slope of Calton Hill. Within this area the strata are arranged in the form of a low arch, the crest of which runs from Blackford Hill to St Andrew Square. As this anticlinal fold is truncated on the W by the fault just referred to, it is only on the E side of the arch that the complete succession can be traced. The lowest beds are exposed in the neighbourhood of Blackford Hill where they consist of conglomerates composed of pebbles, chiefly derived from the Old Red Sandstone volcanic rocks. They rest unconformably on these igneous rocks, and are not faulted against them as has hitherto been supposed. It is important to note that the strata to the W of Blackford Hill occupy a higher horizon than those on the E side. As we pass to the SW this overlap gradually increases till the members of the Upper or Cementstone Series rest directly on the Old Red Sandstone formation. This overlap indicates the gradual submergence of the Pentland ridge in the early part of the Carboniferous period. At the beginning of that period the Pentlands formed a promontory jutting far into the sea, in which the red sandstones were deposited, but eventually the ridge was submerged and buried beneath the accumulating sediment of the succeeding groups. Excellent sections of these basement conglomerates are to be seen at present in the cuttings of the new Suburban railway.

Next in order come the sandstones of Craigmillar, and the strata which are exposed in the southern part of the town, consisting of red sandstones with red and green marls. In the districts of Newington, Grange, the Meadows, and Warrender Park, these beds dip to the N at angles varying from 10 to 15 degrees, while to the W of these localities they dip to the NW-thus indicating the dome-shaped arrangement of the strata. Excellent sections have been recently exposed in the course of excavations in Warrender Park. They also occur in Gilmore Place with an inclination to the NW, and they reappear at the head of Keir Street with an easterly dip. The anticlinal axis must therefore run northwards between these two points. The same beds are well displayed on the S slope of the Castle esplanade as seen from Johnston Terrace. In this well-known section, the honeycombed sandstones with red and green marls are brought into conjunction with the plug of basalt on which the Castle stands, by the great fault already referred to. They dip to the E at an angle of from 15 to 20 degrees, but as they approach the fault they become horizontal, and eventually bend over till they conform to the hade of the fault which is inclined at an angle of 80 degrees to the NW. The SE slope of the plug of basalt is beautifully slickensided. The striæ, however, are not vertical, but are slightly inclined to the NE, showing a faint lateral thrust in that direction, as well as a downthrow to the NW. From the Castle eastwards to Holyrood and the Hunter's Bog there is a continuous easterly dip at an average angle of 15 degrees, where they pass conformably below the interbedded volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat (division 2). Fossils rarely occur in the red sandstones. Fragments of wood have been found in the beds at Craigmillar, which are probably the remains of pine-like Araucearia. In the quarry above Salisbury Crags, a small Estheria Peachii was found by Mr Grieve. Under St Anthony's Chapel, in a bed crammed with vegetable matter, Mr Bryson found specimens of Dadoxylon, and Professor A. Geikie obtained fragments of Poacites and the remains of Rhizodus Hibberti. The beds at that locality lie above the first interbedded lava-flow, now represented by the Long Row, and it is probable, therefore, that they belong to the Cementstone Series.

Towards the close of the deposition of the red sandstones, volcanic activity seems to have begun in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. From certain volcanic orifices, streams of lava and showers of ashes were ejected and spread over the sea-floor, which at intervals were commingled with ordinary sediment. The records of this volcanic action are still preserved to us on Arthur's Seat, the Calton Hill, and at Craiglockhart. These interbedded volcanic rocks must be carefully distinguished from the three great intrusive sheets of igneous rock which were injected between the red sandstones forming the western base of Arthur's seat. On account of their durability these intrusive sheets have more successfully resisted the denuding agencies than the intervening sandstones, and hence they now for the prominent escarpments of St Leonard's, Salisbury Crags, and the Dasses. The first outflow of lava is represented by the compact basalt of the Long Row which is overlaid by tuffs, volcanic breccias, and ashy sandstones which are well exposed at the Dry Dam. The general character of these volcanic ashes is different from the coarse agglomerate which now forms the higher part of the hill, and which was ejected at a much later date. The tuffs and ashy sandstones are succeeded by basaltic lavas and porphyrites, the latter forming the slopes of the Whinny Hill and Dunsappie. The junction of these rocks with the overlying shales and sandstones (division 3) is not seen on the eastern slope of Arthur's Seat, owing to the covering of superficial deposits. The evidence is supplied, however, by the section on Calton Hill.

The contemporaneous volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat are truncated on the N side by an E and W fault-an offshoot from the main dislocation trending from Craiglockhart by the Castle to the NW slope of Calton Hill. This branching fault has a downthrow to the N, and by means of it the outcrop of the interbedded volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat has been shifted about half a mile to the W as far as the Calton Hill. The existence of this fault was clearly proved several years ago in the course of draining operations along the Canongate, where a continuous section was exposed of red sandstones and marls, with a few dykes of igneous rock. The succession of the volcanic rocks of Calton Hill closely resembles that of Arthur's Seat. At the base there is a series of basaltic lavas and tuffs which are overlaid by porphyrites forming the higher part of the hill. To the E they are rapidly succeeded by black shales and sandstones (division 3) occurring in the gardens of Royal Terrace, while on the NW slope of the hill they are abruptly cut off by the great fault already described.

The strata of the upper division differ from the red sandstones in lithological character, and particularly in the greater abundance of fossils. Within the present area, the prominent members of the Cementstone Series are the white sandstones of Granton and Craigleith, and the Wardie shales. Beyond the limits of the Edinburgh district, it comprises the well-known oil shales of Midlothian and the Burdiehouse Limestone which has become celebrated for the great abundance of ichthyolites and crustaceans embedded in it. The occurrence of such a thick mass of limestone in the series, however, is quite exceptional, as the calcareous bands are usually found in seams only a few inches thick. It was formerly supposed that the sandstones of Granton and Craigleith occupied a higher horizon than the Wardie shales, but it is evident from recent investigations that they underlie the shales. On the shore, at Granton, the standstones form an arch the axis of which runs N and S. On the E side of the anticline they dip to the E, and are succeeded by thin bedded sandstones and shales which eventually pass underneath the Wardie shales. The latter are repeated by gentle undulations eastwards as far as Trinity. The sandstones at Craigleith are evidently the inland prolongations of those on the shore, as the strike of the beds is nearly N and S. In this quarry the beds dip both to the E and SW as if curving round an anticlinal fold. A characteristic feature of the sandstones at both localities is the presence of numerous remains of plants in a fragmentary for, one of the most abundant being Spenopteris affinis. Huge trunks of coniferous trees have also been obtained from these beds. These sandstones make excellent building material, and have been largely quarried for this purpose; indeed the greater part of Edinburgh has been built of this stone.

The Wardie beds consist of black and blue shales, in which are embedded nodules of clay ironstone. The nodules have yielded fish remains, coprolites, and plants. When these beds are traced inland, they become intercalated with bands of sandstone, but the shales form the essential feature of the subdivision. By means of the fault extending from Craiglockhart by the Castle to Calton Hill, the members of the Cementstone Series are brought into conjunction with successive beds of the Red Sandstone division. On the NW slope of the Calton Hill they are thrown against the volcanic series (division 2), while to the NE of that locality the effect of the displacement is to bring different members of the Cementstone Series against each other. It is evident therefore that the fault is decreasing in amount towards the NE. Along the W side of this fault the Wardie shales are generally inclined to the NW. In the neighbourhood of St Andrew Square, however, they form a well-marked anticline, which has already been referred to as the northern prolongation of the arch running southwards to Blackford Hill. In 1865 Mr G. C. Haswell recorded an interesting exposure on the W side of Hanover Street, at the corner of Rose Street, where the strata, consisting of sandstones, shales, and fireclay, form an anticline and syncline within a horizontal distance of about 12 feet. They were lately seen on the E side of Hanover Street, in the course of excavations at Rose Street, having a north-westerly dip at angles varying from 40 to 50 degrees. M 'Laren noted the occurrence of similar beds at the New Club in Princes Street. Upwards of 100 feet of dark shales dip to the NW at the West Church Manse. They crop out in the cuttings of the Caledonian and new Suburban railways, and they are also exposed at the Dean near the Dean Bridge. At these localities they are inclined to the NW, and a similar dip continues to near Coltbridge, which forms the centre of a synclinal fold. From this point westwards we have a gradually descending series towards the Corstorphine Hill and the Craigleith sandstones.

Reference has already been made to the fish remains and plants embedded in the ironstone nodules, but there are certain bands of shales in this subdivision, which are of special importance on account of the marine fauna which they have yielded. They occur at Granton, Craigleith, the Dean Bridge, Drumsheugh, and Woodhall, and at all these localities there is a marked identity in the species of fossils. These horizons have been explored by Messrs Henderson and Bennie, who bave collected a great variety of marine forms from them, upwards of 17 well-defined species having been disinterred from the Woodhall shales alone. Some of the species are typical of the Carboniferous Limestone, which overlies the Cementstone Series. The following fossils are characteristic of these beds: Spirorbis carbonarius, Lingula squamiformis, L. mytiloides, Avicula Hendersoni, Myalina crass, Bellerophon decussatus, Murchisonia striatula, Orthoeras attenuatum, O. cylindraceum. This assemblage of fossils is widely different from that met with in the Burdiehouse Limestone, which is essentially a fresh or brackish water deposit. Indeed, a careful examination of the fossils derived from the various members of the Cementstone Series seems to prove that during their deposition there must have been an alternation of estuarine and marine conditions.

The interbedded volcanic rocks at Craiglockhart are probably on the same horizon as those on Arthur's Seat and Calton. At the base there is a considerable development of felspathic tuff which is overlaid by basaltic lava. This latter rock, which is a coarse variety of basalt, presents features of great beauty when examined microscopically, showing prisms of labradorite with minute grains of augite. This mineral also occurs in distinct crystals, and the olivine, which is apparent even to the naked eye, is also well represented. These volcanic rocks are inclined to the NW, and are succeeded by sandstones and shales, while, on the N side, they are abruptly cut off by a fault.

The history of the intrusive igneous rocks of the Edinburgh district and the later volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat is full of interest. Reference has already been made to the three great intrusive sheets of the Heriot Mount, Salisbury Crags, and the Dasses which belong to the period of volcanic activity towards the close of the deposition of the red sandstones. These rocks, which consist of coarsely crystalline dolerites, were not erupted at the surface like the contemporaneous lavas and tuffs of the Long Row, the Dry Dam, and Whinny Hill. Their intrusive character is clearly proved by their relations to the overlying and underlying strata. The sandstones and shales both above and below these sheets have been altered by contact with the, and the two lower ones gradually steal across the edges of the intervening strata till they unite to form the great columnar mass of Samson's Ribs.

But these igneous masses are of older date than those which cap the hill. There can be little doubt that the former belong to the period of volcanic activity at the close of the Red Sandstone Series. We have already pointed out that the older volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat lie on the E side of the anticlinal axis, on which the S part of Edinburgh stands, and that they are regularly succeeded by the higher divisions of the Carboniferous system. Long before the eruption of the later volcanic materials, the older rocks had been tilted to the E, and had been subjected to prolonged denudation. A vast thickness of material had been removed. The softer sedimentary strata had been worn into hollows, and the harder igneous rocks of Salisbury Crags, the Dasses, and the Long Row projected as ridges before the renewal of volcanic activity. The later igneous rocks consist of coarse agglomerate and basalt, the former being ejected before the basalt. The coarse ash is admirably displayed in the Queen's Drive, where the blocks are extremely large, from an examination of which it is evident that they have been derived from the older rocks of the hill. On the top of Arthur's Seat there is a mass of basalt, filling the vent from which these coarse agglomerates were discharged. The basalt of the lion's haunch is part of a lava flow which rests on the agglomerate, and sends down a branching vein into it. No precise age can be assigned to these later ejections. All that can be safely averred is, that they are more recent than the Lower Carboniferous period.

The rock on which the Castle stands consists of a compact basalt with a marked columnar structure. It is an oval-shaped mass, which, save on the E side, is surrounded by beds of division 3, and on account of its greater hardness has ore successfully resisted denudation. It closely resembles many of the volcanic necks which are so common among the Scotch Carboniferous rocks. They represent the vents from which the lavas and ashes were discharged, and are now filled with tuff or crystalline rocks. The neck on which the Castle stands is abruptly truncated on the E side by the great fault which has been frequently referred to, and by means of this dislocation it must have been thrown down from a much higher level.

At various localities throughout Edinburgh veins and dykes of basalt and dolerite occur. Some of these have an E and W trend, and are probably of Tertiary age. One of these is exposed in the path leading up to the Calton Hill, at the hack of Greenside church, where it is intruded among the volcanic rocks of the hill. They are also to be seen in the Water of Leith near the Dean Bridge, and in the cutting of the Caledonian railway near Coltbridge. Several veins have been traced in the old part of the town: one from the foot of St Mary Street to St Patrick Square, and another from the eastern part of the Cowgate to the University.

The effects of glaciation are still fresh in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. The rounded contour of the ground and the striated surfaces alike point to the operation of this agent. On the Corstorphine Hill several striated surfaces occur which were first observed by Sir James Hall, the direction of the markings being a few degrees N of E. At one point on the N side of the Castle, nearly horizontal striæ were observed on a vertical face of rock pointing in a similar direction. On the Calton Hill there are several examples. Till recently a striated surface was exposed at the side of the road leading to the Nelson Monument. Fresh instances have been met with lately at the side of the Low Calton, owing to the removal of the boulder clay, the general trend being ENE. In the Queen's Park they occur on the top of the Salisbury Crags, and the splendid roehe moutonnée in the Queen's Drive, above Samson's Ribs, is now well known. A remarkable example of an overhanging cliff with a striated surface is to be seen on the road leading to Duddingston, in what is locally designated ' the Windy Gowl'- a phenomenon which could only have been produced by glacier ice. In the course of this year well-preserved striæ were observed by Mr B. N. Peach within 100 feet of the top of Arthur's Seat, at the top of the gully, known by the name of ' the Gutted Haddy.' Here the ice- markings ascend the slope at an angle of 20° on a nearly vertical face of rock. The direction is E 18° N, and from the appearances presented by the striated surfaces it is evident that they were produced by ice moving towards the ENE. At Craigmillar the striæ run approximately E and W; and again, on the Braid Hills, where they are very plentiful, the trend is to the S of E. 'Striated pavements' in the boulder clay have been observed both by Hugh Miller and Professor A. Geikie, indicating an ice movement in an ENE direction. All these instances prove that Edinburgh was glaciated by ice moving towards the E, while here and there slight local deflections were produced by the irregular contour of the ground.

The greatest accumulation of boulder clay is that which covers Princes Street. In the low-lying parts of the town it is buried beneath the alluvial deposits of ancient lochs or is overlapped by the accumulations of the raised beaches. Along the coast-line it crops out from underneath these marine deposits. A few years ago a fine exposure of boulder clay was made in the course of the excavations for the Albert Dock at Leith. It consisted of a tough dark clay charged with blocks of various sizes from widely separated localities. Along with the blocks of local origin there were stones which had come from Corstorphine Hill, the Mons Hill, Campsie Fells, and the Grampians. Similar evidence is obtained from the patches of boulder clay round Arthur's Seat. On the Queen's Drive, where the second escarpment begins leading down to Duddingston, there is a considerable thickness of this deposit overlying the Carboniferous red marls. It is fawn-coloured, and consists mainly of sandstone blocks associated with boulders of carboniferous limestone, fragments of coal, black shale, diabase, porphyrites, quartz rock pebbles from the neighbourhood of Callander, and schists from the Grampians. The same commingling of foreign and local rocks is observable in the small patch, in the gully, named 'the Gutted Haddy,' at a height of over 700 feet. This locality is considerably above the level of the sources from which some of the blocks have been derived, so that they could not have been transported by the agency of floating ice.

The deposits of the 100 feet beach lap round the hills on which Edinburgh stands, their inland margin never rising much above this level. They consist of a great series of stratified sands and clays which once formed an almost continuous plain, but which has been trenched and worn into hollows by prolonged denudation. Where a section can be obtained it is evident that the mounds on which the marine deposits rest have been carved out of the solid rock. Though the finely stratified sands predominate in these beds, yet in places they wholly consist of finely laminated clay free from stones. Occasionally there are layers of small stones as if they had been dropped into the accumulating sediment by floating ice. These are mostly local, but a few have been transported from the Grampians. Some chalk stones and chalk flints also occur in the clays, the former resembling the Danish chalk in the island of Faxoe. One of the best sections for examining this deposit is the clay pit at Portobello. In this section there are certain bands highly crumpled, while the beds above and below are undisturbed. Last year an excellent exposure was seen in Warriston Park, nearly opposite the gate leading into the Botanic Garden, where several layers of these crumpled beds occurred, -the intervening layers of sand being free from any contortion. The folds were mostly inverted, and inclined to the SW. These phenomena may be accounted for by supposing that, during the deposition of these beds, they were occasionally subjected to the movement of pack ice driven on to the banks of sand and mud during low tide by the NE winds blowing up the Firth. The partly consolidated clays were pushed laterally by the ice as it was driven shorewards. As the ice floated or melted away, the crumpled clays were again overlaid by ordinary sediment. The crumpling might recur at intervals with severe weather, a low tide, and NE winds. This supposition is strengthened by an examination of the contents of the beds. The shells are of an arctic type, and are not abundant; while the Foraminifera and Entomostraca are also arctic. The clays consist of the finest sediment - the flour of the rocks, in fact, and are almost destitute of organic matter. They point to a time when the rivers flowing into the Forth were turbid with glacial mud, when the land surface was nearly devoid -of vegetation, and when the estuary was not suitable for the growth of algæ

The 50 feet beach has been carved out of the deposits of the older terrace, the underlying boulder clay, and the solid rock. It forms a narrow strip along the coast, the broadest part occurring at the Leith Links. This ancient beach is bounded by a low inland cliff which is still tolerably steep where it consists of solid rock, but in those places where it is carved out of boulder clay, or the 100 feet terrace, it is merely a sloping bank. The strata consist of sand and gravel with occasional shells. Hugh Miller drew attention to some interesting facts connected with the old beach near Fillyside Bank between Leith and Portobello. The stones found on the surface are encrusted by Serpulœ and perforated by Saxicava, while the under valves of oysters are fre quently attached to the boulders. Equally interesting is the occurrence of Mya truncata, which has been preserved with the siphuncular end uppermost in the act of burrowing in the boulder clay which forms the floor of the beach at this point. In all likelihood this part of the old sea bottom may have formed an oyster scalp. The localities where these shells occur are from 4 to 8 feet above the highest stream tides, and from 30 to 38 feet above the position where they are now found living. The elevation of the land to its present level seems to have taken place since its occupation by an, for in the continuation of this beach farther up the Firth numerous skeletons of whales have been found along with the rude implements which were used by our ancestors. A few years ago, a whale was discovered near Gargunnock, the brain of which, in all probability, had been extracted for food, the skull having been broken open at the thinnest part. Hard by was found the implement which had evidently been used for this purpose. A comparison of the marks on the face of the implement with those on the skull showed that they perfectly agreed. Kitchen middens are found at various places along the base of the cliff forming the inner margin of this terrace. The bed of oyster shells referred to by M `Laren as occurring at Seafield is in all probability of this nature. It is rather a remarkable fact that the brick clays belonging to this beach have a fetid odour owing to the amount of animal and vegetable atter they contain. At the head of the Leith Links there are several dunes of blown sand which date back to the time when the sea rolled inwards on this beach.

In the course of the excavation of its present channel, the Water of Leith has formed several alluvial terraces which belong to post-glacial and recent times, the highest, of course, being the oldest. The successive terraces are best developed where the river has cut through the deposits of the 100 feet sea beach. The lower portion of the Warriston Cemetery occupies one of these higher terraces. In connection with this subject it is interesting to note the occurrence of a buried river channel near Coltbridge, which was proved by a series of bores put down by Mr Jeffrey. One bore, which was sunk to the S of the brewery, passed through 60 feet of superficial deposits before reaching the sandstones and shales. In a second bore, a short distance to the N, 72 feet of drift were pierced when a dyke of igneous rock was reached. A few yards further N a third bore was put down through 200 feet of superficial deposits before reaching the solid rock. As the surface of the ground at that locality is only about 150 feet above the sea, it is evident that the bottom of this old channel must be considerably below the present datum-line. This is evidently one of those buried river-channels, of which there are several examples on the E coast of Scotland and England, pointing to a considerable elevation of the land, probably in pre-glacial times.

Edinburgh formerly possessed several sheets of water which have now disappeared. The hollow along which the North British Railway passes was occupied by a chain of lochs. The Nor' Loch, to the N of -the Castle, was celebrated as the place where the witches passed through their ordeal. The Grassmarket and the Cowgate overlie the alluvium of an ancient loch, the traces of which are now almost obliterated. In the Queen's Park, the place known as the King's Mire was covered by a sheet of water. The Meadows occupy the site of the Borough Loch, the shell marl being occasionally exposed in the drains there, varying in thickness from a few inches to 6 feet. Several species of Limnœa, Planorbis, Cyclas, and Valvata have been obtained from this deposit, along with a few valves of Entomostraca. The skull and horns of the Cervus Elephas have also been disinterred from the alluvial deposits of the Meadows. This interesting relic is now preserved in the Museum of the Antiquarian Society in Edinburgh. A large sheet of water formerly extended from Corstorphine to Gorgie and Coltbridge, which has been drained by the gorge of the Water of Leith. An interesting notice occurs in the Scotsman of 13 April 1833, with reference to the occurrence of a considerable depth of moss in the old town. In the course of the excavations of the new court buildings in Parliament Square, a remnant of the City Wall, erected in 1450, was laid bare; and in the mossy soil below it, about 3 feet under the foundation, a number of entire skeletons were found, showing that the ground had been used for burial before the wall was built. In some places the moss was 15 feet deep.

Though the physical features of Edinburgh were mainly determined in pre-glacial times, there can be little doubt that they were largely modified during the glacial period. Those remarkable features of 'crag and tail', which are well displayed on the Castle rock, the Calton Hill, Salisbury Crags, and Arthur's Seat, were partly developed during the great extension of the ice. In the foregoing examples the projecting crags or bosses of rock face the W, which is the direction from which the ice came; while the ridge or 'tail' on the lee side slopes gently towards the E. As the ice impinged on these projecting masses, the lower portion of the sheet would be deflected and compelled to move round the sides, while the higher portion would overflow the escarpments. One can readily understand that the erosion would necessarily be greatest at the base and round the sides of the crags. The Nor' Loch and the Grassmarket Loch were probably rock basins due to this cause. The hollow at the Meadows may likewise be of glacial origin. At that locality the strike of the beds nearly coincides with the direction of the ice-flow; and as the red sandstones crop out to the S in Warrender Park, it is probable that they are overlaid by softer strata occupying the site of the Meadows, which would be more readily excavated by the ice. And so also the hollow at Morningside must have been deepened by the pressure of the ice escaping round the N end of Blackford Hill. Indeed it is rather remarkable that the hollows and ancient lochs throughout Edinburgh are found in those places where they ought theoretically to occur, on the supposition that the district was glaciated by an ice sheet moving in an ENE direction.

Botany.—The flora within a radius of twenty-five miles around the city of Edinburgh is most varied and extensive. From the nature of the soil, elevation, and exposure, this might be expected. There are the shores of the Firth of Forth and many fresh-water rivers— there are extensive ranges of hills—there are plains, woods, valleys, moors, and cultivated lands, all of which have their peculiar native vegetable productions. There has been recently enumerated 410 genera, 1012 species, and 80 varieties of flowering plants. This number, however, embraces several plants not indigenous, but which have escaped from cultivation, and have become naturalised in different localities. Of Ferns and their allies there are 18 genera and 43 species and varieties. These include the forked spleenwort, the alternate spleenwort, the filmy fern, the sea spleenwort, the adder's tongue, the moonwort fern, etc. There are 520 species and varieties of mosses, liverworts, lichens, and charas. The Firth of Forth is rich in seaweeds (Algae), but their numbers have not recently been calculated. The forms of fungi, desmids, and diatoms are innumerable. Woodforde first published a catalogue of plants found around Edinburgh; and about the same time Dr Greville issued his Flora Edinensis, containing descriptions of the flowering and flowerless plants met with within ten miles of the city. This was an excellent book, and is still (1882) a work of reference. The last publication on the botany was that of Balfour and Sadler in 1871, entitled The Flora of Edinburgh, intended for the use of students attending the Botanical Classes. In 1761, when Dr John Hope was appointed professor of botany, he encouraged his pupils to study and collect the wild plants in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and offered a medal annually for the best collection of dried plants. The medal was gained on one occasion by Sir James Edward Smith. The practice of giving a medal has been continued by all the succeeding professors.

Local Advantages.—The situation of Edinburgh is scarcely less subservient to advantage than its scenery is replete with beauty. The sloping inclination of the ground on all hands, with its close neighbourhood to the sea, is favourable to drainage, and affords facilities for cleanliness. The elevation of the hills, with the spacious natural funnels that intervene, is provocative of a constant stir in the air, and contributes to a healthy ventilation. The comparative vicinity of coal fields and of seaports, with the easy access there is to these, offers ready facilities for manufacture and commerce, such as ight well tempt capitalists to essay here enterprises which have long been successfully prosecuted in towns far less favourably situated, such as Dunfermline, Hawick, and even Manchester, Leeds, and Sheffield, not to say Birmingham, and others which might be mentioned. As it is, the resources it possesses for a generous education, its varied natural stores, its splendid scenery, its historical associations, native to itself and as the capital of the country, as well as its institutions, expressly established, thoroughly equipped, and in active operation for this end, are such as to enable Edinburgh to compete with any other city as a seat of learning. If we add to these its tranquil air and its social atmosphere, as well as its museums, libraries, and schools of arts, there are few places better fitted for the cultivation of those studies which are best prosecuted away from the hum of busy labour, and the hurry and bustle of merely commercial life. ' Residence in Edinburgh,' remarks Alexander Smith, ' is an education in itself. Of all British cities - Weimar-like in its intellectual and æsthetic leanings, Florence-like in its freedom from the stains of trade, and more than Florencelike in its beauty - it is the one best suited for the conduct of a lettered life. The city, as an entity, does not stimulate like London; the present moment is not nearly so intense; life does not roar and chafe - it murmurs only; and this interest of the hour, mingled with something of the quietude of distance and the past - which is the spiritual atmosphere of the city - is the most favourable of all conditions for intellectual work or intellectual enjoyment.' ' What the tour of Europe was necessary to see elsewhere,' says Sir David Wilkie, ' I now find congregated in this one city. Here are alike the beauties of Prague and of Salzburg; here are the romantic sites of Orvietto and Tivoli; and here is all the magnificence of the admired bays of Genoa and Naples; here, indeed, to the poet's fancy, may be found realised the Roman Capitol and the Grecian Acropolis.' And, says Mr Hallam:—

'Even thus, methinks, a city reared should be,
Yea, an imperial city, that might hold
Five times a hundred noble towns in fee,
And either with their might of Babel old
Or the rich Roman pomp of Empery,
Might stand compare, highest in arts enrolled,
Highest in arms, brave tenement for the free,
Who never crouch to thrones, or sin for gold.
Thus should her towers be raised, with vicinage
Of clear bold hills, that curve her very streets,
As if to vindicate ' mid choicest seats
Of art, abiding nature's majesty, -
And the broad sea beyond, in calm or rage,
Chainless alike, and teaching liberty.'

The walks and shrubberies and public gardens, also, are rich in objects of natural interest. Robinias, liriodendrons, auracarias, and some other rare ligneous plants which are as familiar here as oaks and elms are elsewhere, bespeak the regard of the curious in the matter of trees; while rare flowering plants and shrubs, continually under the eye, render it in a measure familiar with the productions of foreign climes.

Climate.—The climate of Edinburgh is much the same as that all over the E coast of Scotland, but rather colder than in the low-lying environs. Some spots in the city, as compared with others - for example, Holyrood as compared with the Castle, and Newington as compared with Broughton - are sheltered and war. The Astronomer Royal states that ' the average mean annual temperature about the observatory on the Calton Hill is approximately 46.0 Fahr.; the annual rainfall, 24 -0 inches yearly. The strength and quantity of the wind on and about the site are excessive, almost all through the year, an d whatever quarter the winds blows from.' Easterly winds prevail in April and May, sometimes also in March; and are usually cold and dry, often very chilling, and occasionally accompanied by injurious fogs called haars. Westerly and south-westerly winds prevail in all the other months, and are usually genial, but often highly charged with moisture. In one year, which probably was not far from being an average one, northerly winds blew 10 days, northeasterly winds 18 days, easterly winds l01 ½ days, south-easterly winds 14 days, southerly winds 42 days, south-westerly winds 30 ½ days, westerly winds 138 days, north-westerly winds 11 days. Thunder-storms come almost invariably from the S, and occur mostly in the latter part of May and throughout June; but in summer, when easterly or northerly winds prevail, thunderstorms rarely occur near the city; these spend their force considerably to the W or to the N. The salubrity of the climate, or the aggregate effect of it upon health and life, will afterwards be shown in a section on the related statistics.

The City Walls.—A very ancient wall ran northward from the foot of the Castle esplanade to the Nor' Loch, and another probably from the E end of the Nor' Loch to the foot of Leith Wynd; and these, with the intermediate reach of the Nor' Loch, and with a continuous range of houses from the foot of Leith Wynd to the head of Canongate or foot of High Street, defended the ancient city on its northern or most assailable side. A wall, entirely surrounding the old city, was constructed in 1450, under authority from James II., and by means of a tax on the inhabitants. This commenced with a small fortress at the NE base of the Castle rock; thence ran eastward, along the S side of the Nor' Loch, till nearly opposite the foot of the Castle esplanade; it then proceeded in a southerly direction till it gained the summit of the hill, where it was intersected by a gateway, communicating between the Castle and the town; thence it ran obliquely down the hill, toward the SE, till it arrived at the first turn in the descent of the West Bow, and there was intersected by a gateway, called the Upper Bow Port; it thence proceeded nearly due eastward, along the face of the ridge between High Street and Cowgate, till it struck Gray's Close or Mint Close; thence went north-eastward till it touched the foot of High Street, a little W of the head of Leith Wynd, and there was intersected by a gateway, communicating between the city and Canongate;. it thence went down the W side of Leith Wynd to the valley; and then proceeded westward, along the S side of the Nor' Loch, to a junction with its commencement at the NE base of the Castle rock. The ancient city was thus confined to very narrow limits; consisted simply of Castle Hill, Lawnmarket, and High Street, with the closes or alleys leading from them; and was dependent for further extension, not on extending its buildings along the surface, but on raising them up in the air.

An extension-wall, chiefly for enclosing suburbs which had arisen on the S, was erected in 1513. This began at the SE base of the Castle rock; thence extended, in a south-easterly direction, to the W end of Grassmarket, where it was intersected by a gateway, called the West Port; thence ascended part of the eminence flanking the S side of Grassmarket, turned eastward, and went along the S side of what is now the park of Heriot's Hospital; it next, on approaching Bristo Street, turned northward, and traversed the eastern part of what is now the Greyfriars' Cemetery; it then trended eastward, passed the lines of Bristo Street and Potterrow, and was intersected on these lines by gateways, called Bristo Port and Potterrow Port; next went southward for a few yards from Potterrow Port, and then, making an abrupt turn, proceeded along the S side of the site of the College and the N side of what is now Drummond Street, till it touched the Pleasance, where it deflected almost at a right angle to the N; across Cowgate, and up the W side of St Mary's Wynd; and was intersected, in that reach, by two gateways called Cowgate Port and St Mary Wynd Port; terminating at the point of the older wall near the junction of High Street and Canongate. Considerable portions of this wall, especially at the N side of Drummond Street and at the W side of the N end of the Pleasance, still exist; and a portion, long hid out of view and forgotten, was brought to light in 1869 by the clearing away of houses in Argyle Square for extension of the Industrial Museum.

The gateway in the wall of 1450 at the foot of High Street stood about 50 yards W of the line of St Mary's Wynd and Leith Wynd, but it was found to occupy a position unfavourable to defence. A second gateway, in lieu of that, was erected in 1571 by the partisans of Queen Mary, on a line with St Mary's Wynd and Leith Wynd, and was so flanked as to possess considerable military strength. A third gateway supplemented the second in 1606, and occupied the same site. It is supposed to have been constructed on the model of one of the ancient gates of Paris, and was by far the most important of all the gates of the city. It figured conspicuously and picturesquely in the scenery of High Street; and became famous in history in connection with a bill (which was not passed), introduced into the British parliament, in consequence of the indignation excited by the Porteous mob, to have it razed to the ground. It extended quite across the thoroughfare, from house-line to house-line, and comprised a main body, of house-like structure, two stories high, crowned with battlements. It was pierced with a carriage archway to the height of the lowest story, and with a wicket for pedestrians to the S of the carriage archway; had, on its flanks, massive round towers, with sharp conical roofs; and was surmounted, above the carriage archway, by a four-story square tower, bearing aloft a tapering hexagonal spire. This pile was a principal ornament of the city, and, had it been allowed to stand, would have been one of the grandest relics of olden times; but, partly in consequence of an act of parliament which proscribed the city walls of London, partly on the pretext of obstructing the thoroughfare, it was taken down in 1764.

Small extensions of the wall of 1450, in Leith Wynd and at the foot of Halkerston's Wynd, were erected in 1540 and 1560, that in Leith Wynd having a gateway called Leith Wynd Port, with a wicket at its side giving access to Trinity College Church. A small extension of the wall of 1513, at the W side of the eminence flanking the S side of Grassmarket, was erected in 1618, part of which still forms the western boundary of the grounds of Heriot's Hospital. The only extant vestige of the wall of 1450 is the fragment of a tower, on the spot where the wall commenced at the NE base of the Castle rock, bearing the name of Wallace's tower, originally or properly Well-house tower; and, in 1872, this was proposed to be so far rebuilt or restored as to represent again the original tower structure. The wall of 1450 was constructed in consequence of panic after the battle of Sark; and that of 1513 after the battle of Flodden; but these do not see to have ever had much military strength; and were improved, from time to time, at periods of alarm, by additions to their thickness and their height, and by the erection of flanking towers and bulwarks. Even in their best condition, however, they offered no great resistance to the arts of modern warfare; and, in 1745, when they ought to have prevented the entrance or entirely arrested the progress of the Jacobite army, they proved to be of little or no use. Thenceforth they were looked upon only as obstructions to the thoroughfares; and, during the spirited period of the civic modern extension, were sweepingly removed. (See P. Neill's Notes relative to the fortified Walls of Edinburgh. Edinb. 1829.)

Extent.—Edinburgh, owing to the open spaces included within it, occupies a larger area than from the height of the houses we may be apt to imagine. From Canonmills Bridge on the N to Grange Road on the S, it measures geographically 3860 yards; from Haymarket on the W to Pilrig Street on the E, it measures 3660 yards; and these points indicate the sides of a rectangle, the area of which, with some comparatively unimportant exceptions, is all included in the town. But outside the area of this rectangle, on each of the four sides, are wings ore or less extensive, which, if included in the city's measurements, would add considerably to both the extreme length and breadth. The excepted spaces within the rectangle lie mostly in the very heart of the city, and either contain very few edifices or are entirely unbuilt upon. The area of Princes Street Gardens and the Castle rock, which extends about 900 yards from E to W, and between 200 and 270 yards from N to S, if we except the structures of the Castle and those on the Mound, has scarcely any buildings. The area of Queen Street Gardens measures 850 yards by 130; the aggregate area of other public or conjoint-proprietary gardens measures fully more; and these are entirely without edifices.

The limits we have given are those of the city regarded as a town. Other limits, defining jurisdictions of various kinds, ancient and modern, differ widely from these and from one another; some of the, too, are either of no interest or of such intricacy as to be only perplexing; and only four of them are either important enough to challenge notice or sufficiently clear to be easily understood. These four define the city in successive concentric areas - first, the ancient royalty, nearly identical with the space formerly enclosed by the Old Town walls; second, the city proper, comprising both the ancient royalty and an extended royalty; third, the county of the city, comprising all in the former and considerable tracts beyond; fourth, the parliamentary burgh, comprehending the county of the city - and a large surrounding district, and forming altogether an irregular polygon of nearly 10 miles in circumference, with St Giles' Church in the centre. The parliamentary burgh is defined by a line drawn from a point on the Leith and Queensferry Road, 400 yards W of the Inverleith Road at Goldenacre, straight to the north-western corner of John Watson's Hospital; thence straight to the second stone bridge on the Union Canal; thence straight to the Jordan or Pow Burn at the enclosure of the Morningside Lunatic Asylum; thence down that burn to a point on it 150 yards below the transit of the Carlisle Road; thence straight to the summit of Arthur's Seat; thence straight to the influx of a burn at the W side of Lochend Loch; thence straight to the junction of Pilrig Street and Leith Walk; thence along Pilrig Street and Bonnington Road to the Leith and Queensferry Road; thence along that road to the point first described.

Thoroughfares.—The plan, contour, and setting of the city, with the directions and intersections of the streets, and the positions of the various places of interest cannot be clearly defined in words; for an idea of all this the reader must be referred to the accompanying map. What we have to say of the prominent objects in the city and its neighbourhood, such as the Castle, Holyrood, and the principal buildings and institutions, will fall to be said further on. Meanwhile, we propose to sketch the leading thoroughfares, and as we traverse them indicate such objects of interest as attract attention and will repay regard.

The line of street, which, beginning with the head of the Canongate, ascends upwards along the ridge of the central hill to the esplanade in front of the Castle, forms the main portion of the ancient city, and bears, as you go westwards, successively the names of the Netherbow, the High Street, the Lawnmarket, and the Castle Hill. This line of street is intersected by two main thoroughfares running N and S, as well as by other streets of less extension, and an array of lanes and closes which are of ancient date, but are gradually disappearing to make way for modern improvements. The Netherbow, at the lower extremity, is a comparatively short and narrow section of the whole; and it was so called from a massive battlemented pile, surmounted by a tower and steeple, which stood here and formed, by its arched gateway, for centuries the outlet from the city on the E. The High Street, to which it was originally the approach from that quarter, is 470 yards in length, and very spacious, and expands to wards its upper extremity into an area in front of the Parliament House occupied by St Giles' Till the latter part of last century it had no lateral openings except by the wynds or closes referred to, and presented till that time the appearance of a long, wide, compact street of high-piled houses, the architecture of which belonged to several successive epochs, and exhibited elements that had an imposing and picturesque effect. A few of the older houses still preserved enable us to conceive somewhat of the ancient aspect of the street, and how it must have looked when it was the scene in the olden time of events affecting not only the city but the whole country from end to end. The Lawnmarket, which is about 230 yards in length, and possesses similar features of both architectural and historic interest, derived its name from the stalls and booths which used to be erected here, especially on marketdays, for the sale of ' linen.' It communicated with the High Street, so late as 1817, by means of a lane on the S, for foot-passengers, and a narrow carriage-way on the N, of the Luckenbooths, which extended along the street to the S of St Giles', and it was blocked at its W end till 1822 by a public weigh-house. Till the opening of Bank Street on the N in 1798, it had no lateral outlets except the closes to right and left, and a quaint old street, called the West Bow, which descended westward in steep corkscrew fashion at its SW corner into the Grassmarket under the S of the Castle. The Castle Hill extends beyond the Lawnmarket as far as the esplanade of the Castle; it is about 150 yards long, and is more contracted in width. It was once a patrician quarter of the city, but a great part of it has been cleared away for modern structures and a thoroughfare westward by the S side of the Castle. The upper end of it was in early times a place of public execution for heretics, witches, traitors, and common criminals.

The old closes and small courts, not yet abolished, that branch off from this entire line of street, still retain, though for most part in a sadly faded and broken down condition, many of the houses once inhabited by distinguished families and associated with the names of people who played an illustrious part in the past history of the city and country. Tweeddale Court, No. 10 Netherbow, contains what was once the town mansion of the noble family of Tweeddale, and in the after-times the head office of the British Linen Company's Bank, but what is now the publishing establishment of Oliver and Boyd. The alley which leads to this court was in 1806 the scene of a mysterious murder, whereby a porter of the bank of the name of Begbie, after being stabbed to the heart, was robbed of £4932, which he was conveying to the main office from a sub-office in Leith. Suspicion attached to a professional thief from London, who was afterwards arraigned and brought to justice for another offence. Nearly opposite to Tweeddale Court stands John Knox's House, a good example of the more ancient picturesque and curiously gabled houses of the Old Town. Along the lintel of the ground floor, in old spelling, is the inscription, ' Love God above all, and your neighbour as yourself;' whilst at the corner there is an effigy of what, from a frame there was once round it, was supposed to represent the reformer preaching, but was afterwards found, when the frame was removed, to be Moses receiving the ten commandments from the Lord, a more likely symbol for the house of the reformer than any effigies of himself. Hyndford's Close, at No. 50 High Street, contained the ancient mansion of the Earls of Hyndford, which was afterwards occupied by Sir Walter Scott's maternal grandfather, and a frequent resort of Sir Walter when a boy. It was in this close the famous Duchess of Gordon and her sister stayed in their romping girlhood. Here, too, lived Lady Anne Bernard, the authoress of the ballad of ' Auld Robin Gray.' South Gray's Close, at No. 56, contains the old town mansion of the Earls of Selkirk and Stirling, which is now the residence of the priests of St Patrick's Roman Catholic church; and it leads down to Elphinstone Court, where were the residences of Sir James Elphinstone and Lord Loughborough among others; and to Mint Court, the site of the national mint, which was erected in 1574, and the residences of Dr Cullen, Lord Hailes, Lord Belhaven, the Countess of Stair, Douglas of Cavers, and the famous Earl of Argyll, all of the latter part of the 17th century. Chalmers' Close, at No. 81, contained the mansion of the ancestors of the Earls of Hopetoun and the residence of Lord Jeffrey's grandfather, often frequented by Lord Jeffrey in his boyhood. Paisley's Close, at No. 101, was entered through a large lofty house of 1612, which contained the shop of Sir William Fettes, the founder of Fettes College, and which, on a night in November 1861, suddenly fell, burying 23 persons in its ruins. Todrick's Wynd, nearly opposite Paisley Close, was the scene, in 1590, of a grand banquet given by the city magistrates to the Danish nobles who accompanied the queen of James VI. to Scotland. Blackfriars' Wynd, at No. 96, now superseded by Blackfriars Street, took its name from a Blackfriars' Monastery which stood on the slope facing its S end. It was, for more than five centuries, a highly aristocratic quarter, and contained residences of bishops, archbishops, cardinals, nobles, and princes. This wynd is specially distinguished as the site of a palace of Cardinal Beaton, which stood at its foot; it had an ancient church, which continued to be used till about 1835 as a Roman Catholic chapel and an Episcopalian church, long attended by a fashionable and wealthy congregation. It has witnessed many scenes of political intrigue and conflicts of faction. Strichen's Close, at No. 104, contains what was the town mansion of the abbots of Melrose, which was afterwards occupied by Sir George Mackenzie, ' the bluidy Mackenzie' of persecuting fame. Dickson's Close, at No. 118, contained the town mansion of the the Halliburtons, and also the residence of ' the Scottish Hogarth,' David Allan. Bishop's Close, at No. 129, took its name from containing the town mansion of Archbishop Spottiswood, which was afterwards occupied by Lady Jane Douglas; it contained also the mansion of the first Lord President Dundas, and was the birthplace of the first Viscount Melville. Carrubber's Close, at No. 135, contained, till a few years ago, a very old Episcopalian church, then the oldest in Scotland, and the only one in the S of Scotland that had been duly consecrated; and a house built by Allan Ramose in 1736 for a theatre, which, however, as the speculation failed, the city authorities being adverse, was soon turned to other uses, and afterwards in its time ' played many parts,' being used successively as a scientific lecture-room, a Rowite chapel, and a revival meetinghouse. It contained also the house of Sir William Forbes, as also that of Captain Matthew Henderson, much frequented by the poet Burns, and the original workshop of James Ballantyne, the author of the Gaberlunzie's Wallet. Most of these have now been swept away in connection with city improvements to form part of the roadway of Jeffrey Street. No. 153 was Allan Ramsay's house, an ancient timber-fronted tenement; in the first floor was his first publishing establishment, and in the second his dwelling-house. Niddry's Wynd, opposite Allan Ramsay's house, contained a temporary residence of James VI. and his queen in 1591, and a famous chapel of 1505, founded by the Countess of Ross, and known as St Mary's Chapel; but this wynd was nearly all rebuilt at the constructing of the South Bridge in 1785-88, and is now called Niddry Street. Halkerston's Wynd, at No. 163, served in ancient times as an outlet from the city, by way of a gate at its foot and a low narrow mound across the Nor' Loch, and was long an important thoroughfare; but now it scarcely possesses a vestige of what it was.

North Bridge and South Bridge, jointly forming the great thoroughfare which intersects High Street through its middle, will be noticed in a subsequent paragraph. Cap and Feather Close stood on part of the ground now occupied by North Bridge; is still represented by some of the houses on the E of the Bridge line; and was the birthplace of the poet Fergusson. Marlin's Wynd stood on part of the ground now occupied by South Bridge and adjoining the Tron Church; it took its name from a Frenchman of the 16th century who first paved the High Street, and was entered through a large archway or pend, in a stately block of houses fronted with an arcade-piazza. Hunter Square, a small quadrangle partly occupied by the Tron Church at the W corner of High Street and South Bridge, and Blair Street, a short thoroughfare descending from the SW corner of that quadrangle, were formed when the South Bridge was being constructed, and took their names from Sir Hunter Blair. Kennedy's Close stood on the site of Hunter Square, and it was here the famous George Buchanan died. Here, on his deathbed, finding that the money he had was too little to pay the expense of his funeral, he ordered it to be distributed among his poor neighbours, adding that his townsfolk might bury or not bury his bones as it seemed good to them. These were interred next day in the Greyfriars' Churchyard at the public charges. Milne Square, at No. 173 High Street, immediately W of North Bridge, was built in 1689 by the architect Robert Milne; it is entered, from the street, by an archway, and was long an aristocratic quarter; two flats of it, now on the line of Cockburn Street, were occupied by Charles Erskine of Tinwald, Lord Justice-Clerk, who died in 1763. Cockburn Street was formed in 1859, and will be noticed further on. Covenant Close, at No. 162 High Street, contains an ancient edifice, in which the National Covenant was signed in 1638, and which has three crow-stepped gables figuring curiously in close views from the S. Old Assembly Close, at No. 172, contained the City Assembly Rooms from 1720 till 1726, as it did previously the mansion of Lord Durie, the hero of the ballad of Christie's Will. Fishmarket Close, at No. 190, contained the residences of George Heriot, and the elder Lord President Dundas, of convivial celebrity. Fleshmarket Close, at No. 199, was long the residence of Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville, and is now intersected by Cockburn Street. Stamp Office Close, at No. 221, contained the town mansion of the ninth Earl of Eglintoun, which afterwards became, as a tavern, a famous rendezvous for men of rank and fashion; it was used by the Earl of Leven, as Lord High Commissioner, for his levees during the sittings of the General Assembly. Anchor Close, at No. 243, contained the residence of Lord Provost Drummond and a famous printing office established by Smellie, author of the Philosophy of Natural History, and it retains some architectural carvings indicative of its importance in times bygone. Writers' Court, at No. 315, contained the original library of the Writers to the Signet, and still boasts of containing, in decayed condition, the meeting-place of the Mirror Club, famous for the ' high jinks ' described in Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering. Warriston Close, at No. 323, contained the residences of Sir George Urquhart, Sir Archibald Johnston, and other distinguished persons; and was long one of the most important alleys of the city; but now possesses scarcely any trace of its ancient features. Roxburgh Close, at No. 341, took its name from containing the town mansion of the Earls of Roxburgh. Advocates' Close, at No. 357, contained the residences of Lord Westhall, Lord Advocate Stewart, and other distinguished lawyers, and figures in connection with Andrew Crosbie, as the prototype of ' Councillor Pleydell,' in Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering. Parliament Square, largely occupied on its N side by St Giles' Church, is of comparatively small extent, and occupies part of an area which was a public cemetery from very early times till the end of the 16th century. It contains, at or near a spot now marked with a small stone lettered I. K., what is presumed to be the grave of John Knox; was long called the Parliament Close; derived its name from the Scottish Parliament, which was held there; and is occupied entirely with public buildings. Here stands an equestrian statue of Charles II. erected in 1685 on a spot previously selected for a monument to Oliver Cromwell. County Square, opening narrowly from the NW of Parliament Square, and flanked on the N by the open thoroughfare of Lawnmarket, is also of comparatively small extent; it occupies the site of three closes which had fallen into ruins, and takes its name from being flanked on the W by the County Hall. It was formerly the place where were erected the hustings in connection with elections of embers of parliament for the city and county. A heart formed of causeway stones at its NE corner marks the site of the Old Tolbooth, ' the Heart of Midlothian.' Dunbar's Close, at No. 413 Lawnmarket, opposite the County Hall, received its name from being the headquarters of Cromwell's army after the battle of Dunbar, and adjoins a large handsome house to the N, said to have been occupied by the Protector himself. Libberton's Wynd, now an extinct alley southward from Lawnmarket, between the rear of the County Hall and the roadway of George IV. Bridge, figures in extant documents so early as the year 1477. It was a principal thoroughfare for pedestrians to the southern outskirts; contained a famous tavern, frequented by poets, artists, antiquaries, advocates, and judges throughout the latter part of last century, and became so noted for carousings by Robert Burns and his admirers as to be eventually called Burns, Tavern. The head of this close, from 1817, when the Old Tolbooth was demolished, till the date of the last public execution, was the place where the gibbet was erected, the spot being now indicated by three reversed stones in the causeway.

Bank Street and George IV. Bridge, forming the modern carriage thoroughfare across Lawnmarket, will be afterwards noticed. Old Bank Close, off the S side of Lawnmarket, on ground now occupied by the pavement of Melbourne Place at the N end of George IV. Bridge, contained a house of 1588, long occupied by the Bank of Scotland, an ancient large edifice belonging to Cambuskenneth. Abbey, and a house of 1569, built on the ruins of the Cambuskenneth one, owned for some time by the Crown for the accommodation of state prisoners and ambassadors, and inhabited afterwards successively by Sir Thomas Hope, the Lord President, Sir George Lockhart, and other judges. Brodie's Close, on the S of Lawnmarket, just above Melbourne Place, contained the Roman Eagle Hall, notable for its masonic meetings in Burns' time, which were at length dissolved on account of the disgrace which their intemperate proceedings brought on the craft. In it is still shown in the front tenement the house of the notorious Brodie. Riddle's Close, at No. 322, was inhabited by Provost Sir John Smith, by Bailie Macmoran, who entertained at his table here James VI. and Queen Anne of Denmark; by David Hume, who wrote here part of his History of England; and by Lord Royston, Sir Roderick Mackenzie, and several other distinguished persons. Lady Stair's Close, which was the chief thoroughfare for foot passengers to the New Town prior to the opening of Bank Street, at No. 447, contains the house where the fashionable society of the city was long presided over by the Dowager Countess of Stair, whose subsequent history, as Viscountess Primrose, forms the groundwork of Sir Walter Scott's story of My Aunt Margaret's Mirror. Baxter's Close, at No. 469, contains the house in which the poet Burns lodged in the winter of 1786-87, paying 1s. 6d. a week for share of a poor lodging and a chaff bed with a Mauchline friend, and a house which belonged to the Countess of Elgin, the governess of the Princess Charlotte. James' Court, at No. 501, was built in 1727 as an aristocratic quarter, superseding several ancient closes. It contained the abodes of judges, nobles, and ecclesiastical dignitaries. It extends, as a sort of terrace, formed on a rapid slope overlooking the New Town, and presents a rear front of nine stories, which are seen there towering stupendously, and com and a magnificent view to the N. Its western half contained, from 1762 till 1771, the house of David Hume, and also the residence of James Boswell, the biographer of Dr Johnson, who stayed here in 1773 as he passed through the city on his famous Scottish tour. It was destroyed by fire in 1857; but is now replaced by lofty picturesque buildings in florid old Scottish Baronial style. Milne's Court, at No. 517, was partly built in 1690 by the architect who constructed Milne Square; but retains, on its W side, houses of previous periods, one of these the town mansion of Sir John Harper of Cambusnethan, and another that of the lairds of Comiston. The West Bow, descending sinuously first southward and then south-westward from the upper end of Lawnmarket, took its name from a bow or arch in the old town wall, which formed the western outlet from the city. It was probably the earliest approach to the city while as yet it was confined to a few houses within and around the Castle, and was early built upon, down both its sides, by densely-packed, timber-fronted tenements, and served, narrow, winding, steep, and rugged as it was, till the latter part of last century, as the carriage egress from the city to all places in the W. It witnessed the corteges of at least six monarchs, and was a busy place of shops and workshops, as well as traffic, even in the memory of people still alive; and contained originally the workshops of the higher class of artisans, tenements of the Knights Templars surmounted by crosses, the house of the reputed wizard Major Weir, the city Assembly Rooms from 1602 till 1720, and the provost's mansion in which Prince Charles Edward was entertained in 1745; but about 1830 it underwent such total alteration as, except in a house or two at the top and bottom, to be no longer recognisable by those who knew it before the work of demolition began. Demolitions of recent date, and going on just now, have extinguished all traces at the top. The Castle Hill, with closes and small courts leading from it, was long, as already noted, a highly aristocratic quarter; it contained a palace of the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, and a mansion of the Marquis of Argyll; and still contains houses which were once inhabited by such notables as the Dukes of Gordon, the Earls of Lennox, the Earls of Cassillis, the Earl of Dumfries, Dowager Countess of Hyndford, Lord Sempill, Lord Rockville, Lady Elizabeth Howard, Lord Holyroodhouse, and General Sir David Baird. Ramsay Lane, descending northward from the N side of Castle Hill, contained the residence of the ' Laird o'. Cockpen, ' one of the Ramsays of Dalhousie, and leads to a garden off its W side, containing what was Allan Ramsay's House, a curious octagonal edifice built by the poet himself, enlarged by his son, afterwards owned by the late Lord Murray, and vulgarly known in the poet's lifetime as the ' Goose Pie.' On the E side of Ramsay Lane stands the Original Ragged School, founded by Dr Guthrie.

Canongate.—Canongate was originally a suburb of the city, extending eastward from the Netherbow to Holyrood. It sprang up in connection with the Abbey; was founded in the time of David I. by its canons or monks, and was so called as forming the approach to the Abbey from the city and Castle. A burgh of regality almost from its birth, it received charters of incorporation or burgh privileges in succession from David I., Robert I., and Robert II.; and the abbots of Holyrood, being made superiors of the burgh, are said to have appointed for its government bailies, a treasurer and a council, with right to enrol burgesses, and with various other privileges. These privileges, with certain feuduties and other rights, were afterwards conveyed absolutely to the burgh of Canongate, the abbots retaining only the bare superiority, which they continued to hold till the dissolution of the abbey at the time of the Reformation. The superiority passed then to Robert Stewart, commendator of Holyrood, next to Sir Lewis Bellenden of Broughton, afterwards to several others, till at length in 1630 it was acquired by the city of Edinburgh. The only rights left to the ancient suburb consisted of the superiority over certain properties within its bounds, the right to levy petty customs, market dues, and causeway mail. The magistrates were next deprived of their jurisdiction in criminal cases, but still allowed to hold a weekly court for civil causes, and for some classes of questions within the competency of sheriffs and magistrates of royal burghs. They still, also, acted as justices of peace for their own territory, assisted by an assessor, who was a member of the faculty of advocates. They continued to hold these powers under the superiority of the city till the year 1856, when the jurisdiction was finally merged in that of the Edinburgh corporation by the Municipal Extension Act. This jurisdiction extended at one time not only over the Canongate, but also the Holyrood precincts, or Abbey, St Cuthbert's, Pleasance, North Leith, and Coalhill, South Leith; and no one but a burgess or freeman of Canongate was at liberty to carry on trade or manufacture within the bounds, and even this liberty was restricted to burgesses enrolled as members of particular crafts. The admission fee for becoming a burgess was £3, 3s. in the case of a stranger, and £1, 11s. 6d. for the son of a burgess. The incorporated trades were hammermen, tailors, wrights, bakers or baxters, shoemakers, weavers, fleshers, and barbers, and they were incorporated by royal charter in 1630. They possessed considerable funds; and for the management and appropriation of these funds for behoof of poor members and members' widows, the trades' incorporations still have nominal existence in one united association.

The burgh of Canongate was long divided from the city by a trench of open ground, and had much of the character of a separate town. Many of its older houses are believed to have been built for the accommodation of the retainers of the court of Holyrood, and as these were added to for craftsmen and tradesmen, the burgh extended gradually westward till it marched with the city at Netherbow. Its streets and closes striking off the main thoroughfare opened originally, where they opened at all, on the country, or were enclosed only by a wall so slender as to be practically useless for defence; but the burgh enjoyed a sufficient protection from marauders and military assault under cover of the ecclesiastical authorities of the Abbey. This immunity, however, was rudely broken in 1543, when the forces of Henry VIII. ravaged the burgh, inflicting great havoc. Prior to this, eventful as the times were, the burgh can be said to have had little history of its own, figuring as it did mainly as an appanage of the Abbey, and even its sacred affairs, both as regards church and cemetery, were down to Revolution times all identified with Holyrood. During the siege of Edinburgh in 1571, the burgh was for a brief period the seat of parliament, the basis of attack upon the city, and the scene of some notable incidents, when it suffered severe injury from the artillery of Kirkaldy of Grange.

The Canongate retains none of its buildings erected prior to 1544, but a number of those extant were town mansions of the nobility subsequent to the reign of Queen Mary, offering, some of them, features attractive to the antiquary, while several derive an interest from historical and other associations. The main street begins at the area in front of Holyrood, and stretches upward and westward for about 650 yards to the Netherbow gateway already described, which till 1762 separated the burgh from the High Street. It thus occupies the E end of the wedge-shaped ridge or central hill on which the more ancient division of the city stands; forms part of the noble old street extending from the Castle to Holyrood, which, though it presents now a broken-down and dingy appearance, is not yet shorn of all its ancient picturesque grandeur. Wynds, courts, and closes strike off both sides, leading to two parallel thoroughfares called respectively the North and the South Back of Canongate, and there are partly on the street line and partly within these alleys and courts a number of old aristocratic and public buildings. The North Back strikes off from the E end of the main street, passes along the gorge between the central hill and Calton Hill, and is overhung on the N side by precipitous slopes, by some public buildings, and by the mural rocks which bear aloft the walls and castellated towers of the Prison; it joins at its western end with Low Calton, and is now altogether unimpressive save as the site here and there of places of antiquarian interest. The South Back strikes westward from the SW corner of the Holyrood area; runs partly on low ground verging on the Queen's Park and partly along the gorge between the central and southern hills of the old city; and measures 750 yards in length. It contains extensive breweries, a Retreat, connected with Queensberry House, built about 1860, a glass work, several manufactories, St Andrew's Episcopal Church, Moray Free Church; and is winged partly on its southern side by long ranges of workmen's houses extending towards Dumbiedykes and confronting Salisbury Crags. On the same side, at the western end, is St John's Hill, now of little account, but anciently belonging in succession to the Knights Templars and the Knights of St John of Jerusalem; and the street terminates on the N of this hill in a line with Cowgate, where St Mary Street strikes N and the Pleasance S. New Street descends N from the Canongate to North Back, was formed as a genteel place of residence before the New Town was thought of, and contained the town mansion of the Earls of Angus and a house occupied by the French Ambassador to the Court of Queen Mary. New Street had for occasional occupants, last century, Lord Kaimes, Lord Hailes, and Sir Philip Anstruther; now the gas-works, though the houses are still in fairly good order, have a large section of frontage on one side. Leith Wynd, which formerly descended northward from the W end of the Canongate to Low Calton, and is now absorbed in its upper part into the line of Jeffrey Street, was at one time a thoroughfare from Edinburgh to Leith, and contained anciently several public buildings, as Paul's Work and Trinity College, with hospital, which have been removed to make way for the goods station and other offices of the North British railway terminus. St Mary Street, formerly St Mary's Wynd, descends southward from the W end of the Canongate to South Back, and took its name from an ancient Cistercian nunnery, with chapel and hospital, dedicated to St Mary. Several principal inns stood here at one time, as this wynd was long a chief southern outlet from the city to the S prior to the construction of South Bridge. Originally a mere alley of some picturesqueness, it became at length a nest of such squalid misery as to be one of the first places to come under the Improvement Scheme of 1867, and it is now a spacious and well-aired street, having a range of neat new buildings in a Gothic style on the E side. Pleasance, which runs S from St Mary Street, received its name by corruption from an ancient nunnery dedicated to St Mary of Placentia, and was originally a suburban village of the Canongate; it is now a densely peopled street connected southward and laterally by side streets westward with the southern extension of the city. St John Street strikes off nearly opposite New Street to South Back, it is entered from the main street through an archway, but terminates openly and widely on the S, and has a spacious appearance, and large uniform self-contained houses built about 1768. Designed as an aristocratic quarter, St John Street was inhabited for some time by judges, baronets, barons, and Earls, among these being Lord Monboddo, Lord Eskgrove, the first Earl of Hopetoun, and the Earl of Dalhousie, and Smollett, the novelist, also lived here.

At the foot of Canongate directly opposite the barrier called the Watergate, and a main approach to the city before the erection of the North Bridge, at one time the principal entrance to the burgh, stood the Girth Cross, the site of which is now identified by an arrangement of stones in the causeway, indicating the boundary of the Abbey sanctuary; it was originally as all structure on a pediment, consisting of a few steps, and figures in history as the scene of some notable public executions. White Horse Close, or Davidson's Close, on the N side further W, contains a range of houses built in 1523, long used as the principal inn of the old burgh, and graphically depicted by Scott in Waverley. Whiteford House, W from White Horse Close, is entered by a lane or entry, and occupies the site of an ancient mansion of the Earls of Winton, the scene of several incidents in Scott's Abbot; it was built by Sir John Whiteford, and at his death passed to Lord Bannatyne, but is now turned into a type-foundry. Queens berry House, situated in an enclosure off the S side, was built in 1681 by Lord Halton, afterwards third Earl of Lauderdale; passed by purchase to the first Duke of Queensberry; was a frequent residence of his immediate successors to the title; and figured largely as a scene of riotous turmoil and revelry about the time of the Union. It was eventually sold to government, stripped of much of its rich decorations, and converted into an infantry barrack; by-and-by it became a fever hospital, and is now a plain sombre building occupied as a house of refuge for the destitute. Milton House, within another enclosure on the same side, further W, was built by Fletcher of Milton, a relative of Fletcher of Saltoun, and occupies ground partly attached as a garden to a mansion of the Earls of Roxburgh. It still bears indications of having once been a handsome building; it was about thirty years ago a Roman Catholic school, and has since been put to a variety of uses. Canongate Church, in an open area on the N side, built in 1688, is a very plain quasi-cruciform edifice, and bears on the top of its front gable a horned deer's head with a cross, representing the crest of the old burgh, and intended as an emblem of an alleged incident in the life of David I. which gave rise to the erection of Holyrood Abbey. This church was originally built on account of the Abbey church, which the inhabitants of Canongate had attended from the time of the Reformation, having, in 1687, been handed over by James VII. for service according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The churchyard lying round the church, extending to North Back, is crowded in every part, and contains the remains of Adam Smith, David Allan, Dugald Stewart, Dr Gregory, Provost Drummond, and the poet Fergusson, over whose grave Robert Burns erected a monument, and on which he inscribed lines to his memory. In 1880 a rose-coloured granite monument, 26 feet high, was erected here in memory of the soldiers who died in Edinburgh Castle from 1692, and had been interred here. The Tollbooth, immediately N of the church, is a picturesque, rather grim, building of 1591, having over an archway the inscription - Patriœ et posteris, and with a small spire and projecting clock; it was long used for parochial board purposes, and is now employed partly for the registrar of the district, partly as a public reading-room, and partly as a police sub-office. An ancient cross, which formerly stood in the centre of the adjacent thoroughfare, and was used as a pillory for offenders against morality, is now attached to a corner of the Tolbooth. Tolbooth Wynd, close by, formerly contained the Canongate Poorhouse, opened in 1761, but now disused. Bakehouse Close, a squalid lane nearly opposite, is fronted towards the street by a building of 1570, at one time the town residence of the first and second Marquises of Huntly. Moray House, on the S side a little below St John Street, forms a massive pile with stone balcony, an entrance gateway with pyramidal stone posts, and large garden area. It was built in Charles I.s time by the Dowager Countess of Home; became the residence of the Earls of Moray; and was temporarily occupied by Cromwell and by Lord Chancellor Seafield. It was on this balcony the Marquis of Argyll and his family stood to witness the Marquis of Montrose carried along to execution. It afterwards became successively an office of the British Linen Company's Bank, a paper warehouse, a sugar refinery, a temporary home for the children of the Orphan Hospital, and is now occupied by the Free Church Normal School, while in part of the garden ground stands Moray Free Church, built in 1862 in Early English style, with main entrance from South Back. A considerable addition to Moray House School was made in 1877 at a cost of about £5400. This new building was 110 feet in length by 45 in width, and was two stories in height; is of plain character in front, with windows having splayed polished facings, moulded sills and trusses. Holyrood Free Church stands amid a block of buildings adjacent to the Abbey area, and is a plain edifice. Playhouse Close, an old lane at No. 196, contains a building of 1746, which was the first regular theatre in Edinburgh. Jack's Land, a large lofty pile opposite St John Street, was once the residence of the Countess of Eglintoun, and was afterwards occupied by David Hume from 1753 till 1762. Morocco Land, a large square tenement, still retains in its front a curious effigy of a Moor, of which there are various traditions, these generally identifying it with the last visitation of the plague to Edinburgh. Chessels Court, at No. 240, still shows remains of a better class of architecture, and about the middle of last century contained the Excise office The parish of Canongate includes most of Queen's Park, extends eastward to Dunsappie Loch, south east ward to Duddingston Loch, S to Prestonfield; and is bounded on the N by South Leith, on the E by Dudding- ston village, on the S by Liberton, on the SW by St Cuthbert's. The parish formerly had a poorhouse, but it is now combined with that of St Cuthbert's. (See J. Mac- kay's History of the Burgh of Canongate, with Notices of the Abbey and Palace of Holyrood, Edinb. 1879.)

St Cuthbert's.—St Cuthbert's, originally beyond the city walls and W of Nor' Loch, ranks in respect of antiquity next to the Castle and High Street. This parish is bounded on the N by the Firth of Forth, NE by North Leith and South Leith, E by the old royalty and Liberton, SE and S by Liberton, SW by Colinton, W by Corstorphine, and NW by Cramond. The greatest length is 5 miles; greatest breadth 3¾ miles; and its area is 6675 acres, of which 76½ lie detached, 14 are foreshore, and 13½ are water. The portions of this parish beyond the parliamentary bounds conjoin with the district of Dean in a school board of their own. The parish extends in one direction from Braid Hills to Trinity, in others from Slateford to Queen's Park, and from Corstorphine Hill to North Leith. The surface of the parish is exceedingly diversified, and comprises a broad zone of the city, the lands of the Braids and Blackford, portions of the suburban districts of Morningside and Grange, the Meadows and Bruntsfield Links, the plain extending westward to Murrayfield, the dell of the Water of Leith from Slateford down to Bonnington, and the tract of land, rich in gardens and nursery grounds, stretching from the Water of Leith to Craigleith, and northwards to the shore at Trinity. Originally St Cuthbert's parish was of such extent as to comprise any of the present parishes of the city, as well as those of North Leith, South Leith, Corstorphine, and Liberton. The original church is said to have been a Culdee cell, which derived its name from the Culdee missionary, St Cuthbert, who, after itinerating as a preacher from York to the Forth, became head of the monastic house of Lindisfarne or Holy Island, and whose name, after his death in 687, was thus perpetuated here as elsewhere in the S of Scotland. The parish, besides being the oldest, by and by became one of the wealthiest; its first church is believed to have been built about or soon after St Cuthbert's death, acquiring endowments at or before the date of the charter of Holyrood; and, with its kirktown and other rights, it was given by David I. to Holy- rood Abbey. The limits of the parish were considerably reduced in Romish times, and were afterwards still further reduced by the withdrawal of those portions which now for the parishes of the New Town. Even as reduced at first, however, St Cuthbert's had a number of ecclesiastical institutions, one of these being the nunnery dedicated to St Mary of Placentia, already referred to as adjacent to the city wall, at that portion of the city now forming the E of Drummond Street, and still leaving traces of the name, Pleasance, given to the district. Besides this there were others in St Cuthbert's parish a chapel or hospital dedicated to St Leonard, which stood on the E side of the road leading south ward to Dalkeith, as the name of the adjoining locality still witnesses; another chapel, belonging to the Knights Templars, which occupied a rising ground in Newington, with a cemetery attached, in which were found, about the beginning of last century, several bodies with swords alongside; a convent of Dominican nuns, founded by Lady St Clair of Roslin, and dedicated to St Catherine of Sienna, which stood in the Grange near the Meadows, and gave the name of Sciennes to a district around its site, a house in St Catherine's Place showing a tablet in its front plot to indicate the supposed site of this convent; St Roque's Chapel, which stood on the W end of Boroughmuir, and had also a cemetery, which was used by the citizens of Edinburgh for about two centuries, and was specially a place of interment for persons who died of epidemic diseases; St John's Chapel, which stood E of St Roque's; and another, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which occupied a spot in the suburb of Portsburgh still known as Chapel Wynd. St Cuthbert's Church, or the West Kirk, as it is popularly called, has always stood at the W end of the Nor' Loch valley, close to the base of the Castle rock. The original building disappeared at some period unknown to record, and that which was erected in its place was a large cruciform edifice with a massive square tower, which, after undergoing any repairs and alterations, and suffering much damage during the siege of the Castle in 1689, was pronounced incapable of restoration. Taken down at last in 1775, it then gave place to the present building, which, exclusive of the steeple, cost £4231. It is an exceedingly plain structure, but has a most commodious interior, containing 3000 sit tings. The steeple was a later addition, and was erected by subscription in the hope of lessening the un- gainliness of the church, which, though it has on the whole a heavy appearance, now with this added feature blends fairly well with the neighbouring scenery. An extensive churchyard surrounds the edifice, dating from very ancient times, and contains a great number of monuments one of these, to the memory of advocate Jamieson, son of the Scottish lexicographer, is adorned with sculpture, representing the advocate as protecting the innocent and bringing the oppressor to justice; and another, by Handyside Ritchie, on the basement of the steeple, is commemorative of Dr Dickson, a highly esteemed and popular minister of St Cuthbert's, and represents him as the consoler of the widow and orphan. De Quincey, Dr Combe, the physiologist, and many other eminent persons have been interred in this church yard. (See George Seton's Convent of Saint Catherine of Sienna, near Edinburgh, Edinb. 1871.)

The modern thoroughfares off the line of Netherbow, High Street, and Lawnmarket are of various dates and character; and they were rendered necessary as the city extended further northward and southward. Of these, George IV. Bridge extending southward and the approach westward were formed in the years 1825-36, under the authority of a special act of parliament, at a cost of about £400, 000. North Bridge, South Bridge, Bank Street, and Cockburn Street were constructed and completed respectively in 1772, 1788, 1798, and 1859. St Mary Street, Blackfriars Street, and Jeffrey Street, on the line of Netherbow and High Street, arose out of the Improvement Scheme of 1867, authorised by parliament, on an estimate that it would cost £300, 000 for the mere acquisition of old property and the laying out of new streets, and require upwards of thirty years for completion. This last scheme originally provided for the opening of new diagonal streets across the wynds and closes flanking the main thoroughfares, the widening of several closes to the breadth of airy streets, the opening of broad passages through archways to the new diagonal streets, the removal of wooden fronts from the older houses, and the forming of open paved courts in the denser and more ruinous portions of the closely built areas flanking the main thorough fares aiming thus at two main objects, first, the amelioration of the evils arising from overcrowding and defective ventilation; and, secondly, increased facilities for business traffic. The plan was subsequently much modified; and one of the earliest operations connected with its execution was the clearing away of a number of unsightly houses, and the opening of a spacious and handsome thoroughfare past the N side of the College, now forming Chambers Street. So rapid was the progress of the work under the new scheme, that in the course of a few years a very material improvement was shown in the neighbourhood of Netherbow and High Street. St Mary Street, already referred to as forming originally part of an ancient line of communication to the S, was another of the improvements following upon the scheme of 1867. It retains, on the W side, the buildings of the old St Mary's Wynd, somewhat altered and re faced; but on the E side it is lined with new and neat buildings in the old Scotch domestic style. Blackfriars Street, running parallel to St Mary Street, about 150 yards to the W, was formed, in the same connection, by the widening of Blackfriars Wynd and the entire re building of its E side, and it now presents a similar appearance to St Mary Street. Jeffrey Street, commencing in a line with St Mary Street northward, was begun early in 1872, and so far finished about 1876. The formation of this street occasioned the removal of many old and filthy tenements at the head of the old Leith Wynd; it follows for a short distance the line of that wynd, and then bends round behind what is known as Ashley Buildings, and runs westward to the S basement of North Bridge, opening up in its way the lower ends of several old courts and dense closes. Its average slope is about 1 in 56 feet, but the ground it passes over as it turns off from Leith Wynd is so irregular that a viaduct of ten arches had to be thrown across. This street is being built generally on its southern side in the Scottish domestic style, the northern side being necessarily left unbuilt.

The Bridges.—When the erection of the New Town was resolved upon, the opening up or construction of some easier means of communication than then existed, became imperatively necessary. Accordingly in 1763 the valley containing the Nor' Loch was drained, and on the 21 Oct. of the same year the foundation stone of the new bridge was laid. The work, however, was not begun till two years after, when through miscalculations of the builder a considerable portion of the in completed structure gave way in Aug. 1769, causing loss of life and other damage. This mishap being repaired, the bridge was securely completed in 1772 at a cost of about £18, 000. It consists of three great semi- circular arches of 72 feet span each, two flanking arches of 20 feet span, and several smaller ones concealed at each end. The breadth of the piers is 13½ feet each, and the height from the base of the great arches to the parapet 68 feet, the breadth within wall originally 40 feet over all the main part, widening to 50 feet at the ends; the length of the open section being 310 feet, whilst that of the entire thoroughfare from Princes Street to High Street is 1125 feet. In 1876 this thoroughfare, owing to the greatly increased traffic, was widened to 57 feet, this being effected by side footpaths over massive iron brackets and box girders, which, though they detract from the outward appearance, have greatly contributed to the widening of the roadway of the bridge. The southern extension of the North Bridge is lined with lofty houses on both sides, some of which, those of the E side, namely, belonged to an ancient close, the Cap and Feather, which the street opened up; while the northern extension is lined on its western side by a symmetrical range of modern houses, which are about twice as high in rear as in front, and are chiefly occupied as places of business. Opposite the New Buildings, as they are called, is the grand ornamental mass of the General Post Office. South Bridge was formed to extend the thoroughfare of North Bridge to the southern districts. It cost, for purchase of property, upwards of£50,000; for its own erection, £15, 000; but the building areas along its sides yielded in return upwards of £80, 000. It comprises 22 arches, all of which, with the exception of one central arch, are concealed by the substructure of the buildings, so that it presents the appearance of an ordinary levelled street. As originally edificed there were, in the lower stories, often two tiers of shops immediately over one another, those in one tier a few steps above, and those in the other twice or thrice as many below the street level. Cockburn Street, opening from the N side of High Street, a little W of North Bridge, was formed under a a special Act in 1853, and designed to facilitate communication between the Old Town and the railway terminus at its foot. It curves somewhat in the shape of the letter S over a total length of about 260 yards; has a pretty steep slope, yet with sufficiently practicable gradients. It is mainly built in the Scottish style of the 16th century, and lays open to view some romantic sections of the dense asses of the architecture of the ancient closes. It is somewhat grandly overhung near its centre on the S side by the lofty rear of the Royal Ex change; and, except for the unsightly gap which its upper end makes in High Street, has added consider ably to the picturesqueness of the great N flank of the Old Town.

Bank Street descends about 60 yards northward from the line of Lawnmarket to the front of the Bank of Scot land; thence it deflects downwards to the W about 130 yards, and terminates in an expanding curve northward by the Mound, over the valley of the Nor' Loch, to Princes Street. It retains, in its upper most section, old buildings which belonged to closes through which it was carried; but where it sweeps westward it forms a terrace which is overhung by, among other structures, the lofty, massive, commanding rear front of James' Court The view from this terrace westward is very striking, particularly towards sunset on a summer evening. George IV. Bridge extends about 360 yards southward on a line with the upper reach of Bank Street. Its erection occasioned the demolition of any picturesque old houses, and exposed to view the rear elevations of the County Hall and the Advocates Library. It is constructed of three splendid open central groined arches, seven concealed minor arches, and a great mass of embankments, and forms a spacious thoroughfare. The houses are substantial structures, those towards the middle of the bridge being of great elevation. It is the site of several public buildings, among others, the county and sheriff courts, and the chambers of the Highland and Agricultural Society.

St Giles Street, a little to the E of the uppermost section of Bank Street and parallel with it, is of recent construction, and affords a ready approach from the New Town to the Parliament House. A long flight of steps from it at the foot of it leads to the Waverley Bridge, and it contains the offices of the Daily Review and the Courant.

The New Western Approach, striking off from the head of Lawnmarket at a sharp angle, and skirting on the SW the Castle rock, has a total length of about 900 yards, and bears successively the names of Johnston Terrace, King's Bridge, and Castle Terrace. It communicates, about 130 yards from the E end, by long flights of steps, with the upper end of Castle Hill, and commands, at points, romantic close views of the Castle rock and surmounting edifices. Johnston Terrace, comprising fully one half of the entire western approach, contains, among other buildings, the barracks of the married soldiers of the Castle garrison, but is mainly an open roadway. King's Bridge occupies a curve across a dell in continuation of the ravine along the S side of the wedge shaped hill of the Old Town; and has, at the middle of the curve, a single arched bridge, subtended by high embankments. Castle Terrace goes from the extremity of the King's Bridge curve north westward to Lothian Road, about 140 yards S of the W end of Princes Street. It was long, like Johnston Terrace, little else than an open roadway, but is now adorned on most of its SW side, by very handsome buildings. The chief of these, erected in 1868 72 with highly ornate features on a kind of geometric plan, is faced, along the other side, by rows of trees and hanging gardens, and is winged, on the SW side, by several new, short, neatly edificed streets. Midway between King's Bridge and Lothian Road stands the United Presbyterian Hall, an account of which is given elsewhere. A new street connected with the Improvement Scheme of 1867, has been cut from the SE end of Castle Terrace, across an intervening dense suburb, by the side of the Cattle Market to Lauriston, and contributes materially both to facility of communication and sanitary improvement. The Cowgate occupies the ravine along the S skirt of the main or wedge shaped hill of the Old Town, and parallel with it. It measures about 2000 feet in length, and is comparatively narrow. Originally an open road, broadly fringed with copsewood, connecting Holyrood with St Cuthbert's or West Church, it began to be built upon, as a patrician quarter, in the time of James III., and was long a choice residence of peers and other men of high rank. It continued up to last century even to be the abode of such distinguished persons as Lord Minto, and it contained mansions of the Bishops of Dunkeld, Cardinal Beaton, the Marquis of Tweeddale, the first Earl of Haddington, Henry Mackenzie (The Man of Feeling), Sir Thomas Hope, and Lord Brougham's father, besides a hall which was twice used for great national conferences. An old pile here, called the Magdalene Chapel, with a battlemented steeple, to the W of George IV. Bridge and conspicuous from it, is famous as the meeting place of the first General Assembly of the Scotch Church, which was convened here in 1578, under the presidency of John Knox. It is now used as premises for the Edinburgh Medical Mission. The Cowgate still retains some relics of its former grandeur; but is now nearly all given over to the poorest of the population; and, as seen from the arches of South Bridge and George IV. Bridge, seems little else than a wilderness of battered walls, ragged roofs, and rickety chimneys. The arch of city improvement has lately swept many of its old buildings away, leaving open spaces or courts. The Horse Wynd, so called as affording an outlet for horses and vehicles, extended S from the middle of the Cowgate, the continuation of it being still represented by the lane between the University and the industrial Museum and the street of Potterrow. It was one of the oldest outlets from the city S, and contained the houses of any of the nobility and gentry, its vicinity being the birthplace of Sir Walter Scott. Immediately E of and parallel to it was the College Wynd.

The Grassmarket, which extends westward almost on a line with the Cowgate, is a spacious rectangle 300 yards in length. It is overhung on the N and NW by the Castle Hill and Castle rock, which is here very precipitous, and on the S is subtended by Heriot's Hospital and grounds; and it still contains not a few of its old picturesque buildings, which belong to the city archi- tecture of the 17th century. It was constituted into a weekly market place for country produce in 1477, and was in 1513 a time when the city had begun to spread itself beyond its original barriers included within an extension wall. It opens westward by two thoroughfares, of which the one in the SW, called the West Port, was the ancient egress from the city on the W, and the scene of the Burke and Hare murders in 1828. Its E end was the place of public execution in the persecuting times of Charles II. and James VII., and the scene of the execution of Capt. Porteous by the mob in 1736. The socket of the public gallows was discovered here at some depth beneath the street in 1869, and a St Andrew's cross marks the spot. The Grass market was, before the times of the railway, the centre of the carrier traffic to and from all parts of the country. On the S side stands a spacious Corn Exchange. The Candlemaker Row, which branches off S from where the Grassmarket joins the Cowgate, and runs between Greyfriars Churchyard and George IV. Bridge, is a thoroughfare which was opened up for traffic with the S by Bristo Port at the head of it, and as such, pretty much superseded the original outlet in that direction by the Horse Wynd and Potterrow. The place is, as also an old hospital that once stood on the site of Chambers Street close by, familiar to all readers of Dr John Brown's Rab and his Friends, though it is much changed from those days. The West Bow, already referred to, wound upwards from the SE corner of the Grassmarket to the head of the Lawnmarket, and the course it took is indicated in a way by means of a flight of stairs. This quaint old street has been all but abolished to make way for Victoria Street, which curves up eastward in a pretty steep gradient to George IV. Bridge, and contains near its top some modern buildings on a foundation far below its own level, one of these o the S side being a massive pile in the old Scottish Baronial style, erected in 1867 68, and called India Buildings. Chambers Street, between George IV. Bridge and South Bridge, is a new thoroughfare formed chiefly in 1872 76, under the Improvement Act of 1867, and so called in honour of Sir William Chambers, then provost of the city, the chief promoter of the scheme. It extends 310 yards in length, and has a general width of 80 feet. The construction of this street made away with Adam Square at the E end, Argyle Square near the centre, and Brown Square at the W end, of North College Street, as well as Horse and College Wynds which opened up here from the Cowgate. The two latter squares were a fashionable quarter of the city before the erection of the New Town, and they were originally approached from the W by an archway or pend, which pierced one of the tenements of Candlemaker Row. Here stood, on the S side, the mansion of the Earls of Minto, after wards a surgical hospital, and here, on the site of the Industrial Museum, the Trades' Maiden Hospital and one of the Independent Chapels erected by the Haldanes at the close of last century. It is now flanked on the one side by the University and the Industrial Museum, and on the S by a Free church, a Normal School, the Minto House Surgical School, the School of Arts, and several other buildings.

Infirmary Street, which extends eastward from Chambers Street, contains the old Infirmary and Surgery Hospitals as well as two churches. It occupies an area of 270 yards by 120, and is famous for having been in ancient times the site of Blackfriars Monastery, and of the original High School, in an area at the foot of it called High School Yards. All this region is fated to undergo some day soon sweeping changes.

Nicolson Street and Clerk Street continue the great thoroughfare of North Bridge and South Bridge, about 1080 yards southward, from the front of the College to the commencement of Newington. Nicolson Street was constructed toward the end of last century, along an open tract of ground belonging to Lady Nicolson, whose mansion stood on a spot near the eastern extremity of South College Street. It extends about 445 yards to an intersection by Crosscauseway; is mainly edificed in the plainest Italian style; and contains what was the mansion of the eminent chemist, Joseph Black, M. D., author of the theory of latent heat, and now belongs to the blind asylum. Nicolson Square, on the W side of the street, about 165 yards S of the College, was intended to be an aristocratic quarter, but it failed to compete with any of the New Town Squares; it contains a house long occupied by the sixth Earl of Leven, for any years Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly. Nicolson Square has been greatly improved by the opening of Marshall Street through its western side, and thence to Bristo Street, leading right down into George Square through Charles Street. Marshall Street contains a large board school, a U.P. church, and a Baptist chapel. The garden in the centre of Nicolson Square, though neat enough in itself, has a bald appearance from the want of some striking central feature. West Nicolson Street, a plain short thoroughfare, striking westward from Nicolson Street, about 130 yards S of Nicolson Square, was the residence of the painter Runciman, probably at the time he received visits from the poet Fergusson; and the residence also, in his early days, of the distinguished painter, David Wilkie, afterwards Sir David. Numerous streets lie eastward of Nicolson Street, to distances of from 300 to 500 yards, and include many intersections and one or two s all squares; but all are plain, some are dingy, and none possess any particular interest. Clerk Street is mainly of similar character to Nicolson Street, but its environs are less crowded, and its extensions consist of houses for most part of a better class and of a more modern type. Clerk Street forms the main thoroughfare to the suburb of Newington, which is being gradually extended from the SE, by Echo Bank, Craigmillar, Powburn, Blackford Hill, and Grange Loan to Morningside, which again joins on to Merchiston, and thence round to Dalry. The new portions of Newington suburb, as well as the lands S of the Meadows and those of Warrender Park, are being filled up mainly by elegant villas, and streets and crescents, displaying great symmetry and good taste, intersected by wide open roadways.

Potterrow, which runs parallel on the W to Nicolson Street, is, as already said, a continuation of the Old Horse Wynd, and commences at the W end of South College Street. It has a length of about 290 yards, but the street is narrow and squalid looking, though, like other parts, it has seen better days, having been an aristocratic quarter, and containing, so late as 1716, the residence of the Earl of Morton. Marshall Street, which now cuts it at right angles, is, in its western section, the site of Middleton's Entry, where the flaxen haired. 'Chloris' of the poet Burns lived, and of General's Entry, where Viscount Stair and General Monk resided; and in its eastern section the site of a court, part of which still stands, called Alison Square, where Campbell wrote his Pleasures of Hope, and Burns visited his Clarinda. Charles Street, which leads into George Square, W of Marshall Street, is where Lord Jeffrey was born, and whence, by way of Middleton's Entry belike, he might be seen in schoolboy days moving every morning with his satchel for the High School Yards. George Square, commencing on a line with Charles Street, extends about 220 yards westward, and is of nearly equal length and breadth. It was formed in 1766, in competition with the scheme then afloat to extend a new town on the N, and was, for many years, a highly aristocratic quarter, numbering among its residents the Duchess of Gordon, the Countess of Sutherland, the Countess of Glasgow, Viscount Duncan, Lord President Blair, Henry Erskine, and the father of Sir Walter Scott, who lived in No. 25. It is a spacious square, surrounding a well kept enclosure of lawn and shrubbery, and has maintained much of its old air as a place of residence, presenting a striking contrast to some of the confined, dingy, disagreeable quarters a little way to the E of it. Buccleuch Place, to the S of George Square, was built at the same time, and contains tall tenements, one in the centre No. 15, now divided into flats, as they are called, having been used for balls and assemblies, and a flat in No. 18 having witnessed, in Jeffrey's quarters, the hatching of the Edinburgh Review.

The Waverley Bridge, which extends across what was the E end of the Nor' Loch, from the foot of Cockburn Street to Princes Street, was erected in connection with the North British railway, to the station of which there slopes down from it a broad approach. It traverses the space originally occupied by what was called the Little Mound. At the N end of the Waverley Bridge, and ex tending between Princes Street and the station, is the Waverley Market, a large open area roofed in for the sale of garden produce. The roof is on a level with Princes Street, and is laid out with flowers, offering a convenient lounge aside from the street traffic. This area is let for musical promenades, and was this year the scene of the great fisheries exhibition. Mr Glad stone held one of his great meetings here in 1880, during the political campaign which led to the fall of Lord Beaconsfield's administration. The Mound, which crosses the valley of what was the Nor' Loch, 280 yards W of the Waverley Bridge, was gradually formed by deposits of earth and rubbish dug out for the foundations of the houses of the New Town from 1781 to 1830, being preceded by a slight pathway for foot passengers called ` Geordie Boyd's Brig, ' which consisted chiefly of a succession of steps or stepping stones across the as yet half drained loch. It is computed to contain two million cart loads of earth rubbish, to deposit which would cost about £50, 000 at the rate of only sixpence a load, and it measures 800 feet from where it begins in Bank Street to where it joins Princes Street. For long its main area was left open and let for temporary wooden erections, mostly of an ungainly character, a pavemented footpath and carriage way running down its E side. After the erection of the Art Galleries behind the Royal Institution at the foot, these structures were removed, a broad stairway took the place of the original footpath, and a carriage road with pavements swept down by the W. It is pierced by a tunnel and flanked by gardens, where everything is done that the gardener's art can do to make up for the egregious blunder of draining the valley.

The New Town may be regarded as divisible into four sections, a southern, a northern, an eastern, and a western. The southern section is the original New Town, and was begun to be built in 1767 and completed about 1800, chiefly after a plan by Mr James Craig, a nephew of Thomson the poet. It runs parallel in its main direction with the High Street, and terminates westward opposite the W extremity of the Castle. It is 1300 yards in length, and 365 in breadth, and occupies the W of the broad based eminence immediately to the N of the Loch valley. A long broad street terminated by two spacious squares runs along the ridge, and parallel with it two terraced ones looking respectively N and S, with narrow parallel streets between, and others of good width at right angles, the whole being in outline a regular parallelogram, and in mass compared by Prof. Frank of Wilna ` to a regiment of soldiers divided into companies, and standing three deep. ' All this section was originally edificed on a regular plan with houses rising from a sunk enclosed area to a height of three stories, but by alterations, renovations, and reconstructions, especially in the southern and central portions, it has gradually come to assume a great diversity of appearance.

Princes Street, which extends along the S side of the parallelogram, and looks up over the gardens to the tall piles of the romantic Old Town, occupies the line of an old country road called the Lang Gaitt (way), and afterwards, when fenced in by stone walls, the Langdykes. It has of late years undergone so many renovations that it has lost nearly all its originally stiff character, and presents now a rich and diversified array of ornate architecture. It has recently been widened, moreover, as a thoroughfare, a broad handsome pavement for the pedestrian being added on to its S side along its entire length. It is the principal street and most fashionable promenade of the city, and, if we regard it at once in itself and its surroundings, is perhaps the finest street of any city of the world. It presents, on the one hand, an array from end to end of handsome shops, hotels, clubs, and public offices, and on the other avenued walks, interspersed with monuments, of which that to Scott is the chief. The view from the W looking E is particularly striking; the bold Castle rock towers sheer up on the right, the Old Town slopes grandly down E of it till lost to sight, the Calton Hill bounds the view as you look straight onward, while the whole with its garden enclosures between is guarded beyond by the blue veiled heights of Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat. The first glimpse of the city from the W, when everything is in full bloom, is a sight never to be forgotten by any stranger; the native eye is too accustomed to it to enjoy the full spell of its glory. St Andrew Square, at the E end of George Street, which runs along the ridge behind Princes Street, was built in 1772 78. It measures about 170 yards each way, and was, when first built, the most aristocratic quarter of the city. It is now surrounded by banks, and insurance and other public offices, and contains a spacious enclosure with a monument in the centre to Viscount Melville, which, as seen from a distance, tower ing above the other buildings, forms a conspicuous feature of the city. No. 21 on the N side of this square was the birthplace of Henry Lord Brougham, and the house which stands at the corner of South St David Street was the one in which David Hume lived latterly, and where he died. George Street extends westward nearly ¾ mile, and is 115 feet wide. It was built at first throughout on one uniform plan, but this has been broken in upon of late years, to the improvement of the general aspect, by the erection of banks and public offices, and the decoration of fronts. The Commercial and Union Banks, the Assembly Rooms, with the Music Hall and Freemasons' Hall, are on the S side of the street, and at three of the intersections are monuments to George IV., William Pitt, and Thomas Chalmers, the Melville Monument being at its eastern extremity, and the Prince Consort Memorial at its western in Charlotte Square, under the dome of St George's Church. No. 92 was for seventeen years the abode of Lord Jeffrey, and for four years of Lord Cockburn; No. 108 that of Sir Walter Scott in 1797; and No. 133 that of Sir Henry Rae burn. Charlotte Square, of similar extent to St Andrew Square, was constructed in 1800 after designs by Robert Adam, and displays an array of elegant and symmetrical façades overlooking a well kept enclosure with the Memorial just referred to in the centre.

Queen Street, the northern terrace thoroughfare of the southern New Town, was originally built in the same style as Princes Street and George Street, and has undergone less change than either of these. It contains at No. 62 the abode of Lord Jeffrey from 1802 till 1810, at No. 52 that of Professor Sir James Simpson; is sub tended on the N, over the greater part of its length, by pleasant gardens, well sheltered all round by trees, and 120 yards broad; and it commands superb views, over these gardens and the northern New Town, of the expanse of the Forth and the hills beyond. The streets of the southern New Town, which run from S to N, bear the names, as you go W, of St Andrew, St David, Hanover, Frederick, Castle, Charlotte, and Hope Streets. Built originally in the same style as the main streets, they have lately undergone considerable changes, particularly those in the E. Castle Street is notable for containing, at No. 39, the house which was inhabited by Sir Walter Scott from 1800 till 1826, and afterwards by Macvey Napier.

The northern New Town declines N on a slope immediately N of Queen Street Gardens, and was built between the years 1803 and 1822. It resembles the southern New Town in general outline and in arrangement of thoroughfares, but has some graceful peculiarities and considerable superiority of architecture. It extends from E to W, parallel to the southern New Town, in the form of a parallelogram; and is disposed in two lateral terraces, a spacious middle street, two intermediate parallel streets, two terminal spacious areas, and several intersecting streets. The parallelogram which it forms is shorter and broader than that of the southern New Town; the eastern parts of its terraces are in the form of crescents, its eastern terminal area partly crescents, its western terminal area a compound of polygon and circus, and its lines of edifices in great ranges of massive symmetrical façade. It still retains nearly all its original arrangement and features. Abercromby Place, the eastern part of the southern terrace, is a fine crescent about 300 yards long; and Heriot Row, the western part of that terrace, contains at No. 6 the house in which Henry Mackenzie (The Man of Feeling) spent the last years of his life. Drummond Place, the eastern terminal area, was formed around a mansion of General Scott, built about the middle of last century, and converted at length into the headquarters of the Board of Customs for Scotland. These offices were re moved to Waterloo Place in 1845, and the house taken down in consequence of operations underneath for the construction of a railway tunnel. Great King Street, the central thoroughfare from E to W, is so spacious as to look almost like a rectangle; is edificed with ornate symmetrical ranges of façade, those on the one side corresponding to those on the other; and contains the houses of Sir William Allan, the distinguished painter, and Sir William Hamilton, the great Scotch metaphysician. The Royal Circus, the western terminal area, stands on a westward slope, across the main thoroughfare from the city to Stockbridge suburb. It occupies, at one point, the site of a curious ancient grave, discovered at the digging of the foundations in 1822, and overlooks an ancient village, part of which is still extant, called Silvermills, 270 yards to the NE. The Royal Crescent, forming the eastern part of the northern terrace, measures about 200 yards in length; continues to be but partially edificed; and overlooks a spacious hollow area, mainly occupied by workshops, and by the ponds and apparatus of the Royal Patent Gymnasium.

Stockbridge.—Beyond the hollow area the northern New Town passes into connection with the former village of Stockbridge, which, with the neighbouring Silvermills and Canonmills, is all now within the parliamentary bounds, lying principally along both sides of the Water of Leith from Dean to Warriston. Originally an unimportant locality, except for the flour mills in its neighbourhood, Stockbridge can now boast of many beautiful streets, terraces, and crescents, and such structures, in and around, as Fettes College, Craigleith Poorhouse, the Deaf and Dumb Institution, the Edinburgh Academy, Tanfield Hall, a Board School, Heriot Free School, etc., which are all noticed else where. Three neat bridges span what is now not so much a river as a river bed, most of the water being carried away by the ` lead, ' or dam, which supplies the motive power for the mills on its banks from the villages above down to Bonnington. The river is thus always a paltry stream, except in heavy floods, and was long little better than a large open sewer, till this was remedied some years ago by a system of sewerage carried down beneath the river bed all the way to Leith. A fourth bridge farther down the stream crosses it in connection with the roadway which leads from Canonmills to Warriston Crescent, Inverleith Row, and Newhaven. From the upper bridge the stream is seen over arched by woods on both sides above, the view being closed in by the Dean Bridge and the high houses of Moray Place and Randolph Cliff. The middle bridge of the upper three leads by Raeburn Place, where Sir Henry lived (1756 1823), and by Comely Bank, a beautifully situated row of houses with flower plots in front and southern exposure, in No. 21 of which Thomas Carlyle resided, to Fettes College and to Craigleith, at the latter of which there is a freestone quarry, one of the most valuable and extensive in Scotland. A fine public park and recreation ground occupies a gradually rising slope between Comely Bank and the Dean. St Bernard's Crescent, with houses in good architectural style, the central area of the crescent being occupied by a fine row of old trees, Danube Street, Carlton Street, Upper and Lower Dean Terrace, and Ann Street, bring the old village into close connection westward with the new modern extension of the city beyond Dean Bridge, which is noticed further on.

The eastern New Town presents a great diversity of character. It absorbed great part of the ancient small burghs of Calton and Broughton, and the villages of Moutrie and Picardy, and spreads over the eastern slopes of the long broad based hill which supports the southern and northern New Towns, across the gorge running north eastward from the line of St Mary Street, around Calton Hill, and is in immediate contiguity with the southern and the northern New Towns. St James Square, on the tabular crown of the hill adjacent to the E end of the southern New Town, occupies the site of the ancient village and mansion of Moutrie, the scene of some tragical events in the civil war of 1572. It was built prior to St Andrew Square, on a private plan, with houses much plainer than those of any of the squares or crescents to the W. Its piles soar aloft above their surroundings in romantic masses, which, in some views from the NE, appear almost as striking as the structures on the Castle rock; and it contains, at No. 30, the rooms in which the poet Burns spent the winter of 1787 88, and where he wrote his letters to ` Clarinda. ' Leith Street, deflecting from the E end of Princes Street, slopes about 130 yards to the NE, and forms part of the main line of communication between Edinburgh and Leith. It is entirely a business thorough fare, crowded with traffic, inconveniently narrow, and disagreeably steep, and possesses, on its NW side, what is called a terrace, a one storied row of shops projecting from a line of upper stories, with a broad pathway along the sum it of the row. At the foot of Leith Street, on the right, a road emerges from what is called the Low Calton, spanned by the arch of Regent Bridge, 50 feet wide, and about 50 feet high. It was anciently the line of either a Caledonian road or a Roman road, or first one and then the other, from the southern parts of Scot land to the Firth of Forth; and it was a main outlet from the eastern parts of the old city to the N prior to the construction of the North Bridge. Greenside Street, or Greenside Place, prolonged about 290 yards further NE than the termination of Catherine Street, at the top of this road, takes its name from an extensive rapid slope in its rear, down to the skirts of Calton Hill, which is now all covered with lanes and factories; and has several narrow openings leading down to the lanes. This slope, which, till near the end of last century, was clothed with grass, and literally a ` green side, ' served, from the time of James II., as an arena for tournaments, wapenshaws, athletic sports, and dramatic exhibitions. Even then its sides were arranged in successive ascents, Some what like the tiers of an amphitheatre, and the spot was used also as a place of capital punishment of those convicted of heresy and witchcraft. Shakespeare Square stood on the E side of North Bridge, at the eastern extremity of Princes Street. It was erected about the same time as the North Bridge, and formed three sides of a small quadrangle, edificed on the E and N. It contained, with frontage to the N, the Theatre Royal, and was demolished partly about 1816 at the formation of Waterloo Place, and mainly about 1862 at the construction of the new General Post Office, which occupies the greater part of its site.

Waterloo Place, striking eastward on a line with Princes Street, was planned in 1815, and opened in 1819. Its construction occasioned the demolition of part of the ancient burgh of Calton, the removal of part of Calton burying ground, and the excavation of about 100, 000 cubic yards of rock. It extends about 230 yards east ward, to a shoulder of Calton Hill; crosses the ravine of Low Calton by Regent Bridge, surmounted by colonnades; and is mainly edificed with substantial, lofty, symmetrical houses, showing Corinthian pilasters and other Grecian decorations; but toward the eastern end has frontage only of lofty retaining wall. Regent Road commences on a line with Waterloo Place, makes curves east south eastward and east north east ward, and then proceeds entirely in the latter direction. It has a total length of about 1050 yards, being all formed in the way of terrace along the declivity of Calton Hill; the Prison is on its S side adjacent to Waterloo Place, and the High School on its N side a little further E, the monument to Burns and the New Calton burying ground being farther on the right. It commands, from its eastern reaches, picturesque views over Canongate and Holyrood, and forms, while it leads to the new and rapidly increasing suburb of Norton Park, the main carriage communication to Portobello, Musselburgh, and other places in the E. Jacob's Ladder strikes off from Regent Road, opposite the High School, and descends a steep declivity to North Back of Canongate, serving as a short cut to pedestrians. It comprises two mutually converging and then diverging lines of descent, the latter mostly by flights of steps; and commands from its summit, but still better from points a little way down, very striking views of the buildings and the flanks of the E extremity of the valley of the Nor' Loch. Regent Terrace, Carlton Terrace, and Royal Terrace, the first turning off from the N side of Regent Road immediately E of the High School, sweep in a prolonged terrace line round the slope of Calton Hill to an aggregate length of about 1200 yards. They consist of ranges of elegant self contained houses, those of Royal Terrace being adorned with Grecian colonnades, and they command, all round, very picturesque views, commencing with Canongate, Salisbury Crags, and Holyrood on the S, and ending with the waters of the Firth of Forth and hills of Fife on the N.

Blenheim Place, at the extremity of Royal Terrace on the N, affords a good instance of the remarkable in equality between the front and the rear heights of many of the edifices in Edinburgh, its houses rising only one story above the pavement level in front, but rising four stories in the rear. London Road, which, striking at an acute angle from the lower end of Blenheim Place, goes eastward, and is joined at a point about 960 yards from its commencement by the thoroughfare from Regent Road, skirts all the N base of Calton Hill along the margin of a slightly inclined plain descending northward to Leith, and which is now occupied by a number of new streets. It is edificed over about 200 yards of the N side of its W end by the hand some houses of Leopold Place, with openings into the elegant but unfinished lines of Windsor Street and Hill side Crescent, and is becoming a main approach to a rising suburb to the E of the city. It was the latest outlet from the city to London, and in ail coach times, before the railways were constructed, a place of busy traffic.

Leith Walk, deflecting from the lower end of Catherine Street, runs north north-eastward to South Leith, measuring about 5 furlongs in length to the burgh boundary at Pilrig Street, and nearly the same thence onward to Leith. It was originally an unformed track across an open plain, which was turned into a line of defensive earthwork, with trench and parapet, in 1650, by General Leslie, to oppose the approach of Cromwell, and was transmuted, after the Restoration, into a level foot way, 20 feet broad, in which capacity it assumed the name of Leith Walk. At the opening of the North Bridge in 1772, it was converted into a carriage way, and at a later period formed part of a contemplated ex tension of the city northward, from London Road to Leith, which collapsed with the general building schemes for the New Town about the year 1820. The consequence was, that it was only partially, fitfully, and irregularly edificed, and, till about 1867, had little more than single lines of houses. It bears, in sections of its upper parts, the separate names of Greenside Place, Baxter's Place, Elm Row, Union Place, Antigua Street, Gayfield Place, and Haddington Place, where it is of very great width; and, from end to end, is an airy thoroughfare, and a busy line of traffic between Edinburgh and Leith. Gayfield Square, off the W side of Leith Walk, about 380 yards from its head, is a small plain quadrangle, with an enclosed pleasure ground, and contains a house in which Lord Provost Mackenzie, in 1819, entertained Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, afterwards King of the Belgians. A sand hill of small height, but conspicuous in the midst of the circumjacent plain, stood on the W side of Leith Walk, 440 yards NNE of the site of Gayfield Square, which, under the name of Gallowlee, was the site of a permanent gallows, where the bodies of criminals used after their execution to hang for a longer or shorter period exposed in chains. This hill was removed piecemeal to form mortar for the building of the New Town, and gave place to a hollow, now partly traversed by the northward line of the North British railway and partly by new streets. A tract on the same side of the Walk, above the Gallowlee, was the site of the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens for many years prior to 1824. The gardens stood, before they were transferred to Leith Walk, in the hollow behind Shakespeare Square, now occupied by the North British railway, and were known as the Physic Gardens.

Broughton Street, striking northward from the head of Leith Walk, descends, with varying slope, to the northern extremity of what was the burgh of Broughton, and is a tolerably well built business thoroughfare. York Place, striking from Broughton Street at right angles about 80 yards N of the head of Leith Walk, goes westward into line with Queen Street. It measures about 340 yards in length, and is a very spacious and well built street. It contains houses which were in habited by Sir Henry Raeburn, Francis Horner, Dr John Abercromby, Dr George Combe, and other distinguished persons. Picardy Place, eastward in extension of York Place, was the site of the village of Picardy, built by French refugees from the province of Picardy, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and contains the house in which the famous wit, John Clerk, Lord Eldin, lived and died. There are several streets to the N, running parallel with York Place, with ore or less handsomely built houses, occupied by well to do people, but these, except in one or two of their edifices to be noticed afterwards, do not call for any special account.

The western section of the New Town is contiguous to the southern and the northern sections. It is separated by the Water of Leith from recent large, elegant extensions, between Stockbridge and the Dean, and spreads south westward, from the SW corner of the southern section of the New Town, to an extent of about 1000 yards by 600. It approaches, on the S and the SW, Fountainbridge and Dalry, and, with comparatively small exception, consists entirely of regular, airy, elegant places, crescents, and streets. Moray Place, which is entered from the line of Heriot Row by Darnaway Street, was built in 1822 and following years. It forms a duodecagon, or twelve sided area, about 220 yards in diameter, and exhibits uniform symmetrical confronting façades, adorned at regular intervals with massive attached Doric columns. It contains, at No. 24, the house which was the last town residence of Lord Jeffrey, and has a central, ornate, enclosed pleasure ground. Doune Terrace and Gloucester Place, on a curving descent from the N side of Moray Place, are charming short thoroughfares, and the latter contains the house which was occupied by John Wilson, and where he died. Great Stuart Street, open ing from the WSW side of Moray Place, extends about 270 yards to the WSW; expands, in its central part, into the double crescent of Ainslie Place, with enclosed ornamental shrubbery; and is all regularly and very elegantly edificed. Randolph Crescent is entered at the west south western extremity of Great Stuart Street, forms a semicircle on a chord of about 140 yards, is all beautifully edificed, and has an enclosed shrubbery, with a curious group of old trees. These thoroughfares, from Moray Place to Randolph Crescent, stand on what was a finely wooded tract, which belonged to the Earl of Moray, and bore the name of Moray Park. They were all constructed on a plan by Gillespie Graham, and are regarded by some critics as the beau ideal of a fashionable city quarter; by others as ` beautifully monotonous and magnificently dull. ' They command, from as many of their windows as face the W, very splendid extensive views; are subtended, on that side, by gardens and shrubberies on a steep declivity which slopes down to the bank of the Water of Leith. Some think that they should have been built in terraces and crescents with frontages toward the distant vie w. Queensferry Street, striking at an acute angle from the western extremity of Princes Street, runs about 250 yards north westward to the chord of Randolph Crescent, and is mainly a business thoroughfare. Randolph Cliff lines the NE side of the thoroughfare from Randolph Crescent to Dean Bridge, and directly surmounts the rocky steeps of the Water of Leith ravine. Lynedoch Place strikes at an acute angle from the north western extremity of Queensferry Street, extends about 220 yards to the WNW, and is a well edificed terrace.

Dean.—The new extension from the north western section of the New Town lies across Dean Bridge, and comprises a number of streets, crescents, and terraces of a highly ornate character, built upon the slopes declining E to Stockbridge, and on the high grounds overlooking on the W the ancient villages of Dean and Water of Leith. The Dean receives its name from a little, old fashioned, con fused looking village, lying sequestered in a deep ravine on the banks of the Water of Leith, westward from Dean Bridge, from the S end of which it is reached by a rapid slope. This village existed in the time of David I., as is plain, from mills belonging to it being among the grants conveyed in his charter to Holyrood Abbey, and it still contains some old cottages of the 17th century, as well as old flour mills and other buildings, on the left side; those on the opposite bank of the stream, across a very old single arched bridge, and on the steep rising road lead ing to Dean Cemetery and Queensferry Road, being mixed up with others of a more modern date. This road formed the old route westward to Queensferry till the building of Dean Bridge. The village spreads stragglingly upwards from the hollow into connection with the elegant crescents and streets of the new extension, to which, however, this bridge is the direct approach. The cemetery of Dean was formed, in 1845, on the site and grounds of Dean House, a curious old mansion built in 1614, and long the family residence of the Nisbets of Dean, and afterwards of John Learmonth, Esq., the gentle an who built Dean Bridge. The cemetery is very tastefully laid out, still retains many of the old trees, and has terraced walks on the slopes leading down to the river, a considerable extension to the grounds being made in 1871 72, and measuring 1000 feet by 80. It has within it many beautiful monuments, and a number of distinguished people have found their last resting place here, among who may be mentioned Sir William Allan, David Scott, W. H. Playfair, Alexander Russell, Professors Forbes, Wilson, and Aytoun, Lords Jeffrey, Cockburn, and Rutherford, and many local celebrities. In 1881 a beautiful memorial cross was erected here to the memory of Lieut. Irving, one of the officers of H. M. ship Terror, lost in the Franklin expedition in search of the North West Passage, which left this country in 1845. North of Dean Bridge is Trinity Episcopal Church, built in 1839, after designs by John Henderson. It is an elegant building in the Gothic style, with nave and aisles, and a square tower, and has also a small cemetery of its own. Still further westward is Dean Established Church, built in 1836, a plain cruciform edifice with a belfry. Dean Free Church, at the S end of the bridge, is a very plain building. The Orphan Hospital, Stewart's and John Watson's Hospitals, are near at hand. Dean is now a quoad sacra parish in the presbytery of Edinburgh, but was formerly a chapel of ease. The Edinburgh School Board has a fine school at Dean, built at a cost of more than £6000, having accommodation for 450 scholars, and with spacious playgrounds.

Dean Bridge,crossing from the end of Randolph Cliff and Lynedoch Place, over the Water of Leith, to the new extension of Dean, is a very handsome structure. It was built in 1832 after designs by Telford, has four arches each 96 feet in span, measures 447 feet in length and 39 in breadth between parapets, and rises to the height of 106 feet above the rocky bed of the stream below. The footpaths on each side are on arches of greater radius than those of the roadway, and have the appearance of being merely attached to the main building. The bridge commands very extensive views N and NE down the Water of Leith and far over the Firth of Forth to the hills of Fife. In the valley below the bridge, and close to the footpath leading from Water of Leith village to Stockbridge, is an open circular mimic temple, with a statue of Hygeia under its vault, built by Lord Gardenstone in 1790 over St Bernard's mineral well, the water of which is sulphureous, of a similar nature to the waters of Moffat and Harrogate Wells. From the river bed at this point there extend rapidly rising slopes on both sides, which have been beautifully terraced and laid out with walks, lawns, and shrubberies.

A parallelogram of streets and places extends south westward from the flank of Queensferry Street and the extremity of Princes Street. It measures about 480 yards by 380; consists chiefly of Chester Street, Melville Street, Alva Street, Maitland Street, and Athole Place in direction from NE to S W, and of Stafford Street, Walker Street, and Manor Place in direction from NW to SE. It was built mainly about the same time as the Moray Place group, but good part of it about 1863 69, and is nearly all an aristocratic quarter, in some parts less elegant than the Moray Place district, but in others ore so. It includes, in the line of Maitland Street, a beautiful expansion in the form of two confronting crescents Coates Crescent and Athole Crescent, with enclosed shrubberies, and a row of stately trees. This being at one time the approach by road from Glasgow and other places in the W of Scotland, it was here many a stranger received, not it might be without some sensation of surprise, his first impressions of the architecture of Edinburgh. Melville Street, running parallel to Maitland Street, about 200 yards to the NW, contains houses which were occupied by Dr Andrew Thomson of St George's Church, Dr David Welsh, the historian Tytler, and Dr Candlish; and Manor Place, crossing the SW end of Melville Street. contains, on its NE side, a house which was occupied by the distinguished authoress, Mrs Grant of Laggan. Rutland Square, a small, neat, aristocratic quadrangle, lies a little SE of Maitland Street; and Rutland Street, also neatly built, and originally akin to the Square, leads from it to a convergence of thoroughfares at Princes Street, but was partly demolished in 1869 by clearances for the Caledonian station. An area, partly SW and partly NW of the parallelogram terminating in Manor Place, was laid out in years subsequent to 1864 for a western extension of the city, and is now being extensively covered with elegant houses. The chief places in it are West Chester Street, Palmerston Place, Lansdowne Crescent, Grosvenor Crescent, Grosvenor Place, Coates Gardens, Magdala Crescent, Belgrave Crescent, Elgin Street, Burns Terrace, Buccleuch Crescent, Douglas Crescent, and Argyle Crescent. Most are in styles of elegance vying with one another and with the best of the earlier portions of the New Town; and it is proposed, for easy communication with the left bank of the Water of Leith, to erect a new bridge from the N end of Magdala Crescent to a point in Bells Mills road opposite the Orphan Hospital. Another extension arose contemporaneously with this, which nearly adjoins it on the SW, extending southerly to the Merchiston district. It includes crescents, places, and streets, called Caledonian Crescent, Road, and Place, Orwell Terrace, West End Place, etc., reaching out as far W as Tynecastle, and consists, in great degree, of working men's houses. A considerable aggregate of streets and places occupies a triangular area between Lothian Road, West Maitland Street, and Dalry, but passes into junction on the S with Fountainbridge, and these are not of a character to challenge detailed notice.

Morningside.—This suburb adjoins the south western extremity of the city, and occupies generally a south ward slope, extending from the breezy Bruntsfield Links to the foot of the Braid and Blackford Hills, on which it looks out. It comprised for long only a main street of various character descending southward, and leading to that point on the ` furzy hills of Braid, ' whence Scott took his well known description of the city, which appears in Marmion. This main road has now a great many branching streets and crescents of fine and ornate character, running eastward to Grange and Newington, and westward by Merchiston to Dalry, the occupants of these having been generally drawn to the district by its mild climate, contesting, as it does, with Inveresk the fame of being the Montpelier of the E of Scotland, and attracting many summer residents and invalids. At the bottom of the slope runs the Jordan Burn, which here skirts the foot of the hills, and fences the lands of ` Canaan ' and Canaan House. Several buildings flank the main street, among these the Lunatic Asylum at the foot westward; Established, Free, U.P., and Episcopalian churches, the Morningside Athenæum, etc., at other points. The Established church, on the E side of the main street, is a handsome building with a spire, erected in 1837 after designs by John Henderson. Originally a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's, it is now a quoad sacra church. The Free church stands a little further N on the W, being erected originally in 1844, but rebuilt and enlarged in 1874 at a cost of ore than £3000. It is mow a neat structure in Early Pointed style with tower and spire 130 feet high. The original U.P. church is a neat edifice built about 1860, but being found too small for the wants of the congregation was sold in 1881, and has been interiorly altered for the Morningside Athenæum; a new and larger edifice of Norman type, with square tower, nave, aisles, and transepts, having been erected on a neighbouring site. The Episcopalian chapel is in the French Gothic of the 13th century; was built mainly in 1876, at a cost of between £10, 000 and £11, 000, from designs by Hippolyte J. Blanc; and has nave, transsepts, chancel, an elegant spire, and vestry. In a road running parallel to the E called Whitehouse Loan is St Margaret's Convent, established in 1835, an educational institution and nunnery of the Ro an Catholics, and having within its grounds a small but handsome chapel designed by Gillespie Graham. The whole district hero was anciently forest land, known as the Boroughmuir, and was the scene of a desperate battle in 1336 between a Scottish army under the Earls of Moray and March and a body of foreign mercenary troops under Count Guy of Namur, who were on their way to reinforce the army of Edward III., then encamped at Perth. A road leading westward past the S wall of the Established church, being hid by higher grounds on the N from the view of any part of Edinburgh, was anciently the route taken by military forces stealthily approaching or retiring from the city, and was that used by Prince Charles Edward's army in 1745 when they made their detour round the city to Arthur's Seat. On a slope just above the Jordan Burn is the site of the ancient chapel of St Roque, and in the wall enclosing the Established church is fixed what is known as the Bore Stane, a large unhewn block of red sandstone, in which the royal standard was planted, by a bore or hollow in it, at the gathering of the Scottish army previous to the disaster of Flodden Field in 1513. About a mile S at the entrance to Mortonhall is another stone, of probably similar intent, sometimes confounded with it, called the Hare (i.e., army) Stane. Churchhill House in Churchhill, was built by Dr Chalmers, and occupied by him in his latter years. The Judge Lord Gardenstone, and Pro fessor James Syme, the eminent surgeon, also lived and died in this district.

On the Colinton road, W from the main line of Morningside a short distance, is the ancient baronial fortalice of Merchiston Castle, dating from the 14th or 15th century, a principal feature in which is a square tower, with a projection on one side. Within the battlement in accordance with an ancient Scottish fashion, a small building with a steep roof rises above the tower. This tower, as in other instances, is adorned with notched gables and flanking turrets, which much enhance the picturesque effect of the building. The castle belonged from ancient times to the Napier family, three members of which were successively lord provosts of the city in the times of James II. and James III., and another the illustrious John Napier, the inventor of logarithms, who was born here in 1550. The castle figured prominently as a fortified place of defence in the ` Douglas Wars ' and the civil strifes of the time of Queen Mary. It still gives the title of Baron Merchiston in the Scottish peerage to the descendants of the ancient family of Napier; but the castle has received several modern additions, and is now used as a private boarding school for young gentlemen.

Architecture.—The styles of building throughout the city have, in some degree, been incidentally indicated already, but they exhibit such great diversities and striking contrasts, that some notice in detail is desirable. The architectures of the New Town and the Old, considered in the aggregate, both in themselves and their groupings, may be characterised as in the one case pedantically symmetrical, and in the other romantically irregular, and exhibit a remarkable contrast. This strikes one everywhere; whether in the E, where the terraces of the New Town on the face of the Calton Hill look down upon the asses of the Old, huddled confusedly together in the cliff screened hollow, or in the middle, where the two towns directly confront each other on a common level with only the Nor' Loch valley lying between; or in the W, where, from the streets and squares and vistas of the New, you look up to the soaring structures of the Old, beetling far aloft in broken sky line, and appearing, in certain states of weather, as if they belonged to a city in the clouds. The contrasts in detail, among parts of the Old Town, and even the New, themselves are numerous and striking. Those in the Old Town, indeed, have been largely diminished by the demolition that has been going on of late for modern street extension, and are to be met with mainly in the oldest thoroughfares or closes.

A few houses of dates prior to the commencement of the 16th century still exist, especially in the Cowgate, Grassmarket, and Pleasance. These contain a substantial ground flat, surmounted by a wooden story reached by an outside stair, and sometimes projecting over the basement flat and resting upon wooden beams, so as to form a sort of piazza underneath, with very high pitched roofs, pierced by storm windows, and originally covered with thatch, but now for the most part slated. Other houses of dates from 1500 till 1677 are still standing, particularly in the closes, entirely timber fronted, in a series of stories, terminating in gables. The successive stories project from one another, so far as sometimes to make them seem more likely to topple over than even the leaning tower of Pisa. These stand sometimes so near one another, front to front, in the closes, that persons at the windows of their upper stories may almost shake hands across the intervening space; and, in some instances, they have an outer or fore stair leading up to a gallery in their second story. Others of similar character, but of somewhat later date, are approached by archways underneath from the street, and have at their back circular or octagonal towers up their entire height, with cork screw staircases, generally well lighted by large square windows, and locally called turnpike stairs. The old stone built houses are generally very lofty, rising to a height of from five to seven, or even nine stories, frequently much higher in the back façades than in the front ones, and ordinarily surmounted at their gables by tall chimney stalks, being sometimes crowned there with an ornamental finial, and occasionally crow stepped. Many houses of the 16th and 17th centuries have roofs ornamented with cannon shaped or grotesque gargoyls; many also have bartizanned roofs and ornamental copings; and any likewise possess on the roof elevation dormer windows with gablets and pediments, the latter generally triangular, often surmounted by a finial, and sometimes crow stepped. Houses of the time of James VI. and Charles I. have all high pitched roofs, with other more or less characteristic features, and some of them with two tiers of dormer windows, presenting the picturesque appearance of the steep old Flemish roofs. The windows in the better class of the older mansions were divided by stone mullions, furnished with leaden casements, some times also by stone transoms. They were commonly surmounted by pediments, either triangular or semicircular, often containing inscriptions; they frequently had carved lintels, with either dates, inscriptions, or armorial bearings in strong relief, and were sometimes boldly corbelled out from the wall. The doorways of most of the houses of the 16th and 17th centuries are square headed and richly moulded, having ornate carvings of initials, names, and armorial bearings on their architraves and lintels, while those of a few are of Gothic character, with ogee arched and sculptured tympana. The better class of the old ashlar-fronted houses have ornamental string courses, often of very irregular character, and those of the 17th century frequently have the eaves string course carried round the windows, in such a manner as to make them look as if projecting from the wall. Houses of the 17th century, at the time when Gothic for s began to give place to the unbroken lines of Italian composition, want the dormer windows of the roof, and have pedimented windows instead, appearing as panels in the wall face beneath. Some of the houses built prior to the Reformation have decorated niches, thought to have originally contained statuettes of the Virgin Mary, and often let into abrupt corners of the building; and some of times later than the Reformation have also niches, which probably contained busts or effigies of the founders or of eminent persons. The ground floor of a few of the larger old stone houses has the appearance of an arcade, being formed of a series of arches resting on pillars, strong and massive enough to sustain the superincumbent weight of the upper stories. A castellated style, borrowed from the French, was introduced in the time of James V., and is characterised chiefly by circular turrets, commonly called pepper box turrets, resting on corbels of bold bulging abruptness, crowned with conical or ogee roofs, and placed at the angles of the building so as to command the intervening curtains. The Italian style, at least as to its main features, was introduced toward the close of Charles II. 's reign. It occasioned the gradual disappearance of corbie steps, and gave rise to gables in the form of pediments, surmounted by urns and similar ornaments, as well as to square headed entrances to courts and wynds, often highly ornamented with pendent keystones, capitalled pilasters, and Doric entablatures. The old public buildings also exhibit much diversity of style, but will afterwards be noticed in detail.

The architecture of the New Town owes much of its effect to the quality of the building material. This is a fine grained, compact, durable, light coloured, silicious sandstone; and, though in some instances deteriorated by intermixture of argillaceous or ferruginous matter, is generally so firm as to receive and retain chisellings and carvings nearly as well as good marble, and so pure as to suffer little change of colour from atmospheric action. The architecture, in a few of the public buildings, is so e variety or other of the Pointed style in three or four, is Saxon or Nor an; but in all the rest of the public buildings, and in all the private ones, is so e variety or other of the Renaissance or the Italian. It has been denounced, by some high authorities, as too uniform or even, as plain and insipid; and it certainly would have been more effective, had it included bolder and more numerous in stances than it does of other styles than the prevailing one; still it exhibits a tolerably fair amount of native diversity, is moderately rich in good ornamentation, is comparatively free from meretricious ornature, and often acquires extrinsic effectiveness from the grouping of edifices one with another, and from their relations to site and to surrounding objects. Many ranges of buildings, and any entire streets, though constructed on some plan of a single façade, display, not monotony, but symmetry, with great diversity of detail. Rustication of the basement story, isolated iron balconies on the next story, and balustered parapets along the summit prevail in some places, such as Alva Street. Pillared doorways, continuous iron balconies, and massive cornices are seen in others, such as Regent Terrace. Massive pilasters, rising from the top of the basement story, facing the next two stories, and surmounted by an attic story, distinguish any chief divisions and conspicuous ranges, such as the central parts of Great King Street and Royal Circus. Massive attached columns, variously Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, collocated sometimes in twos, sometimes in fours, sometimes in sixes, rising from the top of the projected basement story, facing the next two stories, and surmounted by an attic story, are met with in some divisions, such as part of Albyn Place, great part of Moray Place, and the greater part of Royal Terrace. The same feature, but with the columns standing, not on a projected basement, but in antes, characterise other places, such as the arc on the SW extremity of Forres Street, the two arcs. at the S end of Windsor Street, and the two arcs at the widening from Leith Walk toward respectively Royal Terrace and London Road. The same features, but with the columns surmounted by a pediment or by a lofty entablature, show themselves in other places, such as the central parts of Albyn Place, of Melville Street, and of the N and S sides of Charlotte Square. Porticoes in any similar relative situation are more rare, yet three tetrastyle Ionic ones occur respectively on the two W gables of Waterloo Place, and on a gable above the low houses of Blenheim Place, looking toward Royal Terrace. Festoons and other florid ornamentations occur in some places, such as Charlotte Square and Drummond Place; even massive pieces of sculpture are not wanting, such as two great sphinxes on the summit of the extremities of the N side of Charlotte Square; while most of the minor kinds of Græco Italian ornature, such as rusticated basements, moulded architraves, window pediments, string courses, cord cornices, and various sorts of balustrades, abound al most everywhere. The Venetian, the Florentine, and other varieties of the ornate Italian style also are not uncommon. A greater diversity and richer ornature have been introduced into the more recent buildings, exhibiting varieties or features not previously adopted; and this occurs as well in reconstructions upon old sites as in new buildings on new ground. A taste for pillared doorways, porticoes, mouldings, sculptures, and ornamentations in the renovation and remodelling of buildings or of parts of buildings, particularly for shops, ware rooms, or other places of business, has, since about the year 1830, been little short of a passion. Not in even the smallest colonnades has Tuscan or Doric simplicity as a rule been deemed sufficient; but either Ionic grace or Corinthian finery, though with good taste in the detail, has been generally affected. The necessity of re fashion ing old dwelling houses into new shops at the smallest possible cost, has also produced what may be called a new style in street architecture, by covering over the area of the sunk flats, projecting a new front to the first story half way across that area, and giving to the new front an aspect of pretensiousness or elegance, so as to make it appear to be related to the old building in the same manner as a porch or a verandah. Reconstructions of this kind, however, are not always contiguous to one another, and even when contiguous are too often of different projections and in different fashions. The public buildings, both civil and ecclesiastical, have diversities of their own, and are so interspersed through the thoroughfares as to add very largely to the aggregate diversity of the street views, but will afterwards be noticed in detail.

The Castle.—The rock on which the Castle stands is volcanic, of the variety called basaltic clinkstone. Its mineral constituents are principally lamellar felspar and titaniferous iron, with very little augite. It presents a striking specimen of an erupted mass, soaring steeply up, comparatively little weathered, and spreading out on the summit into an inclined tabular form. Its base, from N to S, measures about 300 yards; from W to the line of the Castle's outworks on the E about 360 yards. Its northern, western, and southern sides are precipitous in some parts, almost perpendicular; and its highest point rises nearly 300 feet above the vale below, and 383 feet above the level of the sea. The northern skirts, at least in their eastern parts, undulate down in grassy pleasure grounds to West Princes Street Gardens; the western skirts go down in bare rock almost sheer to the valley; and the southern skirts have been very much altered by operations connected with the New Western Approach. On some parts of the shoulders and the slopes, beyond the present ram parts, are vestiges of former fortifications. On the face of the precipice, on the N side in particular, stands a fragment called Wallace's Cradle; and at the base of that precipice is a small old ruin of date 1450, called Wallace's Tower the name Wallace, in both instances, being a corruption of Well house. In the sloping pleasure ground on the N, also, is a curiously sculptured upright stone; and, adjacent to it, is a walk carried through the subterranean remains of some old outworks.

The area immediately E of the present Castle ramparts, at the head of Castle Hill, has now the form of an esplanade or spacious glacis, and slopes gently into line with the hill ridge which slants E to Holyrood. It measures about 120 yards from E to W, and about 80 yards from N to S, and had, till about 1 753, a ridgy form, defended all round by strong military outworks. It is now entirely open, with merely parapet walls along its side, and serves both as a parade ground for the garrison and a lounge for the idle. It contains three monuments, afterwards to be noticed; overlooks the romantic masses of the south western part of the Old Town; and commands magnificent views of the New Town and of the country beyond. The rock of the hill eastward from the esplanade, and of part of the esplanade itself, is principally sandstone, intermingled with red and blue slate clay, and the strata of it incline towards the erupted rock in the vicinity of it, but dip away from it in other places. The original level of the esplanade was considerably lower than it is at present, and communicated with the entrance to the Castle by a long flight of steps; and it had, on its eastern verge, an ancient battery, called the Spur, which was demolished about 1649. The present level arose from the formation of a narrow roadway after the demolition of the Spur battery, extended by deposits of earth, dug from the N side of High Street, about the year 1753, at the founding of the Royal Exchange. A line of wall, from Wallace's Tower on the N to the old Overbow Port on the SE, anciently crossed the head of Castle Hill, separating the esplanade from the town, and was pierced, in the line of approach to the Castle, by a gateway called the Barrier Gate, which was temporarily restored when George IV. visited Scotland in 1822, and to isolate the garrison when the cholera raged in the city in 1832. The ground E of the line of that wall, on the mutual border of the esplanade and Castle Hill, was, as far as the head of the West Bow, the site of the original Edwinesburg, or nucleus of Edinburgh city. This ground was partly excavated to a great depth in 1850, for the formation of a large water reservoir, and was then found to contain relics of successive periods back to the 9th or the 8th century. First were found coins of the early mintage of George III.; next vestiges of the outwork fortifications demolished in 1649; then a stratum of moss containing a well preserved coin of the Lower Empire; and lastly, at a depth of more than 20 feet below the present surface, sepulchral relics were found, indicating a burying ground of apparently not later date than the centuries referred to.

The Castle occupies the crown of the Castle rock W of the esplanade, and measures above 6 acres in area and about 700 yards in circumference. It is supposed to have been occupied as a military stronghold long before the Christian era. The Caledonian Reguli held it in the 5th century, and perhaps much earlier; they and the Northumbrian Saxons often sharply contested for the possession of it from 452 till the time of Malcolm II.; and the Northumbrian king Edwin reconstructed its fortifications about the year 626, and gave it the name of Edwinesburg, signifying Edwin's Castle, afterwards transmuted into Edinburgh. Its buildings have under gone many alterations, extensions, demolitions, and re ovals at various periods; so that they presented, both internally and externally, in the Middle Ages an appearance very different from what they present now. Indeed, with one single exception, all of earlier date than the 15th century have been swept away. The principal ones in 1572, previous to a siege of thirty three days by the troops of the Regent Morton and the English auxiliaries under Sir William Drury, are described as follows in the memoirs of Kirkaldy of Grange: ` On the highest part of the rock stood, and yet stands, the square tower where Mary of Guise died, James VI. was born, and where the regalia have been kept for ages. On the N a massive pile, called David's Tower, built by the second monarch of that name, and containing a spacious hall, rose to the height of more than 40 feet above the precipice, which threw its shadows on the loch 200 feet below. Another, named from Wallace, stood nearer to the city; and where now the formidable Half Moon rears up its time worn front, two high embattled walls, bristling with double tiers of ordnance, flanked on the N by the round tower of the Constable 50 feet high, and on the S by a square gigantic peel, opposed their faces to the city. The soldiers of the garrison occupied the peel, the foundations of which are yet visible. Below it lay the entrance, with its portcullis and gates, to which a flight of forty steps ascended. The other towers were St Margaret's, closed by a ponderous gate of iron, the kitchen tower, the large munition house, the armourer's forge, the bakehouse, brewery, and gun-house, at the gable of which swung a sonorous copper bell for calling the watchers and alarming the garrison. The Castle then contained a great hall, a palace, the regalia, a church, and an oratory endowed by St Margaret. 'The eastern front looked then entirely different from what it does now; and, in the siege by Regent Morton, suffered such utter demolition, that David's Tower and the Constable's Tower were reduced to a heap of sheer débris. The present eastern front was all constructed by the Regent Morton immediately after the siege. The fortress, prior to the invention of gunpowder, was so strong by nature that art either made it, or might easily have made it, impregnable; but it is now so easily approachable by artillery from the E side, that it possesses very little real military strength. It stands there, however, a monument of natural grandeur, a memorial of Scottish history, and a garrison for royal troops.

The entrance to the Castle goes through a palisadoed outer barrier; across a drawbridge spanning a deep dry fosse, now serving as a tennis-court for the soldiers; through a gateway, flanked by low batteries; up a causeway, between rock and masonry; and through a long vaulted archway, with traces of two ancient portcullises and several ancient gates. An edifice surmounts the vaulted archway, which was erected on the site of an ancient battery for the purposes of a state prison, and in which the Earl of Argyll, the Marquis of Argyll, Principal Carstares, Lord Balcarres, an d many others, in Jacobite rebellion times especially, were incarcerated. Argyll battery, facing the N, a few paces beyond the archway, has twelve guns, which are only used for firing salutes; and commands a fine view over all the New Town, away to the distant horizon. A low range of barracks and the armoury are at the NW corner, a little beyond the Argyll battery; the armoury, standing at the foot of a short roadway, is a large building, with storage for 30,000 stand of arms, and contains a rich assortment of weapons and trophies. A high bastion behind the armoury was erected about 1856 on the site of an ancient sally-port, which communicated precipitously with ancient outworks. Considerable alteration was made on both rock and buildings at the erection of that bastion, involving the destruction of the cliff, and resulting in assimilating the NW corner more to the aspect of modern fortification work at the expense of natural picturesqueness. The governor's house, erected in the time of Queen Anne, and the new barracks, built in 1796, stand on the verge of the rock, with their back to the W, a little beyond the high bastion; and the latter has three stories in front but four in the rear, rests there on a range of arches, and appears at a considerable distance like a large factory mounted on the brow of a precipice. The road sweeps past these buildings in an ascending curve, and proceeds eastward, through a strong gateway in a separate enclosure, into the inner or higher division of the Castle, sometimes called the Citadel.

A quadrangle, called the Grand Parade or the Palace yard, occupies the southern part of the citadel, measures 100 feet each way, surmounts the edge of the cliffs overhanging the Old Town on its S and E sides, and is built on all its four sides. A large church, probably of Norman date, and seemingly of fine Norman character, long stood on the N side of the Grand Parade. It figures conspicuously in ancient extant pictorial views of the Castle, but was converted, after the Reformation, into storage-rooms and armoury, and gave place, about the middle of last century, to a plain oblong pile of barracks; which, about 1860-62, was remodelled and embellished after designs by Billings. The old Parliament Hall occupies the S side of the Grand Parade. It was a magnificent apartment, 80 feet long, 33 wide, and 27 high, and had a character similar to that of the Parliament House in Parliament Square. It was used no less for royal banquets than for meetings of Parliament, but has been extensively subdivided, and is now the garrison hospital. The old Royal Palace occupies the S and E sides of the Grand Parade. It was erected at various periods down to 1616, and was long the residence or the retreat of the kings and queens of Scotland. The view from it was one the most superb to be had anywhere of the suburbs to the S of the city. Queen Mary's room, where Queen Mary gave birth to James VI., afterwards I. of England, in 1566, is on the ground-floor, at the SE corner, and has an irregular form and length of less than 9 feet. It retains its original ceiling, in ornamental wooden panels, with the initials J. R. and M. R., and a royal crown in alternate compartments; it retains also some of the original wainscoat panelling, interpatched with tasteless renovations, and is open to the public. The Crown Room is on the E side of the Grand Parade, and contains the ancient regalia of Scotland, comprising crown, sceptre, sword of state (presented to James IV. by Pope Julius II.), lord treasurer's rod, and various royal jewels. It underwent some alterations in 1872, for improved conservation and exhibition of the regalia; and is accessible daily to the public from 12 till 3 p. m. The regalia had been lodged here in 1707 at the time of the Union, but it was surmised they had been afterwards conveyed away by stealth to London. Only when a commission was appointed in 1818 by the Regent, were they found to be still there, and laid open to the view of the lieges. The Half-Moon Battery is on the E face of the Citadel, and in front of the Grand Parade. It was constructed in 1574 on the site of David's Tower, overlooks the Old Town in the line of Castle Hill and High Street, and is mounted with fourteen guns. An electric clock and apparatus connected with the Royal Observatory on Calton Hill discharges a time-gun here daily at one o'clock, by means of a wire stretching from the hill to the Castle; and it was from behind the flagstaff here that King George IV. and Queen Victoria surveyed the city. The King's Bastion is on the NE verge of the citadel, occupying the highest cliff of the Castle rock. It forms a tier above the Argyll Battery, commands a most gorgeous panoramic view, over the New Town, to Ben Lomond and the Ochil Hills, and was formerly mounted as a bomb battery. It now contains only, and as a mere show-piece, the famous old monster-gun called Mons Meg, the oldest in Europe, it is said, save one in Lisbon, composed of thick iron bars held together by a close series of iron hoops. It was constructed, it is now understood, in 1455, by native artizans, at the instance of James II. when baffled with the siege of Threave in Galloway, a stronghold of the Douglases, tradition adding that certain loyal lieges of the King, or more properly enemies of the Douglas, contributed each a bar to its construction, and that the name bestowed on the gun was in honour of the wife of the smith who hammered out its ribs, and hooped them together. It was employed by James IV. in 1497 at the siege of Dumbarton Castle, rent in 1682 when firing a salute in honour of the Duke of York's visit, removed to the Tower of London in 1754, and returned to Edinburgh in 1829 by the Duke of Wellington in response to the petition of Sir Walter Scott. St Margaret's Chapel, behind the King's Bastion, is the only building of the Castle of earlier date than the 15th century, and the oldest extant building in Edinburgh. It was the private oratory of Margaret, queen of Malcolm Ceannmor. It measures only 16½ by 10½ feet within the nave; suffered long neglect, and was for some time used as a powder magazine; underwent restoration and adornment with stained-glass windows in 1853; and is now used as the garrison baptistry.

An extensive suite of barracks, auxiliary to the Castle, is situated on Johnston Terrace, with one frontage to that thoroughfare, and another overlooking Grassmarket. They were erected in 1872-73 in a style so severely plain, as to positively disfigure the romantically picturesque scenery among which they were planted; but as the result of representations respecting them made to Government they were subjected, at a cost of about £2500, to several ornamental structural alterations. A semi-octagon tower, with large door-way openings and loop-holes in the angles, and an angular or V tower with narrow loopholes, were introduced to the N elevation; a large square tower, with an open gallery carried on corbels round its first floor, was placed in the middle of the S elevation; two square towers, with staircases and balconies between, were erected at each end; and all the towers are in quasiGothic style, and finished at the top with high-pitched roofs and iron finials. (See J. Grant's Memorials of the Castle of Edinburgh, Edinb. 1862; and G. Oliver's Guide to the Castle, Edinb. 1857.)

Holyrood, in Canongate parish, consisting of an ancient Abbey and Royal Palace, stands on the E side of a quadrangular area called the Palace-yard close to the foot or E end of Canongate, and is within the parliamentary boundary of the city. It originated as an abbey in the time of David I., and the ground occupied by it, as well as that occupied by the burgh of Canongate, was till that period a natural deer forest, which extended eastward nearly as far as Musselburgh. Monkish legend asserts that, on Rood-day, or the festival of the Exaltation of the Cross, King David I. proceeded from the Castle to bunt in the forest, and that, when in the hollow between the present site of the Abbey and the N end of Salisbury Crags, and separated for his retinue, the King was assailed, unhorsed, and driven to bay by a strong vicious hart with powerful antlers. Just at that moment a dazzling cross, or ' holy rude, ' was miraculously extended to the King by an arm shrouded in a dark cloud, and the sheen of this cross struck such sharp terror into the infuriated deer that it at once turned and took to flight. On the following night the King was admonished in a dream or vision to erect and endow a monastery on or near the spot where this happened, in token of his supernatural deliverance; and here accordingly, it is said King David founded an Augustinian abbey, and dedicated it to the Holy Rude. Such is the legend which is, no doubt, a fiction invented some time after the King's death, but the invention was probably suggested by some unusual incident occurring during the hunt on an annual church festival. It is more probable that the Abbey owes its name to a cross, that was fabled to contain a portion of the actual ' rude ' on which Christ was crucified, and that had been bequeathed to David by his mother, the pious Margaret, who had brought it with her to Scotland, probably as a relic she cherished of Edward the Confessor. The Abbey would almost seem to have been erected to guard this relic; anyhow something of the sort was committed to the care of the monks by David when the Abbey was founded, and it appears to have been religiously guarded by them as a talisman on which depended not only the fortunes of the Abbey, but the fate of the country. David II., apparently in this belief, had it carried before his army when he invaded England, but it passed ominously into the hands of his enemies at the battle of Neville's Cross, and was placed by them in Durham Cathedral, where it was long preserved, both as a trophy of victory and as an object of religious veneration.

The Abbey was founded in 1128, and was bestowed with large revenues on the canons regular of the Augustinian order. It was designed and built in the grandest manner, and became very soon one of the richest and most splendid monastic establishments in the kingdom. The Abbey comprised lodging accommodation for both poor and wealthy wayfarers, apartments for royal guests, cloisters for the use of its own monks, and a magnificent cruciform church, having all the accessories of a cathedral-nave, transepts, and choir -with two towers on its western front, and a great central tower at the intersection of the nave and transepts. The apartments for royal guests stood on the S of the church, and were long used in conjunction with Edinburgh Castle as a substitute for a royal palace, but these eventually gave place to entirely new buildings on the same site, represented by the present palace. The cloisters projected from the S side of the church's nave eastward to the S transept, but were eventually removed to make room for extensions of the original royal buildings, and are now traceable in only a part of their N side. The church choir, as usual, had a Lady chapel at its E end, and both it and the transepts must have been of an extent and in a style corresponding with the size and elegance of the nave; but these were totally demolished by the English in 1543, and no trace of them is left. The nave, 148 feet long and 66 broad, underwent improvements and restorations at various periods, both before and after the destruction of the other parts of the pile; and, with the exception of its roof, its central tower, the spires of its western towers, and some of the upper parts of the walls, is still standing. A wall across its E end was built at the Reformation to convert it into a parish church; it was constructed with defaced materials of the demolished choir and transepts, and has in its centre, between the western two of the four pillars which supported the great central tower, a large coarse window, with mullions and quatrefoils. The cloister doorway is still apparent on its S side, and shows beautiful shafts and rich chevron moulding in Norman architecture. The buttresses, side windows, and a doorway on the N side were reconstructed about the middle of the 15th century, and exhibit ornate features of the later Gothic. Flying buttresses project from the side walls, and have tiers of small pointed arches resting on slender shafts. Each of the side windows was divided into two lights by a pillar, and had a pointed arch in each light, an embracing pointed arch on both lights, and quatrefoil ornaments in the spandril. Most of the W front is the unaltered work of the original builders; forms an exquisite specimen of the Transition Norman architecture, with mixture of pure Norman and Early Gothic; displays in its great doorway surpassing beauty of ornamentation; and has on the face of its NW tower an elaborately sculptured arcade, with boldly cut heads between the arches. The windows over the great doorway, and an ornamental tablet between them, were introduced in the time of Charles I., and have a peculiar, yet well-decorated character.

The Abbey rose and flourished in times when mitred abbots were more than a match for civil grandees, and occasion ally dared to measure their strength with kings; and, being situated near one of the strongest military posts in Scotland, where the royal court had increasingly frequent occasion to sojourn, it began from the time of its completion to share with Edinburgh Castle the honours of the seat of royal power. The members of the royal family often lodged in it; parliaments of Robert Bruce and Edward Baliol were held in it; James I. and his queen loved it better than any of their own palaces; James II., who was born as well as crowned within its precincts, put it into close proximity to the throne, by constituting Edinburgh the national metropolis; James III. resided in it for lengthened periods; while James IV. and subsequent kings identified it with the Crown by erecting and extending, in juxtaposition with it, a permanent royal palace. Charles II. restored the nave, and converted it into a chapel royal. A throne was then erected for the sovereign, and twelve stalls for the Knights of the Thistle, and the floor tessellated with variously-coloured marble. A mob, at the Revolution, in revenge for James VII. having used the chapel for Romish worship, unroofed, gutted, and reduced it to a state of ruin. A restoration was attempted, and a stone roof placed over it in 1758; but the roof, being too heavy for the old walls, fell in suddenly in 1768, bringing down part of the walls, and ruining all the recent work of restoration. The pile was then abandoned to neglect, and became a crumbling ruin, choked with rubbish, till 1816, when it was put into orderly condition; and in 1857, in connection with extensive improvement throughout the Palace-yard, was laid much better open than before to public view.

A royal burying-vault was early constructed, near the high altar, in the choir; and after the choir was demolished, a new vault was constructed in the S aisle of the nave, to receive the remains of Scottish kings and princes which had been entombed in the old vault. It eventually received also the remains of Mary of Gueldres, removed to it from Old Trinity College church; and it contains also the ashes of David II., James II., the queen of James II., the third son of James IV., James V., the queen and the second son of James V., the Duke of Albany, and Lord Darnley. There are likewise within the walls the tombs of Hepburn, the last abbot of Holyrood, and of Wishart, the biographer of the great Marquis of Montrose; an interesting recumbent statue of Lord Belhaven, the strenuous opponent of the National Union; and memorials or remains of many other notable persons. Though now a place of gloom and silence, it yet affects the imagination and the heart at once by its historical associations, its architectural features, its monuments, and its picturesque combinations. An interior view of it, under a cloudy sky, and especially in moonlight, is solemnly impressive; and exterior views of it on the N or the E, with a large breadth of it before the eye, and its intricate outline well-defined, are full of character.

A charter of the Abbey, as already extant, of date somewhere between 1143 and 1147, still exists. This gives, among other grants, the canons the privilege of erecting their burgh of Canongate; one of the king's mills of Dean, and the tenth of his other mills at Dean and at Liberton; and likewise the churches of Edinburgh Castle, St Cuthbert, Liberton, Corstorphine, and Airth, with the priories of Blantyre in Clydesdale, St Mary's Isle in Galloway, Rowadill in Ross, and Crusay, Oransay, and Colunsay, in the Hebrides. The canons also held the fishings of the Water of Leith, the privilege of mills at Canonmills, the right to certain sums of money from the exchequer, grants of land in various places, additional to those connected with their churches and priories, and a right of trial by duel and of the water and fire ordeal. Their jurisdiction was very extensive, and of a rather absolute character, if indeed the power of protecting refugee delinquents and criminals from punishment or interference belonged to the Abbey, and was not rather a royal prerogative connected with the Palace. The exercise of that power was known as the right of sanctuary, and extended over all the precincts from the Girth Cross at the foot of Canongate to the utmost limits of the royal park. This power of sanctuary was used, in the Romish times, for shielding every description of offender, but came afterwards to be used only for protecting insolvent debtors, in times especially when the law gave greater powers to creditors than it afterwards did. The refugees within the sanctuary were, for a long time, popularly and satirically called ' Abbey Lairds, ' and were made the subject of an old comic song, entitled The Cock Laird. A group of old plain houses, called St Ann's Yards, was their principal retreat. These houses stood on ground now within the enclosure on the S side of the Palace, and figure as the scene of Sir Walter Scott's Chronicles of the Canongate, but were demolished partly in 1850, and wholly in 1857. NE from the Abbey is the old-fashioned suburb of Abbeyhill, which still contains some curious old houses, one of these being the ancient house of Croft-an-Righ (i.e., King's Croft), having corbelled turrets and dormer windows, and having at one time an entrance to the Abbey; another was Clockmill House, within an enclosure, and surrounded by fine old trees, some of which still remain, but the house was recently purchased and removed by government, and the grounds added to the Queen's Park.

The Palace, as distinct from the Abbey, was founded by James IV. in 1501; enlarged by James V. in 1528; mostly destroyed, by the English forces under the Earl of Hertford, in 1543; rebuilt, on a much larger scale and in greater splendour, in the immediately following years; mostly destroyed again by fire when occupied by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell; and partly restored, but mainly reconstructed, by Charles II. on an entirely new plan, after designs by Sir William Bruce of Kinross, in 1671-79. The contract for the demolition of the old pile of buildings and their reconstruction at this date has recently been discovered. It shows that at 1671 the amount for the work was reckoned at £4200; but that there was a second contract in March 1676 for £324, and a third in July 1676 for £350. The pile of 1528 is still represented by the northern projecting wing of the front range of the existing palace. The Palace erected immediately after 1544 comprised five courts: the first projecting toward the foot of Canongate, and entering from thence through a strong gateway flanked with towers; the second and the third occupying nearly the same ground as the present palace; the fourth and the fifth of small size, and situated to the S. The present Palace consists of the small remaining part of the pile of 1528, and the entire edifice of 1671-79; and has the form of an open quadrangle, enclosing a square court of 94 feet each way. It underwent exterior renovation in 1826, interior improvement in 1842; and was entirely renewed as to the roof of the Palace in the years 1878-80, at a cost of about £5000. It has, all round the S, the E, and the N sides, a uniform three-story elevation, in plain Italian style; presents its main front to the W; and consists there of centre and wings, -the centre a two-story architectural screen, pierced with the entrance doorway, surmounted by a balustrade and by a small clock lantern, with an open, carved, stone cupola in form of an imperial crown. The wings project about 40 feet, rising to the height of three stories, and are flanked by circular cone-capped turrets. In its enclosed court it exhibits an arcade-piazza basement, and three upper ranges of fluted pilasters, successively Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian; shows, in the centre of the front toward the W, a pediment charged with a large well-carved sculpture of the royal arms; and contains the royal private apartments, a spacious hall, called the picture gallery, and Queen Mary's apartments. The royal private apartments occupy the S and the E sides, and are reached by a grand staircase from the SE angle of the court. They were formed on a model aggregated from all the older royal residences in Scotland; lay long in a state of great neglect; and, preparatory to the visits of Queen Victoria, were entirely refitted in a style of much elegance. The picture gallery is on the N; measures 150 feet in length, 24 feet in breadth, and about 20 feet in height; is hung with more than one hundred alleged portraits of reputed Scottish kings, all in barbarous style, painted in 1684-86 by the Flemish artist De Witt. There is also a remarkable triptych, painted about 1484, containing portraits of James III. and his queen, Margaret of Denmark, believed to have been originally an altar-piece in the church of the Holy Trinity. This picture gallery was used by Prince Charles Edward, in 1745, for his receptions and balls; and is the place where the Scottish peers elect their representatives for parliament, and where the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland holds his levees. Queen Mary's apartments occupy the extant portion of the pile of 1528, or north-western projection of the present Palace, entering from a stair in the NW angle of the court, and continue in nearly the same condition as when Queen Mary inhabited them. These apartments have such antiquarian associations and curious furnishings that Queen Victoria, at the time of the interior improvements of the Palace, issued a special order to leave the, undisturbed. They include a vestibule with some dark stains, fabled to have been made by the blood of David Rizzio; an audience chamber, hung with ancient tapestry, and containing some richly-embroidered chairs, where the famous interviews occurred between Queen Mary and John Knox; and a bed-chamber, containing Queen Mary's bed and portrait, and portraits of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth.

A critical event in the history of the Palace was the murder of Rizzio in 1566. Few royal personages have occupied it since the time of Queen Mary, and these few only fitfully, and not much in the way of royal administration. James VI., however, resided here for longer or shorter periods at intervals, and he was staying here when he received the tidings of Elizabeth's death, and of his own accession to the throne of England. It was in 1633 the scene of the coronation of Charles I., the last transaction of the kind its walls have witnessed. James VII., before he reached the throne, when only Duke of York, resided here in a species of exile during the times of the Popish plot and the supremacy of the Whig party, and made it odious by his bigotry. The Duke had a habit of perambulating a line of walk in the neighbourhood within the royal park on the E, which, from that circumstance, bore popularly the name of the Duke's Walk. Prince Charles Edward, in the brief period of his presence in Edinburgh, during the rebellion of 1745, held high state in the Palace, in such a style as greatly to delight the Scottish Jacobites. The Duke of Cumberland, after crushing the rebellion on the field of Culloden, and, on his return to the S, occupied the same apartments and the same bed in the Palace which had been occupied by Prince Charles Edward. Charles X. of France twice took up his abode as an exile in these apartments; first, in 1795, when he was Comte d'Artois; and again, in 1830, when driven from his throne by the revolution of that year. George IV., during his brief sojourn at Dalkeith in 1822, held his levees in the picture gallery of Holyrood; and Queen Victoria made similar use of it in 1842. Queen Victoria with her family used to spend two nights in the royal private apartments of the Palace, on her way to and from Balmoral in each of most of the years from 1850 till 1861; and she occupied them during parts of three consecutive days in October of the last of these years, along with the Prince Consort, a short time before his death, when he laid the foundation-stones of the new General Post Office and the National Museum of Science and Art. The enthusiasm of the citizens, on each of the occasions of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort's visits, was fervid and universal; great multitudes standing along the whole route from the royal private railway station at St Margaret's to the Palace, as well as on the adjacent heights, to greet them with shouts of loyalty, and make their progress through the park an imperial ovation. The Prince of Wales inhabited the Palace during the session of his attendance at Edinburgh University; and Queen Victoria, though she ceased to frequent itfor many years after the death of Prince Albert, is now again paying occasional visits to the old Palace, and she remained in August 1881 for three days and two nights, on the occasion of the great review of Scottish Volunteers.

The site of the Palace with the surrounding grounds is low and level. It is immediately E of the convergence of the Calton and Cowgate ravines, amid all the Old Town's natural drainage, and closely adjoining the dingy and malodorous tail of the Canongate; and was for long and until lately well-nigh choked by old erections and encumbrances on and around the Palace-yard. A series of improvements was commenced in 1851, and prolonged till 1862, which effected advantageous clearances, and introduced or created important amenities. A spacious carriage-way was formed from Abbeyhill southward across the W side of the Palace-yard to a new entrance into the Royal Park, this carriage-way bisecting an enclosed area on the N side of the Palace-yard, and of the Abbey-ruins known as Queen Mary's Garden; another extensive area, situated on the S side of the Palace, and partly occupied by the old dingy houses of St Ann's Yards, was cleared and handsomely railed off and embellished; a considerable section of the Royal Park, south-eastward, eastward, and north -eastward of the Palace, was conjoined with these two areas to form a private royal garden or home park, and enclosed along the S and E sides by lofty walls; a range of offices, comprising guard-house, royal mews, and other conveniences, was erected in a castellated style along the W side of the Palace-yard; the surface of the yard and of much of the adjacent ground was all relaid; the drainage there and all around was reconstructed or amended; and a vast amount of improvement was, at the same time, effected on the adjacent grounds, drives, and entrances of the Royal Park. A curious appendage to the Palace, in Queen Mary's time and earlier, was a lions' den, a small embellished enclosure adjoining one of the windows on the N, but it has entirely disappeared. Another curious object associated with Queen Mary's name is a sun-dial, situated in the vicinity of the lions' den, which still stands a few yards E of the new carriageway from Abbeyhill, has a graduated octagonal base, and rises into a well-formed ornamental head. A lodge, called Queen Mary's bath, formerly adjoined the W entrance to Queen Mary's Garden; it looks now, in consequence of the bisection of the garden by the new carriage-way, as if isolated, toward the W on the street-line of the reach of Abbeyhill toward the foot of Canongate, and is a small, squat, irregularly outlined tower, originally ornate, but afterwards weather-worn. When under repair about 1852, there was found, in the sarking of its roof, a richly inlaid ancient dagger, supposed to have been stuck there by the murderers of Rizzio on their escape from the Palace. A series of pointed arches in a high blank wall on the S side of thoroughfare from the Palace-yard to Canongate, belonged to a Gothic porch and archway built about 1490, and serving for some time as the outer entrance to the Abbey. The edificed space southward from that thoroughfare, all between the Palace-yard and Horse Wynd, and now mainly occupied by the new guardhouse and royal mews, was the site of the ancient mint, the offices of the chancellor, the residence of Rizzio, the residence of Francis Lord Napier, and the ancient royal mews. A standing sandstone statue of Queen Victoria, on an ornamental pedestal, with sculptured groups of figures, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie, was erected in the centre of the Palace-yard in 1850, but it was removed in 1857. An ornamental fountain now occupies its site, which was erected, at a cost of £1700, in 1859 after designs by Mr Matheson, being a restoration of a ruined fountain in Linlithgow Palace. It has three ranges of statuettes, representing, in the highest range, four old Canongate heralds; in the middle range, Rizzio, Queen Elizabeth, the old town drummer of Linlithgow, Lady Crawford, the Earl of Stair, Queen Mary, Sir John Cope, and Arabella of France; in the lowest range, the Duke of Sussex, George Buchanan, etc., together with heads of Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, Edward I. of England, and other celebrated persons. (See The History of the Abbey, Palace, and Chapel Royal of Holyroodhouse, with an Account of the Sanctuary for Insolvent Debtors, Edinb. 1821; D. Laing's Historical Description of the Altar-piece in the reign of James III. of Scotland, and belonging to Her Majesty in the Palace of Holyrood, Edinb. 1857.)

The Royal Park extends from the Palace eastward to the vicinity of Jock's Lodge, south-eastward to Duddingston, and south-south-westward to the vicinity of Newington; comprehends Arthur's Seat, Salisbury Crags, part of St Leonard's Hill, and a diversity of slope, hollow, and plane around these heights. It measures, in circumference, nearly 5 miles, and, according as the reigning sovereign is a king or a queen, is called the King's Park or the Queen's Park. It continued, for ages after the erection of the Abbey, to be natural forest. It was first enclosed and improved by James V.; received rich embellishments in the time of Queen Mary, but lost them by devastation in the time of Cromwell; passed from Charles I. to Sir James Hamilton and his heirs, who rented it off to tenants; and, in 1844, was re-purchased by the Crown for £30, 674, put under the management of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, and thereafter subjected to extensive re-improvement. A large marsh in it was drained; rough portions of surface were levelled; unsightly objects were removed; portions of its plains were worked into fine sward; and a grand carriage -drive round all its circuit, not far from its margin, was formed. This drive passes over a great diversity of ground; commands, in reaches, or brief glimpses, a splendid variety of both near and distant views; and, except during night or at late hours, is freely open to the public; the entire park, however, also is always open to pedestrians. The park, in fact, is practically a recreation ground for the citizens, nor is it shut or placed under any restriction during the presence of the Sovereign at Holyrood. A belt of plantation was begun to be formed in the latter part of 1870, which extends along its western border from near the entrance at the Palace-yard to the vicinity of St Leonard's Hill, following the line of carriage-drive, and consists of elm, oak, beech, and other trees brought from the grounds of Linlithgow Palace, and is protected by a light iron-railing. The question has often been discussed whether clumps and belts of trees would embellish Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags, or whether they would not rather mar the bold, salient, and striking features of these grand romantic heights.

Parliament Square.—Parliament Close, the original of Parliament Square, took its name from the erection in 1631-36 of the Parliament House. It comprised only a small area on the S side of St Giles' Church, communicating by narrow passages with High Street and Lawnmarket; and is, even inits present form, and under its present name of Parliament Square, not much longer than St Giles' Church; and scarcely half as broad as it is long. The space occupied by it, together with more on the southward slope, open to the Cowgate, was at first a burying-ground, the most ancient of any note in the city, which had at length, on its lower part, a chapel of the Holy Rood, and, at its NW corner, the residences of the St Giles clergy, and it was used exclusively as such till the end of the 16th century, at which time in 1566 it was, by gift of Queen Mary-the public burying-place was transferred to the neighbourhood of Greyfriars' monastery across the valley, under the name ere long of the Greyfriars' Churchyard. About that time it became a pedestrian thoroughfare, a public lounge for the lackey sort mainly, and a place of crowded resort noisy with litigants. It was used, in 1617, as the scene of a splendid banquet to James VI., on occasion of his return to Scotland; and, about the time of the erection of the Parliament House, was largely appropriated by a heterogeneous array of buildings, devoted variously to trade, law business, and civil administration. A congeries of low booths, in particular, was constructed along so much of it as to leave only narrow openings past the ends of St Giles' Church; and this, except what continued for long after to cluster around the wall of St Giles', was soon superseded by a curious and very lofty range of buildings, which was more or less destroyed by great fires in 1676, 1700, and 1824, and afterwards either modified in its own structure, or succeeded by new buildings. A description of it as it existed in its most characteristic period, says: ' On the S was a tenement towering to the clouds, containing above a dozen stories, all densely peopled by a respectable class of citizens; on the E was a land with a piazza walk under which was situated John's Coffee House, the resort of Dr Pitcairn and other wits of the day; and further on were the shops of the principal jewellers and booksellers, wherein were wont to congregate daily the great and learned of the land.' On the E side of the square stood John's Coffee Ho]e, Sir William Forbes's Bank, and the printshop of Kay, the delineator of the famous Portraits. Now, however, the square is a quiet dignified recess; has, on the northern part of its E side, the police buildings, and in the northern part of the W side, the end façade of the Signet library; and is edificed, on the rest of the E and W sides, and along all the S side, by a uniform façade on the buildings of the Exchequer Office, the Court of Session, and the Parliament House.

The police buildings present a northern elevation to High Street, and a western one to Parliament Square; they were erected in 1849, in plain, neat Italian style, with little of ornamental feature, and were enlarged and improved in 1875 at a cost of nearly £3000. They had previously a plain main entrance from High Street, and now have it from Parliament Square; and are very extensive, and contain excellent accommodation for the ordinary police business, and for courts, collecting, and superintendence. The uniform range of façade, belonging to the Exchequer Office and the Court of Session, is partly the original front of modern buildings, and partly a new front to old ones. Its basement story is 20 feet high, rusticated and pierced with semicircular arches so as to form arcade-piazzas; its central part projects several feet, and is surmounted by a handsome hexastyle Doric portico; its two retiring portions, instead of being angles, are curves; these portions, together with portions of the E side and the W side, have columns and open galleries uniform with those of the portico, and supporting a continuous cornice; and the crown of the entire wall is surmounted by a balustrade and six sphinxes. The portion formerly occupied by the Union Bank at the E corner, it is now proposed to utilise as an additional court-room for jury trials, and partly to provide better accommodation for certain of the public departments, such as Her Majesty's Work Office, etc.; offices will also be provided here for the Under Secretary of State for Scotland. The Court of Session buildings occupy large portions of both the S and the W sides of the square, and extend far back on the slope toward the S; have a height of 40 feet in the front and of 60 feet in the rear, a breadth of 60 feet at the narrowest part and of 98 feet at the widest part, and a total length of 133 feet. They were mainly erected in 1631-40 at a cost of £14, 600, receiving their present front in 1808; cannot now be distinguished in front from the contiguous modern buildings, but are markedly distinguishable and very salient in the rear. They have undergone, at various periods, some additions and extensive renovations or alterations; and they include the court-room of the High Court of Justiciary, large modern elegant courtrooms of the First and Second Divisions of the Court of Session, smaller court-rooms of the Lords Ordinary, and the great hall of Parliament House.

The great hall was the principal portion of the erection O f 1631-40, costing £11, 600; it was built for the use of Parliament, which had previously held its sittings in the Tolbooth, and served that purpose till the Union in 1707. It was long detached from the other buildings, having an open area to the E and the S; with very plain walls, surmounted by an ornate parapet, and flanked by ogee-roofed turrets, and was furnished with a throne for the sovereign, seats for the peers and bishops, forms for county and burgh representatives, a pulpit for the use of preachers, and a small gallery for the accommodation of visitors. This hall is now an almost unfurnished area, serving as a waiting-room for the practitioners of the courts, a magnificent promenade, and a lounge for visitors; and exhibits, during session, a scene of great bustle and animation. It had, for a long time, fittings at its sides for the business of the Lords Ordinary; communicates, at the S end, with all the present courtrooms; retains the dimensions and some of the features which belonged to it in the times of the Scottish parliament; and measures 122 feet in length and 49 in breadth and 60 in height. It has a beautiful oak floor and roof-the latter arched and trussed similarly to the roof of Westminster Hall; is pierced, on the W side, by four windows, much improved in 1870; has, in the S end, a large ornamental window of stained-glass, by Kaulbach, inserted at a cost of about £2500, representing the foundation of the Court by James V. in 1532; contains statues of Lords Forbes, Melville, Blair, Dundas, Boyle, Jeffrey, and Cockburn; and was the scene of three splendid banquets-the first, in 1656, to General Monk and his officers-the second, in 1680, to James, Duke of York, afterwards James VII. -the third, in 1822, to George IV. The statue of Lord President Forbes of Culloden is by Roubillac, and was erected in 1752; represents the judge in his robes resting on his left arm and uplifting his right; and is an exquisite work of art. The statue of the first Viscount Melville in white marble was erected in 1811, and is by Chantrey. That of Lord President Blair was also erected in 1811, and is likewise by Chantrey, but wants gracefulness in disposition; that of Lord President Dundas, in 1819, a recumbent figure, also by Chantrey; of Lord President Boyle, in 1841, which is by Steell; of Lord Jeffrey, in 1850, likewise by Steell; and that of Lord Cockburn, in 1854, by Brodie. The hall contains also fine portraits of Lord Advocate Dundas, Lord Justice-Clerk Hope, Lords Robertson, Colonsay, Abercromby, and of Professor Bell; also a full length portrait of Lord Brougham, as chancellor of the university, by Macnee.

The Advocates Library occupies a group of buildings, partly beneath the Parliament House, partly projecting westward from it, has rear-fronts towards George IV. Bridge, with access thence, and is accessible also by flights of steps from a door at the NW curve of Parliament Square. Erected with reference solely to accommodation, and without any proper public frontage, the library stood here originally amid a mass of narrow old lanes, on ground much lower than that of the open area of Parliament Square. It presents to George IV. Bridge a somewhat unsightly appearance, though that is relieved by modern decoration; and it has long been designed to have an elegant extension, with main frontage and grand entrance in that quarter. It includes two noble and very elegant rooms, on different floors, with busts or other sculptures of George II., Baron Hume, Lord Erskine, Lord Jeffrey, Lord Rutherfurd, and Sir Walter Scott, and with portraits of Sir George Mackenzie, Lord Presidents Spottiswood, Forbes, and Lockhart, as well as other famous lawyers. The library originally occupied apartments in a group of lofty old houses in the south-eastern vicinity of Parliament Square, where the library was founded by Sir George Mackenzie in 1682, and where it made a narrow escape from utter destruction by a great fire. It is one of five libraries entitled to a copy of every book published in Great Britain; contains upwards of 250, 000 printed volumes, about 2000 manuscripts, and a varied collection of literary curiosities. Of these there may be mentioned a manuscript Bible of St Jerome's translation, believed to have been written in the eleventh century, and known to have been used as the conventual copy in the abbey of Dunfermline; a copy, in two volumes, of the first printed Bible by Faust and Guttenburg, printed in bold black letter, and supposed to be worth over £3000; the Gospels, in the Tamul language, written upon dried leaves or weeds; five parchment copies, in MS., of the National Covenaut of 1638, with the actual signatures of Rothes, Montrose, Loudon, and others; letters of Mary Queen of Scots; the Woodrow manuscripts; the first stereotype plates; the original manuscript of Waverley, ancient classics, etc. Among the chief librarians have been Thomas Ruddiman, David Hume, Adam Ferguson, Dr Irving, and Samuel Halkett, and it is very liberally accessible to visitors. That part of the library beneath the Parliament House included at one time the Star Chamber and a State prison, and was long called the Laigh Parliament House. It comprised several apartments, all inconvenient, dark, and illventilated, but these underwent sweeping improvement in 1870-71, and are now all one hall, measuring about 130 feet in length, 45 in width, and 20 in height, divided from end to end along the centre by a series of plain optagon stone piers with intermediate arches.

The Signet Library adjoins Parliament House on the N, and extends to the W. It presents uniform elevations, in the Grecian style, of two stories, to Parliament Square and County Square; has a lower apartment, 170 feet long, 40 wide, and 22 high, with two rows of Corinthian pillars and open arches dividing it into unequal sections; and includes a splendid staircase, adorned with busts and portraits of eminent lawyers, leading to an upper hall of magnificent character, probably the largest and most superb of its kind in Scotland, erected at a cost of £25, 000, which belonged once to the Faculty of Advocates, but passed from them by purchase. The library contains about 65, 800 volumes, exclusive of pamphlets and tracts; it was begun to be collected about the middle of last century; and is peculiarly rich in works on topography, antiquities, biography, and British and Irish history. It is maintained entirely by the contributions of the Writers to the Queen's Signet; and, like the Advocates Library, is liberally accessible to visitors. Its upper apartment measures 142 feet in length and 42 in breadth, has a richly panelled arched ceiling, supported by 24 pillars and 36 pilasters in Corinthian style, and is divided by the pillars into three compartments, the central one crowned by a cupola. It is enriched with oil-paintings of Apollo, the Muses, and well-known historians, philosophers, and poets, and was used as a drawing-room by George IV. on the day of the banquet in Parliament House. For about forty years the venerable scholar, the late David Laing, was its chief librarian.

Judicial Buildings.—A gloomy edifice which served successively as a parliament hall, a justiciary court. and a metropolitan prison, stood along the junction of High Street and Lawnmarket; extended, in oblong form, from E to W; and was separated from the northern houseline by a roadway 14 feet wide, and from the NW corner of St Giles' Church by a narrow lane for pedestrians. It eventually bore the name of Old Tolbooth, and figures in one of the most famous of Sir Walter Scott's novels as the ' Heart of Midlothian.' It comprised three structures -eastern, middle, and western; and, on account of its greatly obstructing the thoroughfare, was all demolished in 1817, the gate, with the keys, being given to Sir Walter Scott, and placed by him in Abbotsford. The eastern structure was built about 1468; consisted of a massive square tower of polished stone, with four main stories and an attic, and with a spiral stair; had a character resembling a strong Border fortalice; and was originally the residence of the dean or provost of St Giles' collegiate church. The middle structure was built in 1561, by order of Queen Mary, on the site of an ancient tolbooth; was a plain oblong pile of rubble work; and, like the eastern structure, had four main stories and an attic. The western structure was built at a much later period; was of comparatively small size, and only two stories high; and had a flat roof for public executions. The eastern structure, from first to last the chief scene of historical interest, formed, in the 16th century, the scene of the councils of state, the supreme courts of justice, and several great parliaments; was the place of the queen's councils, in 1572, at the period of her sharpest contest with her nobles; witnessed, in 1596, the origination of the tumult which drove the king from the city; and was afterwards used as a lower prison for debtors, an upper prison for criminals, and a surmounting strong box for the worst of convicts. The ground floor of nearly the entire pile was eventually converted into shops, and the upper parts of the middle structure came to be used mainly as a debtor's prison. The central part of the site is now indicated by the figure of a heart in the causeway.

The County Hall stands at right angles with the western extremity of the Signet Library, and presents a main front to County Square, an ornamental side front to Lawnmarket, and (being erected while tall tenements screened it to the W) a very plain rear front to George IV. Bridge. It was built in 1817, after a design by Archibald Elliot, at a cost of £15, 000. The main front was modelled after the temple of Erectheus at Athens; has a main entrance from a lofty and very broad platform, reached by a flight of steps; and is adorned with four large, fine, fluted columns, surmounted by a pediment. The court-room measures 43½ feet in length, 29 in width, and 26 in height, and has a gallery at the S end. The room for the county meetings measures 50 feet in length, 26½ in width, and 26 in height, and is very handsome. In the hall is a statue by Chantrey of Lord Chief Baron Dundas. The Sheriff-Court Buildings stand on the E side of George IV. Bridge immediately N of the bridge's open arches; were erected in 1866-68, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost of more than £44,000; are in the Italian style, with considerable ornature; have a very lofty rear elevation, and an imposing front one; and contain ample accommodation for the sheriffs court and for the offices of the various functionaries. The City Council-Room and the Burgh Court-Room are in the Royal Exchange buildings.

Exchanges.—The Royal Exchange stands on the N side of High Street, nearly opposite the E end of St Giles' Church. The foundation-stone having been laid with full masonic honours, by Provost Drummond as grand-master, on the 13th of September 1753, it was, after some delay, completed in 1761 at a cost of £31, 457, and occasioned the removal of several ancient lanes and ruinous houses. It has the form of an open quadrangle, or of a square with open court, and measures 111 feet from E to W, 182 feet from S to N, and 86 feet by 96 in the open court, and stands on such a slope northward that, while the end parts in its front elevation have a height of 60 feet, all the rear elevation has a height of 100 feet. The S side, except at the ends, that is, co-extensively with the breadth of the court, consists of a range of seven archways, about 25 feet high, adorned with balustrade and vases, and roofed with a platform. The central archway is open, and forms the entrance to the court; but the other archways are built up and constructed into shops. Two wings extend northward from the end of the archways, are 60 feet high on the street-line, and have a length of 131 feet to the front line of the main building in rear of the court. The building is faced at the basement by an arcade-piazza; rises into view from the street over the front range with archway; and is adorned in its central part with four Corinthian pilasters, surmounted by a pediment, sculptured with the city arms. The edifice contains the City Council Chamber, the Lord Provost's apartments, the Burgh Court-Room, and a variety of offices connected with the public affairs of the city; it has a hanging stair 20 feet square and 60 feet deep, ascending to its upper floors; and, in 1871, underwent extensive interior alterations-improving the chief apartments. The ancient convention of royal burghs holds its sittings in the Council Chamber yearly. This convention, which is now little other than a Chamber of Commerce, is a representative assembly, consisting of two deputies from each burgh, and is presided over by the Lord Provost for the time being. A proposal was made in the early part of 1871 to reface, in an ornamental style, the N front of the edifice, so as to improve its dingy appearance as seen from the New Town; but this was not carried into effect.

The Corn Exchange stands on the S side of the Grassmarket, towards the W end; was erected in 1849, after a design by Mr Cousin, at a cost of nearly £20, 000; and is a massive and elegant structure in the Italian style, well suited to its site and uses. Its façade comprises a main front of three stories, 98 feet long and 60 feet high, and two small wings recessed 13 feet from the line of the main front, both of them containing staircases, and the western one surmounted by a bell-tower. The doorway is adorned with two rustic Doric columns; the windows have ornate mouldings, and are varied in design in all the three stories. The portion of the edifice equal in height to the façade extends only so far as to contain the vestibule; and the main part for business, in which the sample-bags of grain are ranged in line for inspection, extends to the rear over a distance of 152 feet. It has an elevation and an outline similar to those of a railway station; and is lighted entirely from the roof, in a triple arrangement of patent tile-glass, supported by two rows of metal pillars. The Corn Exchange is often used for great public meetings, political, municipal, and miscellaneous.

Banks.—The Bank of Scotland, established in 1695, stands terraced on the northern slope of the Old Town hill. It presents its entrance-front, or rather the middle portions of that front, to the S extension of Bank Street, looking toward George IV. Bridge, and its rear-front, rising from a lofty arched substructure, conspicuously and picturesquely, to East Princes Street Gardens contributing an additional feature to the Old Town, being seen from most of Princes Street. It was originally built in 1806, after a design by Richard Crichton, at a cost of £75, 000, and underwent restoration, reconstruction, and an addition to the extent of two wings in 1868-70, after designs by David Bryce. It is in the Italian style, originally somewhat plain, but now highly ornate; and comprises campanile towers, a great central dome, and surmounting pieces of statuary. It has, on the apex of its central dome, a graceful but diminutive looking figure of Fame, cast in zinc, and gilt, and measures 175 feet in length of façade, 55 feet in height of its front facade, 90 feet in height of its campanile towers, and 112 feet in total height from the pavement at its front in Bank Street to the top of its dome.

The new Union Bank, built in lieu of former premises below the Exchequer Chambers in Parliament Square, stands on the S side of George Street, a little E of Frederick Street. It was erected near the end of 1874; is in ornate Italian style, after designs by David Bryce; and with a frontage of more than 100 feet, extends backward to Rose Street Lane. It rises from a sunk basement to a height of three stories, crowned with attics; is screened from the pavement by a handsome stone balustrade; presents three Ionic porticos at separate entrances; shows, on the first and the second floors, ranges of nine windows, each flanked with richly-headed pilasters, and surmounted by a triangular pediment; and terminates, on the wall head, in a bold cornice, supporting a balustrade. It contains a magnificent telling-room, fully 80 feet long and nearly 50 wide; and is arranged, through all the interior, in a style of commodious elegance. The Clydesdale Bank stands at the E corner of George Street and North Hanover Street, with its principal front to George Street, but a longer front to North Hanover Street. It was erected in 1842 for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, now extinct; is adorned with Corinthian pillars and pilasters, and with handsome stone balcony; and has an elegant and commodious interior. The Commercial Bank, established in 1810, stands on the S side of George Street, midway between Hanover Street and St Andrew Square; was built in 1847 after designs by David Rhind; and has a façade 95 feet long, with profusely decorated windows, and a superb Corinthian portico. It is entered through a lofty spacious vestibule, surrounded by a gallery, adorned with tiers resting on Ionic columns, and lighted from a panelled roof, supported by Corinthian columns rising in the same line with the columns supporting the gallery; and has a telling-room 90 feet long and 50 wide, with dome roof supported by Corinthian columns, the entire entablature and dome enriched with flowing ornaments in alto-relief. The portico on the façade rises from the platform of a flight of steps, with 6 fluted columns 35 feet high, and with bold, graceful, well-relieved capitals; the entablature is 9 feet broad; the pediment measures 15½ feet from base to apex; and the tympanum is filled with a sculptural embodiment in high relief, from the chisel of A. Handyside Ritchie, of commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural enterprise. The group of statuary comprises a central figure of Caledonia on a pedestal, supported at the sides by figures of Prudence, Ceres, Agriculture, Commerce, Enterprise, Manufactures, Mechanical Science, and Learning; this group is also figured on the notes of the Bank.

The National Bank, established in 1825, stands on the E side of St Andrew Square, at the corner of West Register Street. It was originally a large private mansion, one of the earliest aristocratic structures of the New Town; underwent rearward enlargement in 1868; and is exteriorly a plain edifice, but interiorly commodious and handsome. The British Linen Company's Bank, established in 1746, stands on the E side of St Andrew Square, immediately N of the National Bank; was built in 1852, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost of £30, 000; and is a magnificent edifice, in a rich variety of the Palladian style. Its front shows a rusticated basement story and two upper stories, and is about 60 feet high. The windows of the basement story are plain; those of the second story have decorated pediments and carved trusses, the tympanums filled with sculpture; while those of the third story have small balconies supported on carved consoles and massive wreaths of ash-leaves, suspended by rosettes at the top of the architraves. Six fluted Corinthian columns rise from the basement to the height of about 31 feet, inclusive of their pedestals; and all stand in individual isolation, like those of the triumphal arches at Rome. A balustrade, about 4 feet high, on the top of the basement cornice, runs between the pedestals. The entablature of the columns is about 7 feet high, has a finely sculptured frieze in alto-relief, and is recessed from the sides of each column to nearly the face of the wall. Six statues, each 8 feet high, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie, representing Agriculture, Mechanics, Architecture, Industry, Commerce, and Navigation, stand on the entablature over the columns. A balustrade, about 7 feet high, on the top of the wall, perpendicular with its face, runs behind the statues. The interior of the building is entered by a flight of steps, and by a lobby 15 feet wide. The telling-room is a splendid cruciform saloon, 74 feet by 69, lighted by a cupola 30 feet in diameter, and 50 feet high. The floor is a brilliant mosaic of encaustic tiles; the roof is supported by eight Corinthian columns and twenty-four Corinthian pilasters, their pedestals of marble, their shafts of polished Peterhead syenite, their capitals of bronze; and a panelled arrangement beneath the cupola contains allegorical figures of Mechanics, Science, Poetry, and History, and busts of the founder of the Bank of England, George Buchanan, Adam Smith, Fletcher of Saltoun, Lord Kames, Dr Duncan, Napier of Merchiston, Sir Walter Scott, Professor Wilson, Rennie, Watt, and Wilkie. The proprietors' room is in the second story, and measures 54 feet in length, 22 in breadth, and 18½ in height. The Royal Bank, established in 1727, stands at the head of an enclosed and paved recess on the E side of St Andrew Square, immediately N of the British Linen Company's Bank, and directly confronting George Street. It was originally the town mansion of Sir Lawrence Dundas, the ancestor of the Earl of Zetland; was built, after a design by Sir William Chambers, on the model of a villa near Rome; and passed by sale to the Board of Trade, and afterwards to the Royal Bank. It presents a neat front, with four Corinthian pilasters, surmounted by a pediment, with a sculpture of the royal arms. All the banks have sub-offices in different parts throughout the whole city.

Insurance Offices.—The Life Association Office stands in Princes Street, nearly opposite the Mound, and was built in 1855-58. It is a splendid edifice, rising to the height of three double stories, each with main lights and attics, and having a width proportionate to its height; and looks, at first sight, as if covered all over its façade with colonnades and sculptures. The basement story is in rusticated Doric, and has a grand central archway, the second is Ionic, and the third Corinthian; the basement story being divided from the second, and the second from the third, by a cornice and a balustrade. Both of the upper stories have ranges of columns between the windows, and pairs of small pillars adjoining the sides of the main lights; and these lights are recessed and arched, an have spaces over them filled with elaborate sculptures. Only a part of the edifice is occupied by the Life Association; and the rest is disposed in shops, a hotel, and rented offices. The Scottish Widows' Fund Life Assurance Office is on the W side of St Andrew Square, at the corner of Rose Street. It was built in 1848 by the Western Bank Company, stood a considerable time unoccupied after that Company's failure in 1857, and was then sold to its present owners at a price greatly below its original cost. It is a large, elegant, symmetrical edifice in the Florentine style, with screen balustrade, neat porch, handsome window-mouldings, and heavy projecting roof. The Scottish Provident Institution, on the S side of St Andrew Square, a little E of St David Street, was erected in 1867, and is an elegant edifice in Italian style. The Standard Insurance Company's Office, on the N side of George Street, near St Andrew Square, has a neat attached Corinthian portico, showing on the tympanum a group of sculpture by Steele, representing the parable of the Ten Virgins. The Caledonian Insurance Company's Office stands in the same line of street a little further W, and has four beautiful Corinthian columns, with massive entablature. The Edinburgh Life Insurance Company's Office is on the S side of George Street, a little E of Hanover Street, and was formerly partly occupied by the Antiquarian Museum. It has Doric features and two porches in its basement story, Corinthian features in its second story, and a massive cornice and a balustrade on its summit. The North British and Mercantile Insurance Company's Office stands in Princes Street, to the E of Hanover Street, and has a neat, projected basement story, surmounted by a statue of St Andrew with his cross. The Scottish Union and National Insurance Company occupy the handsome building formerly used as Douglas' Hotel in St Andrew Square. There are no fewer than about 80 other insurance offices, many, however, being merely branches, having their headquarters elsewhere, but some of their buildings are highly ornamental.

Post Office.—The Post Office occupied formerly part of the buildings on the S side of Waterloo Place, contiguous to the E side of Regent Bridge, and was distinguished from the other adjoining edifices mainly by a spacious open porch, and by being surmounted with a a sculpture in relief of the royal arms. It was built in 1819 at a cost of £15, 000; underwent sweeping changes in the interior of its basement story after its relinquishment for post office uses, and is now occupied as an hotel. The new Post Office stands at the E corner of Princes Street and North Bridge, and occupies the sites of the old Theatre Royal and of Shakespeare Square. The foundation-stone was laid on 23 Oct. 1861 by the late Prince Consort, almost the last public act of his life; and it was opened for business in May 1866. It cost, inclusive of the site, about £120, 000, and is a magnificent edifice, in a moderately rich type of the Italian style, after designs by Robert Matheson. It forms an imperfect quadrangle; measures 140 feet in breadth from E to W, 160 along the E side, and 180 in length along the W side; includes a central open area, measuring 54 feet by 30; and has three exposed fronts toward respectively the N, the W, and the S. The N front, toward Princes Street, is the principal one, and contains the public entrance; faces a pavement 43 feet wide, composed of large beautiful slabs, with a broad flight of outside steps ascending to a chastely decorated vestibule, measuring 34 feet by 32; and consists of a recessed centre two stories high, and massive tower-like wings three stories high. The recessed centre is pierced with three lofty circular-headed arches, resting on massive piers, and giving entrance to the vestibule; has, on each side of the basement story, a window of a character corresponding to the entrance arches; shows, in the upper story, five windows with balustrades in front, and with alternately circular and angular pediments; and is decorated with single Corinthian columns, flanking the windows. The basement story of each wing is rusticated, and contains three richly moulded circular-headed windows; the second story rises over an enriched belt course, contains in each of the exposed sides three balustraded windows with alternately circular and angular pediments, and is adorned with pairs of Corinthian columns flanking the central window, and surmounted by a massive circular pediment extending into the third story; and the third story has circular-headed windows, with moulded architraves and imposts, and divided by pairs of pilasters. The W front is entirely similar to the N front, with the exception that it has no vestibule. The S front is recessed like the N and the W fronts, but is three stories high from the street-line, and, in consequence of rapid slope of the site, rises 125 feet in height from the foundation; so that, as seen from below the bridge, it presents a very commanding appearance. A massive cornice and balustrades surmount all the three fronts, and the balustrades are intersected at intervals by pedestals supporting ornamental vases. The number of Corinthian columns on the N and W fronts is 68; each being 1 6 feet high, and consisting of a single stone. The interior contains spacious saloons and numerous apartments, constructed in excellent adaptation to the business of the office; is everywhere well lighted and ventilated; and has ample accommodation, not only for the present business of the office, but also for almost any increase which may eventually arise. There are 3 branch offices, with working staffs, at 71 George Street, 2 Lynedoch Place, and 41 South Clerk Street; and there are also throughout the city nearly 80 pillar posts and receiving offices, of the latter of which about 15 are telegraph stations, and 30 money order and savings' bank offices.

A Telephonic Company has its head office in Frederick Street, with several branch stations throughout the city.

Register House.—The General Register House of Scotland not only contains the registers of sasines, inhibitions, and adjudication's, but also the national records, the official writings of the clerks and extractors of the Court of Session, Jury Court, Court of Justiciary, the Great and Privy Seal, the Chancery, the Lord Lyon's office, and of the Bill Chamber, and the duplicate registrations of births, marriages, and deaths. The ancient national records were destroyed by Edward I. and by Cromwell; while those of later date, prior to the building of the Register House, were almost inaccessible, lay constantly exposed to risk of destruction by fire, and suffered much injury from damp. The Register House was erected both for the safe keeping of these records and for the depositing of property documents, in such arrangement that they could be promptly found when wanted. The records of the proceedings in suits determined by the Court of Session to the year 1868, and the original deeds and protests registered for preservation till that year, occupied the shelving of twenty-one distinct apartments in the Register House, and were likely to accumulate in increasing ratio; while the volumes containing other records affecting property, chiefly folios, amounted in the same year to no fewer than 42, 835, and it was anticipated that they would have an annual average increase of not fewer than 490. The general register of sasines began on 1 Jan. 1869 to be conducted on a new arrangement, comprising so many as thirty-five separate series.

The Register House, till 1860, was only one building, but it now includes two additional ones, completed in respectively 1860 and 1871. The original Register House stands at the E end of Princes Street, opposite North Bridge; was built partly in 1774-76, partly in 1822-26, after designs by Robert Adam, in the Italian style, and cost about £80, 000. An elegant curtain wall, on each side of a central, spacious, double flight of steps, divides a space in front of it from the street; it stood originally at a distance of 40 feet from the façade, but was brought nearer and considerably improved, in 1850. The double flight of steps has handsome balustrades, and leads up to the principal entrance. The front of the edifice is 200 feet long, has a basement story mostly concealed by the structures in front of it, and two upper stories full in view, and is ornamented from end to end with a beautiful Corinthian entablature. It projects slightly in its central portion, and is adorned there with four Corinthian pilasters surmounted by a pediment, in form of an attached portico; has, in the tympanum of the pediment, a sculpture of the royal arms; and is crowned, in a slightly projecting part at each end, by a clock-turret, terminating in a cupola and vane. The two flanks, E and W, are of the same length as the front, but have little ornament. A circular court is in the centre of the edifice, measures 50 feet in diameter, and is surmounted or canopied by a dome; and a saloon is there, 50 feet in diameter, balconied all round with a railed gallery, sending off communications into 23 subordinate departments, and lighted from the top by a window 15 feet in diameter. The rest of the interior is partly arranged into nearly 100 small arched apartments on each of the upper floors, leading off from long corridors; and also containing small rooms for the use of functionaries connected with the supreme courts, and larger apartments for the stowage of registers. A statue of George III., in white marble, by the Hon. Mrs Damer, is in a recess of the dome. The second Register House stands immediately behind the original one, partly in direct rear of it, partly fronting the thoroughfare of West Register Street. It was erected in 1857 -60 at a cost of £26, 440, and is approached and entered through a railed enclosure from West Register Street. It forms a quadrangular pile, much smaller than the original edifice, but in a similar style of architecture, though considerably more ornate; and is mainly occupied with the department of duplicate registrations of births, marriages, and deaths. The third edifice stands behind the first, and to the E of the second, and cannot well be seen except from East Register Street. It is connected with the first by a stone corridor, 40 feet in length, and was erected in 1869-71, after a design by Mr Matheson, at a cost of about £8000. It serves entirely for record volumes, and is a circular structure, 55 feet in diameter and 65 in height, surmounted by a dome, and lighted entirely from windows in the dome. Eight massive piers, at regular intervals, project from the general line of the exterior wall; a dado course divides the elevation into lower and upper sections; the projecting piers in the lower section are rusticated, and the interspaces are plain; both the piers and the interspaces in the upper section are relieved with deeply moulded panelling; a cornice and a balustrade go round the wall head; and the domo rises thence to the height of 20 feet, and is divided into panelled compartments, corresponding to those of the walls.

Prisons.—The Old Tolbooth, demolished in 1817, has already been noticed in the section on judicial buildings. A guard-house erected in the time of Charles II. for the Old Town guard, with a dungeon or black-hole at its W end for the incarceration of unruly persons, stood on the S side of the upper part of High Street. It presented an unsightly appearance, being a huge structure encumbering the thorough fare; yet, notwithstanding its ugliness and obstructiveness, it was not taken down till about the year 1787. A small prison of modern date, called the Lock-up, stands contiguous to the rear of Parliament House, and was occupied by criminals the night before their execution. It was remodelled and legalised in 1857, and serves chiefly as an adjunct to the Justiciary Court for the temporary accommodation of criminals at the time of their trial, and it is not permitted to detain any one in it longer than ten days at a time. The main prison stands on the SW shoulder of Calton Hill, extending from the E end of the S side of Waterloo Place, along Regent Road, occupying the crown of a cliff overhanging the North Back of Canongate, and on the site of the batteries used against the forces of Queen Mary's party in 1571. They comprise three groups of buildings, erected at different dates, within separate enclosures, for separate purposes, but now within one enclosure in communication with each other, and all under one management. They are in different varieties of the castellated Norman style, and exhibit massive features of gateway, turrets, and towers. They combine grandly with the cliffs and acclivities beneath and above them; and, whether seen downward from the crown of Calton Hill, horizontally from the level of Regent Road, or upward from the lower parts of Canongate and the Queen's Park, present an imposing and picturesque appearance. The western group was built, as the town and county jail in 1815-17, and is entered by a massive arch way, flanked by low, round towers, and surmounted by a platform. It contains, in the parts adjacent to the entrance, apartments for the turnkeys, and beyond an intervening area, the j ail proper, extending 194 feet from W to E, and 40 feet from N to S, and rising in the centre and at the ends in the form of broad massive towers. It includes, behind the lower flat, a number of small airing-yards, separated by high wails, and radiating backward to a point where all are overlooked by a small octagonal watch-house; and has, at the southern extremity, behind a small area of flower plots, the governor's house, surmounted by a castellated round tower, and perched on the edge of a precipice overhanging the Old Town. The middle group was built, as the Town and County Bridewell, in 1791-96, and was entered by a plain archway, now disused. It has, adjacent to the entrance, a neat battlemented structure, formerly the governor's house; and, in its main building or jail proper, stands E and W in the same manner as the town and county jail. It is of similar size to that structure, but in a ruder style, and with crow-step gables; presents to the S a semicircular form; is largely disposed in workshops, and has such interior arrangement, that all these can be surveyed from an apartment in the governor's house without the observer being himself seen. The eastern group was built, as the Debtor's Jail, in 1845-47, but since the passing of the Act abolishing imprisonment for debt, it has formed part of the jail proper. A massive gateway, though not in use, faces the E, doubly flanked by square towers; and has near the entrance several massive towers, all higher than those at the sides of the gateway, but differing from one another in height, breadth, and form. It extends in ranges in line with the main structures of the other two groups; expands, at the ends, in the form of very broad, massive towers; and, as seen from most points of view, especially from the Queen's Park, looks not unlike a romantic citadel or a baronial hall. Plans for a reconstruction and rearrangement of Edinburgh prison have been sanctioned by Government, and the work was expected to begin in the spring of 1882.

Places of Amusement.—The old Theatre Royal stood at the E corner of Princes Street and North Bridge. It was built in 1769 at a cost of about £5000, and had flanks and rear as plain as those of a barn, but the front to the N had a piazza-porch and some sculptures. It was demolished in 1860-61 to give place to the new Post Office. The Adelphi Theatre stood at the corner of Broughton Street and Little King Street, where both these thoroughfares join the head of Leith Walk. It was used chiefly in summer while the Royal Theatre was shut, had no kind of architectural ornamentation, and was burned in 1853. The Queen's Theatre and Opera House occupied the site of the Adelphi; it was erected in 1856, showed little exterior ornament, and was burned in 1865. The new Theatre Royal occupies the same site, and was erected, after designs by David Macgibbon, immediately after the destruction of the Queen's Theatre; it has an elevation to Broughton Street of an Italian tetrastyle portico, decorated pilasters, arched windows, and a frieze; was designed to have, in niches of that elevation, allegorical statues of Tragedy, Comedy, Music, and Dancing; presents to Little King Street a plain wall, sparsely pierced with windows; but was gutted by fire in Feb. 1875. It was restored in the later months of the same year, underwent improved internal arrangements, with some increase of accommodation, in the course of the restoration, and was reopened in Jan. 1876. It now contains sittings for 2300 persons. The Royal Princess Theatre stands on the E side of Nicolson Street, nearly opposite Nicolson Square, being constructed, in 1862, out of previous buildings. It has no frontage or proper structure of its own, but is entered partly by a long lobby from Nicolson Street, partly by a stairway from a contiguous thoroughfare; and contains accommodation for about 1500 persons. The Gaiety Theatre or Music Hal is in Chambers Street, at the back of a building near the E end, and is entered through the ground-floor of the building in front. It is not very far from the site of the house in which Sir Walter Scott was born. It was erected in 1875; has a handsome interior, adorned with Corinthian pilasters and a bust of Scott; and contains about 1200 sittings, having been interiorly renovated an d re-decorated in 1881. Entering from the W side of Nicolson Street by a covered way leading to a recess between South College Street and Nicolson Square, is a large building which has passed through many different phases as a place of public amusement. It was known some years ago as the Southminster Theatre; but was burned down in the spring of 1875, and reconstructed and reopened before the close of the same year at a cost of nearly £10, 000. It has a plain exterior, but commodious interior, and is variously and intermittently occupied as circus, panorama, and music hall. Another building, used very much in a similar way, stands, with very ordinary frontages to Grindlay and Cornwall Streets, off Castle Terrace.

The Assembly Rooms are on the S side of George Street, midway between Hanover Street and Frederick Street; were built in 1787 by subscription; and have a plain Italian front, with a tetrastyle Doric portico, on a rusticated piazza basement, over which has recently been added a projection to give room for an orchestra, which detracts somewhat from the appearance of the building. It contains a principal room 92 feet long, 42 wide, and 40 high, and other apartments, both commodious and elegant; and underwent considerable improvement in 1871. The Music Hall is in the rear of the Assembly Rooms; it is accessible by the same entrance, and extends back to Rose Street; was built in 1843, after a design by Messrs Burn & Bryce, at a cost of more than £10, 000; and contains a principal apartment 108 feet long and 91 feet wide, with richly panelled ceiling and shallow central dome, an orchestra large enough for several hundred performers, and a large organ built by Hill of London. It is much used for great public meetings-political, municipal, religious, and miscellaneous. The Calton Convening Room on the N side of Waterloo Place, the Waverley Hall on its S side, the Masonic Hall on. the S side of George Street, a little E of Castle Street, the Oddfellows' Hall in Forrest Road, and some other halls are likewise occasional places of amusement. Within a portion of the Waverley Market there is an aquarium, with seal-pond, and various other attractions.

Short's Observatory stands on Castle Hill, at the E side of the head of Ramsay Lane, having superseded a slender structure of 1835 for a similar purpose on Calton Hill. It was erected in 1847; is a substantial, lofty stone edifice, terminating in a tower overlooking most of the city, and commanding a magnificent panoramic view; was remodelled and extensively refitted about 1869; and contains a camera obscura, powerful telescopes, a splendid collection of microscopes, some other scientific apparatus, and a number of miscellaneous attractions. -The Royal Patent Gymnasium occupies a large space on the N side of Fettes Row and Royal Crescent, was opened in April 1865 in the presence of the magistrates, the councillors, and numerous principal inhabitants of Edinburgh and Leith, and underwent enlargements and improvements in subsequent years. It includes an extensive exhibition hall, erected in 1868; contains a velocipede merry-go-round, 160 feet in circumference; a gigantic see-saw, 100 feet long; a compound pendulum swing, holding about 100 persons; extensive ponds with supply of small boats and canoes; a training bicycle course, with supply of bicycles, and grounds for foot-races.

Monuments.—An equestrian statue of Charles II. is in the centre of Parliament Square, which was cast in Holland in 1685 of lead, afterwards bronzed, at a remarkably small cost. It is a figure, in design and general effect, equal to that of many admired statues in Great Britain; and surmounts a handsome pedestal, containing two marble tablets with inscriptions which read as if they were meant to be ironical. There is a bronze statue of the Duke of York, second son of George III., on the NW border of the Castle Esplanade; it was executed by the sculptor Campbell, and erected in 1839. A monument to the memory of the men of the 78th Highland Regiment (Havelock's heroes), who fell in conflict with the Indian mutineers in 1857-58, stands on the NE border of the Castle Esplanade; was erected by the surviving officers and soldiers of the regiment, and has the form of a Runic cross; and close by there is a memorial cross to Colonel Stewart of the Cameron Highlanders. A sitting sandstone statue of James Watt surmounts the projecting porch of the New School of Arts in Chambers Street. It stood originally on a granite pedestal in Adam Square, and was erected there in 1853; but in common with the old School of Arts directly behind it, was removed thence in 1873 in the course of the formation of Chambers Street.

A bronze statue of George IV., by Chantrey, is at the intersection of George Street by Hanover Street, erected in 1832, and mounted on a granite pedestal; it exhibits the monarch in a strikingly affected attitude. A similar statue of William Pitt, also by Chantrey, at the intersection of the same street by Frederick Street, was erected in 1833; it possesses considerable dignity of expression. Another of the Rev. Dr Chalmers, by Steell, erected in 1876, is in the same thoroughfare at the intersection by Castle Street. A bronze statue, by Steell, of the second Viscount Melville, is in Melville Street, at the central point where the street expands into a double crescent; it was erected in 1857, and stands on a sandstone pedestal. A Doric column, after Trajan's at Rome, to the first Viscount Melville, stands in the centre of St Andrew Square. It was constructed in 1821-28, after a design by Mr Burn, at a cost of £8000, and consists of basement, pillar, and statue by Forrest, rising to the aggregate height of 150 feet. The basement is square and massive, and adorned with some beautiful architectural devices; the pillar is fluted, diminishes in diameter from 12 feet 2 inches at the bottom to 10½ feet at the top, and contains a spiral staircase, lighted by almost imperceptible slits in the fluting; the statue is 14 feet high, but looks from any points of the neighbouring thoroughfares to be only life-size. A bronze monument of General Sir John Hope, afterwards fourth Earl of Hopetoun who succeeded to the command of the British army after the death of General Sir John Moore at Corunna, is within the recess in front of the Royal Bank; it was executed by Campbell, and erected in 1835, represents the General in Roman costume, leaning on a charger pawing the pedestal, and has inscriptions commemorative of his military exploits.

A colossal statue of Queen Victoria surmounts the front of the Royal Institution, looking up South Hanover Street; it is in grey sandstone, and was sculptured by Steell, in 1844. It shows the Queen in a sitting posture, with a mural crown encircling the brow; and, being flanked at near distance by finely sculptured sphinxes from the chisel of the same artist, has an imposing effect. A white marble statue of Allan Ramsay, by Steell, is in the NE corner of West Princes Street Gardens, a few paces from the Royal Institution; it was erected in 1865 at the expense of the late Lord Murray, a relation of Ramsay, and rests on a pedestal decorated with medallions of Lord Murray, the wife of the poet's son Allan, a grandson of the poet, and Lady Campbell and Mrs Malcolm, the poet's grand-daughters. A bronze statue of Professor Wilson, also by Steell, is in the NW corner of East Princes Street Gardens, a few paces E of the Royal Institution; it was erected at the same time as Ramsay's statue, is of colossal size, on a symmetrical pedestal, and represents well the 'lion-like' form of 'Christopher North.' A sitting bronze statue of Professor Simpson, by W. Brodie, was erected in 1877 on a spot W of the Ramsay statue; it represents the professor in academic robes, lecturing to his students; is about twice the size of life; and, with inclusion of its pedestal, rises to the height of nearly 20 feet from the ground. A bronze statue of Adam Black, by J. Hutchison, is erected on a spot a little E of the Scott Monument; being preceded, in Mr Black's lifetime, by a bust of him, by the same artist, for the hall of the 500 Philosophical Institution. A bronze statue of the African explorer, Dr Livingstone, by Mrs D. O. Hill, was erected in 1876, on a spot a little E of Sir Walter Scott's Monument, in line with those of Wilson and Black.

Sir Walter Scott's Monument stands on the esplanade of East Princes Street Gardens, opposite St David Street; was erected in 1840-44, after designs by George M. Kemp, at a cost of £15,650. It is a cruciform Gothic spire, chiefly modelled on the details of Melrose Abbey; and includes beneath its basement arches, a Carrara marble sitting statue of Scott by Steell, costing £2000, and inaugurated in 1846. Four grand basement arches are connected together exactly in the same manner as those beneath the central tower of a cruciform Gothic cathedral. Four other grand arches spring diagonally from the outer side of the piers of these arches, and rest on strong, octagonal, buttressed exterior piers, which are surmounted by turret-pinnacles. Elegant pierced flying buttresses ascend from the inner side of the base of these pinnacles, and from the end of a pierced horizontal parapet over the contiguous spandrils, to the middle of the second stage of the monument. A contracting series of galleries, arches, turrets, and pinnacles soars aloft from the summit of the four grand basement arches, stage above stage, till it attains a height of about 200 feet from the ground, and terminates there in a finial. The capitals, mouldings, niches, parapets, crochetings, and other ornaments are in the same style of decorated Gothic and on the same pattern as those of Melrose Abbey. A stair of 287 steps ascends to within a few feet of the top, and reveals there a most magnificent bird's-eye view of the city. In each front of the main basement, above the archivolt and in the parapet, are nine small niches; and in the exterior piers, in the turret-pinnacles above them, and in the prominent parts of the second stage, are so many more as to make a total of fifty-six within clear view from the ground. Figures of the principal characters in Scott's poems and novels were originally intended to occupy all the niches, and 4 of these were forthcoming at the erection of the monument, 1 more ten years after, 27 statuettes, and 16 likenesses of Scottish poets in 1874; 8 medallions in 1876-all these greatly enhancing the beauty and interest of the whole. One of the best statuettes is reckoned to be that of Diana Vernon, on the outside niche of the SE pier, the work of George Lawson. Flights of steps from the ground, on all the four sides, converge to a platform beneath the four grand basement arches. The statue of Sir Walter is on a pedestal at the centre of that platform, and represents him in a characteristic attitude, attended by his dog Maida. It was cut from a block of marble weighing upwards of 30 tons, and is well-formed and harmonious; but, though large in itself, is so disproportioned to the spacious lofty vault around it as to look relatively small and almost dwarfish. The statuettes on the monument represent the Lady of the Lake, the Last Minstrel, Prince Charles Edward, and Meg Merrilies on respectively the S, the W, the N, and the E of the main basement; Mause Headrigg, Dominie Sampson, Meg Dodds, and Dandie Dinmont on respectively the S, the W, the N, and the E of the fourth gallery; James VI., Magnus Troil, and Halbert Glendinning on the upper tier of the SW buttress; Minnie Troil, George Heriot, and Bailie Nicol Jarvie on the lower tier of the SW buttress; Amy Robsart, the Earl of Leicester, and Baron Bradwardine on the upper tier of the NW buttress; Hal o' the Wynd, the Glee Maiden, and Edith of Lorn on the lower tier of the NW buttress; Edie Ochiltree, Robert Bruce, and Old Mortality on the upper tier of the NE buttress; Flora M 'Ivor, Jeanie Deans, and the Laird of Dumbiedykes on the lower tier of the NE buttress; Saladin, Friar Tuck, and Richard Coeur de Lion on the upper tier of the SE buttress; and the Jewess Rebecca, Diana Vernon, and Queen Mary on the lower tier of the SE buttress. The likenesses of Scottish poets are on the capitals of the pilasters supporting the vaulted roof; and represent James Hogg, Robert Burns, Robert Fergusson, and Allan Ramsay on the W front; George Buchanan, Sir David Lindsay, Robert Tannahill, and Lord Byron on the S front; Tobias Smollett, James Beattie, James Thomson, and John Home on the E front; Queen Mary, King James I., King James V., and Drummond of Hawthornden on the N front. The medallions are ranged in pairs, in spandrils between the panels of the walls, and they represent the heads of John Knox, James V., George Buchanan, James VI., Queen Mary, Charles I., Regent Moray, and the Marquis of Montrose. Thirty-two additional statues and statuettes were added in 1882, and are the work of various sculptors. Among these later additions are figures of Oliver Cromwell, Helen Macgregor, Madge Wildfire, Sir Piercie Shafton, John Knox, the Fair Maid of Perth, the Dougal Cratur, Ravenswood, David Deans, etc., and they range from 6 feet to 3 feet in height. It should be added that the upper part of the monument, though designed by Kemp in perfect harmony with all the rest, and though figuring in that harmony in almost all the prints of it which have been published, was elongated from its fair proportions by order of the committee who superintended the erection, solely for the paltry reason of making it be better seen from the near vicinity. Mr George M. Kemp, the architect, was a self-made artist, who travelled through Europe studying Gothic architecture, supporting himself the while by working as an ordinary stone mason. He did not live to see the completion of the work, having been accidentally drowned while it was proceeding. The galleries contain many relics and curiosities relating to Sir Walter Scott.

Burns' Monument is on the S side of Regent Road, 260 yards eastward of the Prison; it crowns a rock 10 feet higher than the level of the roadway, and overlooks all the valley of the Canongate and the Queen's Park. It was erected in 1830 after a design by Thomas Hamilton; is a circular temple of florid character, with Corinthian cyclostyle of twelve columns raised on a quadrangular base, and surmounted by a cupola in imitation of the monument of Lysicrates at Athens, supporting a tripod with winged fabulous creatures; and contains a bust of Burns by W. Brodie, and a number of interesting relics of the poet. A marble statue of Burns by Flaxman stood formerly in the monument; but was removed first to the library-hall of the College and next to the National Gallery. A monument to Dugald Stewart, the distinguished Scottish philosopher, was erected on the W face of Calton Hill, overlooking Waterloo Place, in 1831, after a design by W. H. Playfair; is in the style of a Grecian temple, partly copied from the Choragic monument of Lysicrates; and has a high basement, an open interior, a beautiful funereal urn, a rich entablature, and a cupolar canopy. Professor Playfair's monument stands on the same face of Calton Hill, higher up, at the SE corner of the New Observatory; was erected also after a design by W. H. Playfair, the professor's nephew; and is a solid Doric structure of small dimensions, but great purity of style.

Lord Nelson's Monument surmounts a cliff towards the SW corner of Calton Hill, on a line with Princes Street, and figures conspicuously in almost every view of the city. It was founded soon after Lord Nelson's death, but not completed till 1815, and it comprises an octagonal battlemented basement, containing several rooms, a spacious, circular, embattled tower of four stories, a circular embattled turret of one story, and a surmounting time-ball and flagstaff. Rising to the height of 102 feet from the ground, and 450 feet above sea-level, it commands from the parapets of its tower and turret an extension of the magnificent paroramic view which is seen from the walks round the brows of the hill. The entrance is surmounted by an inscription tablet, the crest of Nelson, and sculpture in bas-relief, representing the stern of the San Josef; the interior contains a camera obscura, a solar microscope, telescopes, panoramic paintings, an autograph of Nelson, and various curiosities connected with his name and exploits. On its summit is a time-ball, with a diameter of 5½ feet, erected in 1852 to regulate the chronometers of the vessels at Leith and Granton. It is raised by machinery every day a little before one to the height of 15 feet, and falls exactly at the hour by a drop which acts in connection with an electric-clock in the adjoining Royal Observatory, a wire attached conveying, at the same time, an electric current to the time-gun in the Castle. The National Monument crowns a knoll of the Calton Hill, a little to the N of Nelson's monument, being projected in 1816 to commemorate the Scottish heroes-naval and military-who fell in the wars with Napoleon Bonaparte, and designed to be a copy of the Parthenon at Athens, on a scale to cost £50,000. Planned by W. H. Playfair, and promising to reflect the highest credit on his genius, it was founded in 1822 during George IV.'s visit to Edinburgh, and began to bee built in 1824; but, in consequence of failure in funds, it was never constructed further than the erection of twelve columns, with basement and architrave. The columns are large, fluted, and beautifully proportioned; cost upwards of £1000 each, and were designed to form the western range of the entire structure; and, except for their looking like the mere fragment of a stupendous ruin, they would produce a striking effect. Various projects have been suggested at different times, and some magnificent proffers of liberality have been made, either to get the monument completed according to the original design, or to incorporate it in some other architectural conception, but all have hitherto proved abortive.

The Duke of Wellington's Monument is a bronze equestrian statue by Steell, on a pedestal of Peterhead syenite in front of the Register House; and it was inaugurated on 18 June 1852. The pedestal is 13 feet high, and very plain; the statue, nearly 14 feet high, containing about 12 tons of metal, and cost £10,000. The horse is rearing under the curb, as if pulled suddenly up when in full gallop, while the rider sits erect and calm, holding in his left hand the horse's reins and his plumed hat, and seeming, by the gesture of his right hand and by the expression of his countenance, to be issuing some command connected with the evolutions of a battle. The weight of the entire figure rests on the horse's hind legs and tail; and it demanded great skill to distribute the metal through the parts in such a way as to produce a secure equipoise. The Duke not only sat to the artist for his portrait, but also rode to him, so as to give him exact ideas of his style of horsemanship. The inauguration of the Wellington statue took place in the midst of a violent thunderstorm, which gave origin to the following epigram:—

' 'Mid lightning's flash and thunders deafening peal,
Behold the Iron Duke, in bronze, by Steell!'

The Prince Consort's Monument stands in the centre of Charlotte Square, and is a very elaborate and magnificent structure, a period of fully thirteen years elapsing between its conception and its completion in August 1876. It was designed by Steell, and executed mainly by him, but partly also by Brodie, Stanton, Maccallum, and Stevenson. While the artists were busy, the question as to the most suitable site for it, whether on the pavement in front of the new Post Office, in a recess opposite the Industrial Museum, in the Queen's Park behind Holyrood, or in some one of eight or nine other places, was long and keenly debated, and was not decided in favour of Charlotte Square till 1871. The monument rises from a platform of Peterhead syenite, forms three stages, has a total height of 35 feet, and stands in full view throughout the length of George Street. The platform measures 20 feet by 20, and is enriched with bas-reliefs and groups of statuary; the first stage is about 4 feet high, and has at each angle a square projection, surmounted by a group of figures; the second stage has its sides covered with quotations from the Prince Consort's public speeches; and the third stage is richly moulded, exhibits bronze bas-reliefs-the larger ones showing the marriage of the Queen and the opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851, while the two lesser panels illustrate the domestic and artistic tastes of the Prince Consort. The colossal equestrian statue of the Prince is in the uniform of afield-marshal. The groups of statuary on the first stage represent 'labour,' by Maccallum and Stevenson; the 'services,' by Clark Stanton; 'learning and science,' by Stevenson; and the fourth group by Brodie shows the nobility offering their homage to the Prince; while a group of emblematic objects resting on the ledge formed by the projection of the second stage beyond the third represents the Prince's honours and pursuits.

A monument to Miss Catherine Sinclair is at the E end of Queen Street, opposite St Colme Street; was erected in 1868; and has the form of an elegant Eleanor cross. David Hume's monument is a mausoleum in the High Calton burying-ground, a few yards W of the Prison, and surmounting the cliff overhanging the junction of Low Calton an d North Back of Canongate. It is a dark, low circular tower, open at the top; and figures conspicuously in various views from the Old Town. The Political Martyrs' monument, to the memory of Muir, Palmer, Skirving, and others who suffered banishment in 1794 for their efforts in the cause of political reform, is in the vicinity of Hume's monument. It was erected in 1845, and is a plain, lofty, conspicuous obelisk. Visible from the street, under the western arcade of the University, is the white marble statue of Sir David Brewster, the late principal of the university. Close by St John's Episcopal Church, and fronting Princes Street, is a memorial Ionic cross, with medallions, erected in honour of Dean Ramsay, for many years incumbent of St John's, and more widely known for his Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character. The Rev. Dr Dickson's monument and that of Mr Jamieson has been already noticed in the section on St Cuthbert's. A monument in the Greyfriars' buryingground, though possessing no attractions as a work of art, is intensely interesting as commemorating the martyrs of the Covenant executed at Edinburgh during the twenty-seven years preceding the Revolution. Multitudes of monuments in the several burying-grounds, particularly in the newer ones, display much beauty; while not a few, such as those of Dr Chalmers, Hugh Miller, Sir Andrew Agnew, and Dr Guthrie, in the Grange cemetery; Lords Jeffrey and Cockburn, and many other celebrities, in the Dean; Alexander Smith, the poet, Sir James Simpson, and others in Warriston -possess intense interest for their associations.

Extinct Civil Edifices.—The ancient City Cross stood on the thoroughfare of High Street, opposite the site of the Royal Exchange. It was the place for state proclamations, the scene both of festive celebrations and of special executions, and it consisted of a basement building and a surmounting pillar. The basement blinding was octagonal, measured 16 feet in diameter and 15 feet in height, and was in a mixed style of Gothic and Grecian. It had, at each corner, an Ionic pillar, surmounted by a mimic Gothic bastion; showed between each two pillars a semicircular arch, and between each two bastions a medallion sculpture; was pierced, on the E side, by a door, giving ingress to a staircase leading to its summit; and was roofed by a platform. The surmounting pillar rose from the centre of the platform, measured 18 inches in diameter and 15 feet in height, had a Corinthian capital decorated with thistles, and was crowned by a unicorn embracing an upright spear of nearly twice its own length. The entire structure was removed, in 1617, to make way for the procession of James VI. on his first visit to Scotland after his accession to the English throne, was afterwards rebuilt, in an inferior style, on a spot a few paces from its original site, but, on account of its obstructing the thoroughfare, was finally removed in 1756. A number of the ornamental stones are preserved at Abbotsford; and the surmounting pillar long stood on the lawn of Drum House near Gilmerton. It was returned to the city in 1869, and re-erected, on a new pedestal, within the railings on the N side of St Giles' Church, but, instead of the unicorn originally belonging to it, it has a new one carved in 1869. An octagonal figure in the causeway marks the spot on which the cross stood prior to 1756, bears the name of Market Cross, and is the place at which all royal proclamations are still made. It is thus Sir Walter Scott, whose own monumental cross is now the grandest structure of its class in the world, expresses his regret over the demolition of the city cross—

'Dunedin's cross, a pillar'd stone,
Rose on a turret octagon.
But bow is razed that monument
Whence royal edict rang,
And voice of Scotlands law was sent
In glorious trumpet clang.
Oh! be his tomb as lead to lead;
Upon its dull destroyer's head
A minstrel's malison is said.'

The ancient Weigh-house stood on the thoroughfare at the head of Lawnmarket and West Bow, and was a handsome edifice, surmounted by a neat spire. It combined with the City Cross, the spire of St Giles' Church, and the spire of the Netherbow gateway, to give the line of High Street a picturesqueness of appearance greatly superior to what it now possesses; but it was demolished by Cromwell in 1650. Another Weigh-house, on the site of the ancient one, was erected in 1660, of an ungainly form, often called the Butter Tron, to distinguish it from a weigh beam in the central part of High Street, called the Salt Tron. It served the Jacobite army, in 1745, as a military post for blockading the Castle; and was demolished in 1822, in the course of preparation for the public reception of George IV. The Luckenbooths extended eastward between Lawnmarket and High Street, from the Old Tolbooth to the vicinity of the City Cross, being separated from St Giles' Church by a lane for pedestrians. They consisted principally of lofty houses, with timber fronts and projecting peaked gables; were erected, probably in the time of James III., to serve for shops and warehouses; and were demolished in 1817. The lane between them and St Giles' was lined on both sides with shops; those on the S side adhering like excrescences to the walls of the church, began to be erected in 1555, and were called the Krames. A flight of steps led from the E end of that lane, past St Giles' Church, called St Mary's Steps, receiving that name from a statue of the Virgin Mary in a niche on its W side. Another lane, called the Old Kirk Style, led through the middle of the Luckenbooths to a porch, now extinct, in the northern part of St Giles' Church, and was the scene of the murder, in 1525, of Maclellan of Bombie by the lairds of Drumlanrig and Lochinvar. The easternmost house of the Luckenbooths was much less ancient than the others, and contained a famous publishing establishment, occupied in 1725 and subsequent years by Allan Ramsay, and from 1775 till 1815 by William Creech, twice lord provost of the city. The Black Turnpike stood immediately W of the site of the Tron Church, partly on ground now leading into Hunter Square, partly on ground now otherwise occupied. It was a large, stately, beautiful structure, one of the most remarkable in High Street; and was erected about the beginning of the 15th century, but popularly regarded as having been built near the end of the 10th century by King Kenneth III. It was the town mansion of Sir Simon Preston, provost of Edinburgh in 1567, and was the place of Queen Mary's incarceration on the day of her capture at Carberry Hill, and also during the last night she spent in Edinburgh. The Darien House, an oblong edifice, in the French style, with high pitched roof, stood close by the City Wall, on the W side of Bristo Place, being erected in 1698 as offices in connection with the famous and disastrous scheme for Scottish colonisation on the Isthmus of Darien. It came to be used as a pauper lunatic asylum, and was, as such, the death-place of the poet Fergusson. It formed a curiously picturesque relic of its time, and was taken down in 1871. Other extinct edifices have been noticed in previous sections, and some will be noticed in the sequel.

The University.—The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1582 by James VI. The edifice it originally occupied belonged, first to the Collegiate Church of St Mary in the Fields, and next to the Earl of Arran. The Church of St Mary in the Fields appears to have been founded in the 15th century, and stood, as its name implies, originally outside the City Walls; but was included within the extension-wall of 1513; occupying ground now partly covered by the south-eastern portion of the present University buildings, and partly forming the present street area thence to the NW corner of Drummond Street. It was a large cruciform edifice, surmounted by a lofty central tower, and adjoined by residences for its clergy; was served by a provost, 8 prebendaries, and 2 choristers; was the meeting-place of the Scottish ecclesiastics, convoked by the papal nuncio Bagimont to ascertain the value of benefices throughout the kingdom; and acquired an infamous notoriety from its provost's house being the scene, in 1567, of the murder of Lord Darnley. Portions of its buildings were appropriated in 1582 for the uses of the University, and other portions were swept away. The University portions were enlarged, in 1617, by additions containing a common hall and several class-rooms; but these were both unsightly and incommodious, and part eventually became ruinous. A resolution was come to, after the middle of last century, to sell part of the University's property, and raise public subscriptions, for the erection of an entirely new edifice, of great extent and magnificence; and that resolution issued in the realisation of about £32,000. The new edifice was founded in 1789; was designed to have the form of a hollow parallelogram; was carried on till the funds became exhausted; and then consisted of only the front or E part of the designed parallelogram. That part became immediately available for the University, but formed a striking contrast to the old, plain, weatherworn structures which required to be retained; and it long stood in a condition of hopelessness as to the probability of its ever becoming winged with the other elevations of the original plan. In 1815, however, an act of parliament was obtained, allotting £10,000 a year to the further construction of the edifice till it was completed. The original design, which had been drawn by Adam, was then revised and extensively altered, particularly as to the interior façades, by W. H. Playfair. The building operations went regularly on till the N and the W sides of the parallelogram were completed; they then came again to a long pause; and, after having been once more resumed, were brought to completion in 1834. The last extant portion of the old buildings belonged to the erection of 1617; and consisted of a small square tower, which was taken down in 1827. (See Alex. Bower's History of the University of Edinburgh, Edinb. 1817-30. First ed. is in 2 vols.; the second in 3 vols.)

The edifice presents its main front to South Bridge, and its N front to Chambers Street, and forms an entire side of respectively West College Street and South College Street, and measures 358 feet from E to W, and 255 feet from N to S. Its style of architecture is Græco-Italian, and the exterior fronts are in symmetrical ornamental façades, and have four stories differing much from one another in height. Were it situated on a rising-ground in an extensive park, it would appear almost without a parallel among the modern edifices of Scotland, but, standing as it does engirt with streets, and confronted all round by lofty houses, it can be seen only at such near successive views as to produce impressions chiefly of astonishment and confusion. The basement story is sunk and rusticated, the second is lofty and adorned with window mouldings, the third resembles the second, but is not so lofty or so well adorned, and the fourth is an attic. The central part of the main front contains the entrance, and has three lofty archways, of which only the middle one is for carriages. A grand Doric portico of centre and wings adorns the entrance, the centres recessed and having two attached columns at the sides of the carriage archway, the wings having each two projected columns and covering the side archways. All the six columns are of equal diameter and 26 feet high, and are each formed of a single block of stone. A very broad entablature, with a long appropriate Latin inscription, surmounts the portico. A massive dome was designed by Adam to rise immediately behind the entablature, and to form the crowning feature of all the main front, but it was not sanctioned in the revisal for completing the edifice, though a sum of money had been bequeathed by a citizen for the purpose of raising this dome. The N front, flanking the eastern part of Chambers Street, extends along the whole of what was formerly North College Street, and there is a proposal to bring this front into harmony with the new blocks of building lining the rest of Chambers Street.

The interior area is reached by ascent through the archways, stands considerably higher than the exterior level, is very spacious, and has finer architectural features than those of the exterior fronts. A continuous platform or small paved terrace goes round the base of the main elevations, considerably higher than the level of the open court, is reached at intervals by flights of steps, and both along its own lines and on the lines of the flights of steps is adorned with handsome balustrades. The fronts of the main elevations have two lofty stories, the lower one rusticated, the upper adorned with columns; the junctions of front with front are not corners but curves, containing the entrances to most of the apartments, and the curves are filled in the lower story with arcade-piazzas, in their upper story with open galleries supported by Ionic columns. The E front or that containing the street entrances is adorned with Doric columns and entablature; the W front is fitted in the central part of its lower story with an arcade-piazza, within which is the monument to Sir David Brewster, late principal, and is adorned in its upper story with Corinthian attached columns and Venetian windows; the N and S fronts correspond to each other, and have on their upper story a series of Corinthian attached columns. The library occupies both stories of the S side; has a magnificent principal hall, occupying the greater part of the upper story, and measuring 198 feet in length and 50 feet in breadth; contains about 140,000 printed books and 2000 volumes of manuscript, and numerous busts and pictures of professors and distinguished alumni. The Museum formerly occupied a large portion of the W side, but was removed to the adjacent Industrial Museum. The music class-room was formerly on the same side, but now occupies a separate building in Park Place, about 260 yards SW of the south-western corner of the University, erected about 1856; and is a neat and spacious edifice, with an appearance somewhat like that of a church.

The University originated in a bequest of 8000 merks by Robert Reid, Bishop of Orkney, twenty-four years before the date of its formal foundation in 1582. It was opened in 1583 by the amiable Professor Robert Rollock; did not acquire a second professorship till 1597; rose to have eight professorships in 1685; introduced the study of medicine into its curriculum in the latter part of the 17th century; and ran thence so brilliant a course that a mere list of its highly distinguished professors and alumni would be too long for insertion within our limits. (See A Catalogue of the Graduates in the Faculties of Arts, Divinity, and Law of the University of Edinburgh since its Foundation, edited by David Laing, and published by the Bannatyne Club, Edinb. 1858.) There are now seventeen professorships in its faculty of arts, four in its faculty of divinity, four in its faculty of law, and thirteen in its faculty of medicine. The professorships, with the dates of their foundations, are humanity, 1597; mathematics, 1679; Greek, 1708; logic and metaphysics, 1708; moral philosophy, 1708; natural philosophy, 1708; history, 1719; rhetoric and English literature, 1760; practical astronomy, 1786; agriculture, 1790; engineering, 1868; theory of music, 1839; Sanskrit and comparative philology, 1862; geology and mineralogy, 1871; commercial and political economy, and mercantile law, 1871; fine art, 1879; theory, practice, and history of education, 1876; divinity, 1629; Hebrew and Oriental languages, 1642; church history, 1694; biblical criticism and biblical antiquities, 1846; public law, 1707; civil law, 1710; Scots law, 1722; conveyancing, 1825; botany, 1676; institutes of medicine, 1685; practice of physic, 1685; anatomy, 1705; chemistry and chemical pharmacy, 1713; midwifery and diseases of women and children, 1726; clinical medicine, 1741; natural history, 1767; materia medica, 1768; clinical surgery, 1803; medical jurisprudence, 1807; surgery, 1831; general pathology, 1831. The patronage of fifteen of the chairs, and partly that of six others, was formerly held by the town council of Edinburgh; but, under the University Act of 1858, was transferred to seven curators, four of them chosen by the town council and three by the university court. The patronage of the chairs of rhetoric, practical astronomy, engineering, Sanskrit, geology, church history, biblical criticism, public law, natural history, clinical surgery, and medical jurisprudence is held by the Crown; that of the humanity chair by the Lords of Session, the Faculty of Advocates, the society of Writers to the Signet, and the curators; that of history, civil law, and Scotch law chairs by the Faculty of Advocates and the curators; that of the agriculture chair by the Lords of Session, the University Court, and the curators; that of the music chair by the University Court; that of the commercial and political economy chair by the Merchant Company and the curators; that of the conveyancing chair by the Deputy-Keeper and Society of Writers to the Signet and the curators; and that of all the other chairs is held by the curators. Robert Rollock, the first professor, took in 1585 the rank of principal, but his successor, in his capacity of principal, is one who does not now fill any professorial chair.

The emoluments of the principal and the professors are derived from various sources, and are as follow, exclnsive of class fees, which range from two to five guineas, according to class:-Principal £1200, with official residence; humanity £247, 10s., assistant £100; mathematics £258, 6s. 8d., assistant £100; Greek £247, 4s. 4d., assistant £100; logic £322, 4s. 4d.; moral philosophy £322, 4s. 4d.; natural philosophy £282, 4s. 4d., assistant £100; rhetoric £280; history £170; astronomy £320; agriculture £370; music £420, assistant £200; Sanskrit £450; engineering £400; geology £420; political economy £450; education £210; fine arts £427, 16s. 5d.; divinity £426, 2s. 2d.; Hebrew £300; church history £350; biblical criticism £630; public law £250; civil law £250; Scots law £100; conveyancing £105; botany £200; institutes of medicine £150; practice of physic £100; chemistry £200; midwifery £100; natural history £195, 15s. 2d.; materia medica £100, assistant £25; clinical surgery £100; medical jurisprudence £100, assistant £25; surgery £100; general pathology £100. There is also a considerable sum allowed to various of the professors for class expenses.

Attached to the several faculties there are nearly 70 fellowships and scholarships, tenable generally from two to four years, and of the value variously of £20 up to £120. Of bursaries in the arts faculty there are about 160, of the annual value of upwards of £4000-the bursaries ranging from £4 to £90; in divinity 32, annual value about £625, ranging from £7 to £60; in law 13, annual value about £350, ranging from £19 to £30; in medicine 23, annual value about £615, ranging from £20 to £60. Five additional fellowships in science and philosophy have been added (1882) to the above, and are of the annual value of £100 each. They are tenable for three years.

The chief officers of the University are a chancellor, chosen by the general council; vice-chancellor, chosen by the chancellor; rector, chosen by the matriculated students; principal, chosen by the curators; and five assessors, chosen by respectively the chancellor, the town council, the rector, the general council, and the Senatus Academicus. The University Court consists of the rector, the principal, the lord provost of Edinburgh, and the five assessors. The Senatus Academicus consists of the principal and the professors. The winter session, which comprehends all the faculties, opens in the beginning of November, and closes for certain classes in the beginning and for others in the end of April. The summer session, which comprehends only the faculties of law and medicine, with tutorial classes in arts, opens in the beginning of May and closes in the end of July. The number of students for a number of years, till about 1830, was generally as high as about 2000; it afterwards fell till, about 1858, the number did not average much above 800, but subsequently rose again till it reached 1513 in 1868, 1768 in 1871, 2076 in 1875, 2617 in 1878, 2856 in 1879, 3172 in 1880; and there were 3237 students in residence and on the register in 1881. The students were divided between the different faculties in 1881 in the following proportions:-Faculty of arts, 1047; law, 458; divinity, 94; and medicine, 1638. The list of graduates for 1881 gave the following results:-In arts, 97 took the degree of M.A., and 14 the degree of bachelor of science (B.Sc.); in divinity, 8 took the degree of bachelor of divinity (B. D.); in law, 7 took the degree of bachelor of laws (LL. B.), and 2 that of bachelor of law (B. L.); in medicine, 35 took the degree of doctor of medicine (M.D.), 133 the double degrees of bachelor of medicine and master in surgery (M. B. and C.M.), and 4 the degree of M.B. only. The certificate of literate in arts (L.A.) was granted to 4 successful candidates. The General Council in 1881 comprised about 4500 members. It meets twice a year, on the first Tuesday after 14 April and on the last Friday in October. The University of Edinburgh, under the Reform Act of 1867, unites with the University of St Andrews in sending a representative to parliament, and the number of members who voted at the first election in 1868 was 3263; in 1881, the number on the roll was 4438; in 1882, 4525.

New Medical Buildings.—A new suite of college buildings, to comprise medical class-rooms and a university hall, to accommodate 2000 persons, was, as originally proposed, to occupy ground opposite the old Royal Infirmary. The removal of the latter building, however, led to a reconsideration of this proposal, and a site was bought for the purpose at Teviot Row and Park Place for about £30,000. The projected new buildings were estimated to cost altogether about £200,000, and were to include class-rooms, anatomical theatre, laboratories, and museums, with the latest scientific improvements. The removal of these departments from the original university buildings, it was expected, would allow the reorganisation of the existing class-rooms, and adapt them better to the requirements of the faculties of arts, divinity, and law; give room for a university hall for the conferring of degrees; and facilitate the improvement of the front of the old building. The new buildings adjoin the Meadow avenue, and are in the street line with the new Infirmary, having their principal entrance from Park Place, above the doorway being some fine carved work, over which are the words, 'Surgery, Anatomy, Practice of Physic.' The buildings are ranged round two large quadrangular courts, which serve the purposes of promoting ventilation and increasing the facilities for lighting. The N court, measuring 127 by 85 feet, lies parallel to Teviot Row, from which it enters through a great central entrance, consisting of a spacious archway for carriages and smaller arched foot passage alongside, separated by a row of pillars. The range of buildings on the N side of this court is intended for the departments of materia medica and medical jurisprudence. The S court, 97 by 53 feet, is occupied at the E end by the anatomy class-room, 58 by 42 feet, presenting to the quadrangle a semicircular outline, and occupying the entire height of the building, which is 46½ feet. This room is seated for 500 students, for whose use it is fitted up with iron desks, supported with iron stanchions. In connection with this anatomy class room, there are on the E side a professor's retiring-room, 14 by 20½ feet; a work-room, 29 by 20 feet; and in the extreme SE corner a bone-room, 39 by 38 feet, for tutorial purposes. The anatomical museum is 112 feet long by 40 feet wide. Of the range forming the S side of the S court, the upper floor, measuring 108 feet in length, 39 in width, and 27 in height, is set apart as the dissecting-room, the roof being formed in ridges glazed towards the N, so as to afford a steady light. There are also six windows, 14 feet high by about 7 feet wide, which aid both the ventilation and the lighting of the room. Grouped conveniently at one end are cloak-rooms and lavatory accommodation, while at the other end are a demonstration-room, 21 by 9½ feet, and another smaller room for the demonstrator. Above this is a private dissecting-room, 20 by 39 feet. On the floor beneath, adjoining the anatomy class-room, there are the microscopic-room, 40 by 17 feet, with N light, and accommodation for demonstrators and assistants; while the remainder of the floor is set apart for laboratory and other rooms appropriated to this department of research. All the class-rooms are furnished with ventilating grates and stone fenders, the arrangements generally for heating and ventilating the entire building being of a most complete description. Nearly all the rooms have 'extraction shafts,' for the purpose of carrying away the vitiated air to the great ventilating stalk in the centre of the buildings. This stalk rests on a square base 18 feet wide, and rises to a height of about 180 feet. Near the bottom it is 50½ feet in circumference, while at the top it is contracted to 17½ feet. About 150 feet from the base there are eight ornamental openings for the outlet of the vitiated air led into the stalk from the different class-rooms. Up the centre runs a chimney made of malleable iron boiler-plate, 2½ feet in diameter, which escapes at the cone-shaped summit of the shaft; and which, by heating the air encircling it, produces an efficient draught for ventilating purposes. Owing to a fall in the ground in the S court, space is obtained for a commodious basement below the street floor-level, which is devoted to cellarage purposes. Here three boilers are also fitted up-two in connection with the heating, and the third for supplying hot water; while the engine-room likewise contains the accumulator for working the various 'lifts' in the schools. Every precaution has been taken against fire, hydrants being fitted up in every floor; while the pipes laid through the class-rooms rest on a concrete bottom, the covering on the top consisting of flagstones. The buildings were first partially opened in October 1880.

Museum of Science and Art.—The Industrial Museum, or Museum of Science and Art, stands immediately behind the University, on the S side of Chambers Street, and occupies the site of Argyle Square, the old Trades' Maiden Hospital, and an Independent chapel. It was begun in the laying of its foundation-stone by the late Prince Consort in October 1861, and was finished to the extent of about one-third of the whole design, and formally opened to the public in May 1866, when it comprised a great hall 105 feet long, 70 wide, and 77 high, a natural history hall 130 feet long, 57 wide, and 77 high, a S hall 70 feet long, 50 wide, and 77 high, and a NE room 70 feet long and 50 wide. In 1871 it was further enlarged to the extent of more than one-third of the whole design, and completed in the spring of 1874. It contains in that part the continuation and completion of the great hall, now 270 feet long, a refreshment hall 50 feet long and 30 wide, an eastern annexe 62 feet long and 50 wide, a western annexe 85 feet long and 70 wide, some other spacious apartments, and a range of workshops; but the whole design will be completed by the erection of its western wing, for which Government has made provision in the estimates of 1882-83. It will measure in its completed state 400 feet in length, 200 in breadth, and average 90 in height. It is externally in the Venetian Renaissance style, and internally in that order of architecture invented by Sir Joseph Paxton for the Crystal Palace, elaborated and systematised by Captain Fowke, who also furnished the design. The exterior is constructed of white and red sandstone, the interior is variously and elaborately decorated; the roofing is in open timber-work and glass; the artificial lighting is effected by means of horizontal iron rods on the roof, studded with thousands of gas-jets; and the entire aspect is light, rich, and elegant. A glazed gallery, in form of a bridge spanning West College Street, communicates between its E end and the interior of the University buildings. Temporary entrances were in use for some years, but the main entrance is now in Chambers Street by two flights of broad steps, and consists of three noble round-headed doorways separated by pilasters, and opening into a spacious vestibule.

The Museum contains the splendid collections in natural history formerly in the University; it acquired, in 1867, 4206 additional specimens in natural history, and 2767 specimens in the department of industrial art; and has continued in subsequent years to acquire by purchase or by gift correspondingly large accessions to its contents. In its natural history department it contains over ten thousand birds and upwards of a thousand mammalia. In its industrial department it has the largest collections of raw products anywhere in the world, together with illustrations of nearly all the principal manufactures of Great Britain, and many of those of foreign countries. There are also sections for constructive materials, mining, metallurgy, ceramic art, vitreous manufactures, decorative arts, textile manufactures, photography, materia medica, chemistry, food, education, and other departments. Admission is free on Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, but 6d. is charged on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays. The number of visitors to it in the week ending Feb. 11, 1882, was free days, 2536; evenings, 3016; pay days, 75-total, 5627; and this may be taken as a fair average. The total number of visitors since the opening to the same date was 5, 863, 579. A series of lectures to citizens, chiefly by University professors, was delivered for several years in evenings of the winter months. It usually comprised six or seven courses, on as many different sciences or scientific subjects; was accessible for a fee of one shilling for each course, and was attended in 1869-70 by 1386 persons, in the previous winter by a larger number; but the lectures were eventually discontinued in consequence of inadequate remuneration to the lecturers. Space was afforded in the part finished in 1874 for bringing into view great and valuable accumulations of interesting objects which could not previously be shown, and space will be available both there and in the designed western wing for any amount of accumulations which can be made for many years to come.

Extra Mural Medical Schools.—Surgeons' Hall stands on the E side of Nicolson Street, about 100 yards from the University, and was built in 1833, after a design by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of £20,000. It is a large and splendid edifice in the Grecian style, contrasting strongly with the plain buildings in its neighbourhood; presents a main front to the street, mostly covered with a lofty hexastyle Ionic portico, the base in the form of a curtain-wall, the columns fluted and well proportioned, the frieze and the tympanum adorned with fine carved work; is entered by two pedimented doorways at the ends of the curtain-wall; and contains apartments for meetings, tastefully fitted galleries, and valuable museums, consisting chiefly of anatomical and pathological subjects. The Royal College of Surgeons, to whom the hall belongs, was incorporated in 1505, and re-incorporated in 1778; maintains courses of lectures to students of medicine; issues diplomas, and serves as a coadjutor to the medical faculty of the University; and, together with the Royal College of Physicians, is recognised in the Medical Act of 1858. Its winter course of lectures comprises surgery, chemistry, physiology, medical jurisprudence, clinical medicine, clinical surgery, anatomy, pathology, and practice of physic; and the summer course includes some of these, and adds midwifery, botany, natural philosophy, histology, in sanity, history of medicine, dental surgery, venereal diseases, and surgical appliances.

The Physicians' Hall, from 1775 till 1845, was on the S side of George Street, on the ground now occupied by the Commercial Bank; and was a beautiful structure three stories high, in pure Grecian style, with a tetrastyle Corinthian portico. The present hall stands in Queen Street, midway between St David Street and Hanover Street; was built in 1845 after designs by T. Hamilton; has a Corinthian portico of unique character, comprising successively a tetrastyle, an entablature, a distyle in entablature, and a pediment; and contains a fine hall for meetings and a good museum. The tetrastyle of its portico has columns of the rare quasi-Corinthian kind called by some architects the Attic; the ends of the first entablature are surmounted by statues of Esculapius and Hippocrates, from the chisel of A. H. Ritchie; and the apex of the pediment is crowned by a statue of Hygeia. A new library-hall was added in 1877; this hall is 55 feet long and 32 feet wide, with a circular ceiling, 27 feet 6 inches high in the centre, divided into panels, ten of which are filled in with glass. This hall is in the Italian style, and was designed by Mr David Bryce. The Royal College of Physicians, to whom the hall belongs, was incorporated in 1681; possesses an exclusive but obsolete privilege of practising medicine within certain limits of the ancient city; is charged with the public duty of preventing the sale of adulterated drugs; maintains an annual course of six lectures on mental diseases; and indirectly supports the medical schools of the city.

The Minto House School of Medicine occupies very nearly the site of the old building which bore this name; is a very handsome building with ornate front in keeping with the Industrial Museum, opposite which it stands in Chambers Street; and has a staff of seventeen lecturers. The Dental School, in Chambers Street, occupies one of the old buildings in Brown Square, which has been adapted for the purpose, and has a staff of five lecturers. The School of Medicine and Pharmacy is in one of the new buildings in Marshall Street, and has five lecturers.

The Veterinary College stands on the N side of Clyde Street, near the NE corner of St Andrew Square; is a modern three-story edifice in plain Doric style; and possesses apartments and appliances for the instruction of students in veterinary medicine. The institution was established in 1818; was patronised by the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland in 1823; and is under the trusteeship and patronage of the magistrates and town council of Edinburgh. It is conducted by a principal, four professors, and two assistants; and maintains lectures on veterinary medicine and surgery, cattle pathology and materia medica, physiology, chemistry and chemical pharmacy, anatomy and anatomical demonstrations, and on clinical medicine and clinical surgery. The winter session commences early in November, and continues till the end of April; and the summer session commences in the second week of May, and continues till the end of July. The New Veterinary College was established in 1873 within Gayfield House, off the N side of East London Street; possesses new adjuncts of yards and premises suited to all the purposes of instruction; is affiliated with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the board of examiners in Scotland, and incorporated by royal charter in 1844. It is conducted by a principal and five professors; and maintains lectures in veterinary medicine and surgery, anatomy and anatomical demonstrations, physiology, chemistry and toxicology, materia medica and therapeutics, botany at the Botanic Garden, practical pharmacy, and in clinical instruction.

Royal Institution.—The edifice called the Royal Institution stands on the N end of the Mound. It has a proximately oblong form, with the short fronts to the N and the S, and rests on a substructure of wooden piles and cross-bearers, rendered necessary by the ground being travelled earth. It was founded in 1823, extended in 1832, and completed in 1836, after designs by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of £40,000, and is in pure Doric style of the era of Pericles, and somewhat resembles a peripteral temple, with fluted columns along all the face of its four sides, resting on flights of steps, and surmounted by a uniform entablature. The N front contains the principal entrance, approached by a noble flight of steps; and it has a magnificent portico with three lines of columns, the first and the second line containing each eight columns, the third line containing two; while a massive pediment, with richly carved tympanum, surmounts the entablature. The S front corresponds, in form and ornament, to the N one, but has only two lines of columns, the first with eight columns, and the second with four, in antes. The E and the W fronts are precisely alike; and each of them has a distyle projection at both ends, and seventeen columns between the two projections. The walls, at the inter-columniations are pierced with windows; the summit of the N front, as formerly noticed, is crowned with a colossal statue of Queen Victoria; and the summit of each of the four distyle projections is crowned with a pair of sphinxes. The edifice contains the apartments of the Royal Institution for the encouragement of the fine arts in Scotland; the apartments of the Board of Trustees for the encouragement of manufactures and fisheries; those of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, comprising library, museum, and select gallery of portraits; the class-rooms of the school of design; a gallery of statuary; and the Antiquarian Museum.

The school of design has a salaried staff of directors, two preceptors, and a lecturer; dates from the year 1760; and was attended in 1880-81 by 490 male pupils, and 326 female pupils-less by 25 the total of the preceding years, the falling off being attributable greatly to the inconvenient crowding of the class-rooms. The gallery of statuary contains casts of the Elgin marbles, of all the celebrated ancient statues, and of the Ghiberti gates at Florence, as well as a series of casts of antique Greek and Roman busts, originally collected at Rome; and it is open, for a charge of 6d., from 10 till 4 on Wednesdays and Fridays, and free from 10 till 4 on Saturdays. The Antiquarian Museum belongs to the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, instituted in 1780, and chartered in 1783; is now maintained as a national museum, at the expense of Government; was lodged from 1781 till 1787 in a house in Cowgate, till 1793 in Chessels buildings in Canongate, till 1813 in Gosford's Close in Lawnmarket, till 1825 in the house 42 George Street, till 18 44 in the Royal Institution, till 1860 in the building in George Street containing the Edinburgh Life Assurance Company's office; was then brought back to the Royal Institution; was rearranged there with much improvement; and is open to the public for a charge of 6d. on Thursdays and Fridays, and free on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. Some of the many interesting objects in it are ancient sculptures from various countries, Egyptian antiquities, ancient British utensils and implements, Romano-British pottery and glass, old Scottish wood-carvings, relics from the Swiss lake-dwellings, two metallic crosses and a curious iron fetter from Abyssinia, instruments of torture and punishment formerly used in Scotland, the Scottish 'Maiden' or guillotine, John Knox's pulpit from St Giles' Church, an old stool alleged to have been that which Jenny Geddes hurled at the head of the Dean of St Giles', the 'stool of repentance' from Old Greyfriars' Church, the original copies on vellum of Solemn League and Covenant, the banner of the covenant used at the battle of Bothwell Brig, a collection of relics and memorials of the principal political and other controversies of former times, the blue ribbon worn by Prince Charles Edward as a Knight of the Garter in 1745, a collection of old paper money, Scottish, American, and French, and autographs of Queen Mary, James VI., Charles I., Cromwell, and other notable persons. The number of visitors to the museum in the course of a year has steadily increased from about 67,000 in 1861, to upwards of 120,000 at the present time.

Art Galleries.—The building, called variously the Art Gallery and the National Gallery, stands on the central and southern parts of the Mound, and occupies a site computed to be worth £30,000, but given free by the town council. To erect it, vast excavations and substructions had to be made, and extensive improvements on the adjacent ground had to be effected, either preparatory to its own construction, or in order to harmonise it with surrounding structures. The building was commenced in August 1850, in the laying of its foundation-stone by the late Prince Consort, but did not reach completion till 1858, and cost, directly or indirectly, about £40,000. It was designed to provide suitable accommodation for the annual exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy, for the extension of the school of design, and for the instituting of a Scottish national gallery of painting and sculpture; was erected after designs by W. H. Playfair in the Greek-Ionic style, about the same width as the Royal Institution, but nearly a third longer; and extends in main length from N to S, but has a short, broad, high transept intersecting the middle, so as to be comparatively cruciform. The N and S fronts are exactly alike, but the former is in a great degree hidden by the Royal Institution, while the latter stands so much lower than the adjacent roadway as to be visible only at a very close view; and each is completely faced with an Ionic portico of two projecting wings and a centre, each wing having four columns and a pediment, and the centre having two columns in antes and a balustrade. The E and the W fronts are conspicuous from all points, high and low, whence the Mound itself can be seen; and the transept face of each displays a handsome hexastyle Ionic portico with a pediment, while the rest of the wall presents a bald appearance, relieved only by pilasters and by a balustered parapet. The eastern division of the edifice contains five octagonal apartments, lighted by cupolas; is occupied by the Royal Scottish Academy; and, from February to May every year, is used for exhibitions of the works of living artists, and then is so much frequented as to be the most fashionable lounge in the city. The western division has a similar arrangement to the eastern, and is devoted entirely to the National Gallery as a permanent collection of works of art. The collection includes works, or copies of works, by Titian, Tintoretto, Guido, Paul Veronese, Francesco, Albano, Spagnoletto, Vandyke, Rembrandt, Velasquez, and other continental masters; portraits by Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir John W. Gordon, and Graham Gilbert; works of Sir George Harvey, Sir Noel Paton, Horatio Macculloch, Dyce, Etty, Roberts, Faed, Herdman, Chalmers, and other modern artists; some very fine specimens of water-colour drawings; and the statue of the poet Burns by Flaxman. Admission to the National Gallery is given for a charge of 6d. on Thursdays and Fridays, and free on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays.

The Albert Gallery was projected in 1876, in connection with an institution to be styled the Albert Institute of the Fine Arts, and erected on the N side of Shandwick Place, at a cost of £25,000, from designs by W. Beattie; it was designed for an art exhibition and artist's studios, with shops on the ground floor. The Institute was intended to promote the encouragement of fine art in general, and contemporary Scottish art in particular, by an autumn exhibition of water colours, a winter exhibition of painting and sculpture, and generally throughout the year by the exhibition and sale of works of art. Failing to succeed in these objects, this ornate building is now occupied by the Scottish Meteorological Society, the Edinburgh School of Cookery, and the offices of several lawyers and others.

Scientific and Literary Institutions.—The old Royal Observatory stands on Calton Hill, to the N of Dugald Stewart's Monument, and was projected in 1736, but not founded till 1776. It was erected after designs by Craig and Adam, and intended to have the form of a fortress, but completed to only a small portion of the design, and never properly served its purpose. It is a plain, dingy, three-story structure, in the form of a strong tower, and contains a self-registering anemometer and a rain gauge. The new Royal Observatory stands on the summit of Calton Hill, on a tabular open tract E of the old Observatory, and was founded in 1818, and built after a design by W. H. Playfair, in the form of a St George's Cross, measuring 62 feet from N to S, and from E to W. It exhibits on each of its four fronts a hexastyle Doric portico, with handsome pediment; is surmounted, at the centre, by a dome 13 feet in diameter; has the mural circle in the W, the transit instrument and the astronomical clock in the E, and a solid pillar 19 feet high, for the astronomical circle, in the centre at the dome. It was improved in 1871 by the construction of an astronomer's house, with supplementary rooms for purposes of observation; and maintains true time throughout the city, partly by aid of electro-controlled clocks, and partly by the two simultaneous signals of time-ball and time-gun. Short's Observatory, on Castle Hill, serves rather as a place of amusement than for strictly scientific purposes, and has already been noticed.

The Royal Botanic Garden was founded by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald in 1670, and was used for the purpose of teaching by the professor of botany in the University from 1676. As already stated, its first site was in the valley to the rear of the Post Office, in a district long after known as the Physic Gardens. In 17 63 it was transferred to Leith Walk, whence, in 1824, it was removed to Inverleith Row. It was greatly enlarged about 1867, by inclusion of the contiguous Experimental Garden. It contains a superintendent's house, a lecture room, a museum, a magnetic observatory, extensive hot-houses, splendid palmhouses, a Linnæan arrangement, an extensive Pinetum, collections of native plants and medical plants, a winter garden, a magnificent rockery, and some tasteful groupings of parterre and shrubbery. Within the last few years the mansion-house and policy of Inverleith have been acquired by government and the city corporation, and the grounds, extending to about 30 acres, are converted into an Arboretum or general collection of trees and shrubs scientifically named and arranged. There is one curator for Botanic Garden and Arboretum. The lecture-room is supplemented by a class museum, a large herbarium, an apparatus for histology, and demonstrations in the hot-houses and in the open ground; and is largely attended in the summer months by students of both sexes in different classes. So popular have these botanical classes become, that it was found necessary to erect, in 1880, an additional class-room to accommodate 600 students, the former class-room not affording room for more than about 350, so that the professor had to deliver the same lecture twice every day to separate classes of students, there being at that time about 500 students attending the Garden in the course of their University studies. The new building is in the form of an octagon, springing from the W gable of the old classroom, and carried outwards in breadth 12 feet on either side, and in length 50 feet. The hot-houses were founded in 1835, and gradually extended to a great range, comprising now a large octagon in the centre, and two lateral wings with each a central octagonal compartment; the large central octagon being added so late as 187 2. This structure has a diameter of only 40 feet, but projects at the end into graceful connection with the wings; rises, in columnar form, from a 3-foot dado course, to a height of 23 feet; exhibits there a moulded entablature of architrave, frieze, and cornice; and has a roof of two stages, with an octagonal dome, 20 feet in diameter, 15 feet high, and crowned with ornamental cresting at an elevation of 45 feet from the ground. The chief Palmhouse is 96 feet long, 57 wide, and 70 high; and contains magnificent specimens of both herbaceous and ligneous endogens. The Rock-Garden is one of the finest in Europe; presents a succession of bays and angles; rises, in terrace over terrace, to a height of 18 feet; has a width of 120 feet, and a length of 190 feet; is divided into uniform geometrical sections, and subdivided into more than 4000 variously sized compartments; and commands, from its topmost terrace, a strikingly picturesque view of Edinburgh. Several trees in the garden were planted as memorial trees by the late Prince Consort, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of Edinburgh. The garden is free to the public, on every lawful day in winter, from daylight till dark-in summer till 8 p. m.

The Experimental Garden, which lay contiguous to the S side of the Botanic, and is now included in it, was formed in 1824. It comprised about 10 acres of ground; contained a superintendent's house, an exhibition hall, several hot-houses, and a beautiful arrangement of lawn, parterre, shrubbery, orchard, and kitchen-garden; and belonged to a society instituted in 1809 for improving the cultivation of flowers, fruits, and culinary vegetables.-A large winter garden occupies the corner between Coates Gardens and the Glasgow Road, in the vicinity of Haymarket, belongs to the proprietor of a neighbouring nursery, and was formed in 1870-71. It has a S main front 130 feet long, with a central building 50 feet wide and 30 long, surmounted by a handsome dome 65 feet high; includes a northerly annexe, 50 feet long and 28 wide; has, beneath the entrance dome, a terra-cotta fountain, and a rich arrangement of hot-house plants; and contains a covered way, a fern-house 37 feet long and 20 wide, several ranges of hot-houses, and a series of stove, green, and propagating houses.-There was once a Zoological Garden in Broughton Park, at the E end of East Claremont Street, formed in 1840. It comprised a considerable extent of ground, tastefully disposed in walks and flower-plots; contained, for a number of years, an interesting collection of wild animals; and was often used for musical promenades, firework fétes, and other entertainments; but, proving a failure, was abolished in 1860.

The Watt Institution and School of Arts dates from 1821. It had a plain building with several halls in Adam Square, which required to be taken down in 1871 to make way for the formation of Chambers Street; obtained in lieu of that building a site for a new one in Chambers Street, together with £7000 toward the erection of the new edifice, and certain other concessions worth about £350. It is patronised by the Lord Provost, managed by a body of directors, and conducted by fifteen lecturers and teachers, and gives instruction in mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, botany, and natural history, French, German, Greek, Latin, English language and literature, phonography, arithmetic, architectural, mechanical, geometrical, machine, and free-hand drawing, engineering, history, economic science, physiology, geology, biology, and music; serving generally as an academy of science, art, and literature to the operative classes, and attended in 1877-78 by 3022 students, in 1879-80 by 3100, in 1880-81 by 3176. The new building for it is at the W corner of the semicircular recess opposite the Industrial Museum; was erected in 1872-73 after designs by David Rhind; rises to the height of two stories, with an additional pavilion story in the W; has a projecting porch surmounted by the statue of James Watt, which formerly stood in Adam Square; and contains a lecture-hall with accommodation for 680 persons, another hall 34 feet long and 33 feet wide, a chemical class-room 33 feet long and 23 feet wide, a mechanical philosophy apparatus-room, and the spacious general class-rooms. It has been proposed to affiliate the Watt Institution with the Heriot Hospital Trust, and to call it in future the Watt-Heriot Institute, but as yet this proposal has not received practical effect.

The Royal Association for promoting the Fine Arts in Scotland holds its ordinary meetings in a hall at 67 George Street, being founded in 1833, and incorporated by royal charter in 1847; and though not maintaining any regular public lectures, it supplies from time to time prelections on interesting subjects connected with the useful arts. The Philosophical Institution has premises at 4 Queen Street, a news-room, a reading-room, and an extensive library, and offers free admission to these to strangers who are members of kindred institutions. It affords class instruction, in some departments, to such of its own members as desire it; and maintains in a neighbouring hall, formerly occupied by the offices of the U.P. church, a winter course of lectures by distinguished men, on a variety of philosophical, literary, and miscellaneous subjects. The Edinburgh Literary Institute was incorporated in l870; erected in South Clerk Street a handsome edifice, which was publicly opened in January 1872; has there a news-room and a library, each measuring 36 feet by 24, a ladies' reading and conversation room, a well-appointed billiard-room, and a fine hall originally 107 feet long, 55 wide, and 30 high, but curtailed and improved in 1875 at a cost of about £400; and maintains lectures on a variety of literary subjects, and occasional concerts. A similar institution was opened in February 1882 at Morningside. The Working Men's Club and Literary Institute occupies a portion of the Royal Exchange Square, and has news-room, billiard, bagatelle, chess, and draught rooms, and a library; the number of visitors during 1881 being 51,183.

Other scientific and literary institutions are the Royal Medical Society, instituted in 1737, chartered in 1778, and meeting in a hall at 7 Melbourne Place; the Speculative Society, instituted in 1764, and meeting in a hall in the University; the Harveian Society, instituted in 1782; the Obstetrical Society, No. 5 St Andrew Square; the Medico-Chirurgical Society, instituted in 1821; the Odonto-Chirurgical Society; the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society; the Juridical Society, instituted in 1773, and meeting in a hall at No. 40 Charlotte Square; the Scots Law Society, instituted in 1815; the Botanical Society, instituted in 1836; the Geological Society, instituted in 1834; the Royal Physical Society, instituted in 1771, and chartered in 1788; the Arboricultural Society; the Phrenological Association and Museum in Chambers Street; the Meteorological Society, instituted in 1855 - the Photographic Society, established in 1861; the Horological Society, instituted in 1862; the Tusculan Society, instituted in 1822; the Actuarial Society, instituted in 1859; the Bankers' Literary Association; the Diagnostic Society, instituted in 1816, and meeting weekly during the College winter session; the University Philomathic Debating Society, instituted in 1858; the Architectural Association, No. 5 St Andrew Square; the Architectural Institute, constituted in 1850; the Educational Institute, formed in 1847, and chartered in 1857; the Subscription Library, No. 24 George Street, instituted in 1794; the Select Subscription Library, 26 Waterloo Place, instituted in 1800; and the Mechanics' Subscription Library, No. 3 Victoria Terrace, instituted in 1825.

Classical Schools.—The High School dates, under the name of Grammar School, from 1519. It sprang from a school at Holyrood, which probably existed as early as the beginning of the 12th century, and had not, for a number of years, any building of its own, either new or hired. It occupied, for some time a dwelling-house in Blackfriars Wynd, which had been a palace of Archbishop Beaton; was removed in 1555 to a house at the E side of Kirk of Field, near the head of what came to be called High School Wynd; and acquired in 1578 a new building for itself, within the Blackfriars' cemetery, on ground at the foot of Infirmary Street, giving to the tract around it the name of High School Yards. Another edifice, erected on or near the same site in 1777, was neat and commodious, and might have continued suitable for many years yet to come; but, owing to the plebeian character of its vicinity, and the unhealthiness of the locality, it lost caste in the eyes of the citizens of the New Town, when a new and more eligible site was sought for, and the old school transferred to the directors of the Infirmary, to be used as a surgical hospital. The present edifice stands on the S face of Calton Hill, a little above the line of Regent Road, about 160 yards E from the Prison. It is built on a terrace cut out of the solid rock, sheltered from the N wind, but somewhat exposed to the E and the W; commands along its front, towards the S, one of the richest town and country views of Edinburgh and its environs; and forms itself a noble feature in the views from most parts of the Queen's Park. It was erected in 1825-29, after designs by Thomas Hamilton, at a cost of £30,000; has a curtain-wall in front of its main building, but at considerably lower level, extending in a gentle curve along the edge of the public pavement, with two lodges at the ends, and measuring upwards of 400 feet in length; consists, in its main building, of a centre, two lofty open corridors, and two wings, with an aggregate frontage of 270 feet; has a play-ground of nearly 2 acres, formed into a level by deep cutting in the face of the hill; and is enclosed with neat iron-railing. The two lodges are in the Doric style; present their flank to the road and their fronts toward each other; have each a tetrastyle portico; and are disposed, the one for occupancy by the janitor, the other in two classrooms. Two doorways, in Egyptian architecture, boldly break the centre of the curtain-wall; and a double flight of steps, flanked half-way up by Egyptian projections, ascends to a spacious platform at the level of the main building; yet these features are merely ornamental, the access being by a gateway on a higher level considerably to the W and through the play-ground. A massive Doric portico, with a front range of six columns, and a rear range of two columns, rises from the platform at the top of the double flight of steps; covers all the centre of the main building; and is in pure Grecian style, copied from the temple of Theseus at Athens, with columns upwards of 20 feet high. The open corridors, connecting the centre with the wings, commence at points slightly behind the portico; and are each supported by six Doric columns. Each of the wings is a large oblong, nearly flat-roofed; presents one of its shorter elevations to the front; and is adorned only with pilaster and entablature. The central part of the main building contains a splendid examination hall, 75 feet long, 43 wide, and upwards of 30 high, a library hall, the rector's apartments, and some smaller rooms; and the wings contain four class-rooms, and apartments for four masters. The entire edifice, simply as regards its class-rooms, has accommodation for 575 scholars. It was at first a purely classical seminary; but it now furnishes systematic instruction in all the departments of a commercial as well as a liberal education; has classes for English, Latin, Greek, French, German, history, geography, physiology, chemistry, natural philosophy, zoology, botany, mathematics, drawing, fencing, gymnastics, and military drill; spreads its entire curriculum over the period of six years; and is conducted by a rector, 15 masters, and 2 lecturers. It formerly was under the magistrates and town council; but, in terms of the Education Act of 1872, it came under the city school-board. The number of pupils enrolled in 1879-80 was 418; 1880-81, 423; 1881-82, 398. Previous to 1872, when the board's control of the school began, the number of pupils had been gradually decreasing. The annual income of the school, varying according to fees, is about £5900-of this £820 arises from the General Endowment Fund, held by the town council for behoof of the school; the fees are fully £5000, and belong to the masters. (See The History of the High School of Edinburgh, Edinb. 1849.)

The Edinburgh Academy stands off the N side of Henderson Row, with rear on tabular ground overlooking the Water of Leith, 570 yards WSW of Canonmills; originated in a scheme by a number of distinguished citizens, including Leonard Horner, Henry Cockburn, Henry Mackenzie, Sir Walter Scott, and Sir Harry Moncrieff; and was erected in 1824, after designs by W. Burn, at a cost of £12, 264. It is a low, neat, Doric structure, containing class-rooms with accommodation for 1700 pupils, and a common hall with commensurate accommodation; presents an appearance less elegant than massive, but is admirably adapted to its purpose; and occupies the centre of a play-ground of 3 acres, with covered sheds for exercise in wet weather. It has at some distance a cricket-ground for the exclusive use of present and former pupils; belongs to a body of subscribers, under royal charter from George IV.' and is superintended by a board of fifteen directors, three of whom are elected annually from the body of subscribers. It gives instruction in all departments of an English, classical, commercial, and liberal education, extending to a course of seven years, on terms which render it less accessible than the High School to the children of the middle classes; divides its pupils, in the latter part of its course, into a classical school for the learned professions, and a modern school for civil, military, or mercantile pursuits; includes certain classes not belonging to its proper course, treated as voluntary; and is conducted by a rector, 4 classical masters, French and German masters, 2 mathematical masters, masters for English and elocution, writing, drawing, fencing, fortification, and military and civil engineering. The pupils have varied in number from 300 to 500; and the income is entirely derived from fees.

Fettes College stands on a gentle eminence on the ground of Comely Bank, in the north-western outskirts of Stockbridge, and was erected in 1865-70, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost of about £150,000. It is an extensive and stately edifice in the semi-Gothic style prevalent in France and Scotland in the 16th century, with central tower; figures conspicuously and imposingly throughout a great extent of landscape; and is decorated with architectural features and carvings which render it as beautiful at hand as it is picturesque in the distance. Fettes College originated in a bequest of Sir William Fettes of Comely Bank (b. 1750; d. 1836), and gives maintenance, free education, and outfit to selected orphan boys, not at any one time exceeding fifty in number. It admits as day scholars or as boarders large numbers of boys, at an entrance fee of £10, 10s., an annual fee of £25, and an annual boarding-house charge of £60; is conducted on a plan similar to that of the great public schools of England; gives a highly liberal education, including classics, modern languages, English, mathematics, science, singing, drawing, gymnastics, and fencing; is conducted by a head master and eleven assistant masters; and has provision for two exhibitions worth £60 a year, each dating from 1875, two fellowships in Edinburgh University worth £100 a year, and an exhibition to Oxford or Cambridge University worth £100 a year, dating from 1876. A gymnasium stands apart from the College near its E wing; is a plain yet elegant structure; contains a hall 80 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 22 feet high; and is adjoined at the E end by a fives-court. The infirmary, or retreat for the sick, stands detached about 40 yards E of the gymnasium, and is a handsome, unique, one-story building, with a verandah along the greater part of its S side. Two boarding-houses stand respectively on the E and the W sides of the main approach, opened the one in 1870, the other near the end of 1872; an d contain each private apartments for a master, dormitories, and study-rooms for thirty pupils, and public dining-room and sitting-room. A third boarding-house of later erection stands in similar position, and contains accommodation for fifty-two pupils. A gate-keeper's lodge, built in 1871, is at the end of the W approach; and another of later date is at the E approach, formed in continuation of Inverleith Place.

The Edinburgh Institution, though private property, ranks pretty much as a competitor with the High School and the Edinburgh Academy; it was organised in 1832 to serve for scholars who wished to devote less time to classical studies than was required at the two great public schools and more time to other branches of a liberal education. It was originally in George Street, afterwards in Hill Street, and removed in 1853 to Queen Street, being accommodated there in two private houses slightly altered, containing two large rooms, a hall 60 feet by 30, and having a total capacity for more than 900 scholars. It gives instruction in classics, French, mathematics, English, drawing, practical chemistry, dancing, fencing, drill, and gymnastics; and is conducted by twelve masters. Several other seminaries for a jointly classical and general education, with each a large staff of masters, are in various parts throughout the city and suburbs, such as the Collegiate Schools, in Charlotte Square; Craigmount, the Ministers' Daughters College, the South Side High School, in the Grange district; and Merchiston School, located in the Castle of Napier of the Logarithms, at Morningside; but rank, in all respects, as private establishments.

Merchant Company's Schools.—George Watson's Hospital was originally an institution for maintaining and educating boys between 7 and 15 years of age, being children or grand-children of decayed merchants in Edinburgh. It sprang from a bequest of £12, 000 by George Watson, a native of Edinburgh, first a merchant in Holland, afterwards a bank-accountant in his native city, and was erected in 1738-41 at a cost of about £5000, and greatly enlarged in 1857. It admitted at first only 12 boys on the foundation, but eventually about 80; stood on the N side of the Meadows, in the angle between Lauriston and the Meadow Walk; and in 1870, under provisional orders obtained in connection with the Endowed Institution's Act, underwent a sweeping change. The Hospital funds were thenceforward devoted to the maintaining of the foundationers in boarding-houses, and the providing of a liberal day-school education to large numbers of both boys and girls. The Hospital building, in 1871, was sold to the Royal Infirmary, and what was the Merchant Maiden Hospital was purchased in the same year, to be used as a school for boys. This edifice stands on the S side of Lauriston, with its front to the Meadows, about 240 yards WSW of the site of the original hospital. It was erected in 1816, after a design by Burn, at a cost of £12, 250; measures 180 feet in length of frontage; has a tetrastyle Ionic portico, modelled after the Ionic temple on the Ilyssus; and acquired, in 1872-73, an addition on the N side, forming an ornamental rear-front, and containing a lecture hall 83 feet long, 51 wide, and 42 high. The school is called a college school; affords an education qualifying boys either for commercial life or for entering the Universities; has an average attendance of about 1200 pupils; and gives, by competition, bursaries or presentations aggregately worth about £700. The foundationers are now not more than 60 in number; require to be of age between 9 and 14; must be elected, to at least one-fourth of their number, by competitive examination from boys attending some one or other of the Merchant Company's Schools; are boarded with families; and receive certain advantages at the completion of their term. The girls' school is in George Square; bears the name of George Watson's College School for Young Ladies; had originally accommodation for 600 scholars; was enlarged in 1876 to contain accommodation for 200 additional scholars; includes in its enlargement a new building three stories high, with ornamental frontage in the Italian style; provides a high-class education, comprising English, French, German, Latin, writing, arithmetic, bookkeeping, mathematics, physical science, drawing, singing, pianoforte, drill, calisthenics, dancing, needlework, and cookery; and affords, by competition, benefits estimated at about £700.

The Merchant Maiden Hospital was founded in 1695, principally by contributions from the company of merchants, and by a large donation from Mrs Mary Erskine, the widow of an Edinburgh druggist. It became incorporated in 1707; was held originally in a large tenement at the corner of Bristo Place and Lothian Street, on ground now occupied by St Patrick's Roman Catholic School; and acquired, in 1816, the edifice noticed in our preceding paragraph. It served long for the maintenance and education of from 90 to 100 girls, between 7 and 17 years of age, daughters or grand-daughters of merchant burgesses of Edinburgh; and, in 1870-71, under the same provisional order which revolutionised George Watson's Hospital, underwent vast changes. The edifice, in 1870, was converted into a day-school for young ladies on the same plan as George Watson's School in George Square; and, on being sold to the governors of George Watson's Hospital, was substituted by extensive premises at the W end of Queen Street. These are partly remodellings of pre-existent buildings, and partly superstructures on them; have an extensive frontage, and a lofty imposing elevation; contain accommodation for 1200 scholars; and furnish the same course of instruction and the same accompanying benefits as the young ladies' school in George Square. The changing of the classes from room to room, which is effected to music at five minutes before each hour, shows a model of organisation, and forms a very interesting sight. The foundationers to the Hospital were reduced under the provisional order to the number of 50; must be of age between 9 and 16; are boarded with families; and, at the completion of their term, receive each £9, 6s. 8d.

Stewart's Hospital sprung from a bequest of about £30, 000, together with some houses, by Daniel Stewart of the Exchequer, who died in 1814. It stands adjacent to the Queensferry Road about ½ mile W of Dean Bridge; was erected in 1849-53 after designs by David Rhind; and is in a mixed style of old castellated Scottish and the latest domestic Gothic. It measures about 230 feet in maximum length, and upwards of 100 feet in minimum breadth, comprises in its main structure three sides of a quadrangle, two and three stories high, and a fourth side consisting of an arcaded screen, and projects considerably backward in its central part. It is surmounted by two main towers, with turrets, embattled parapets, lanterns, and ogee roofs, rising to the height of 120 feet, and by two smaller towers and several turrets; and contains, in its central part, a dining-hall and a chapel. It was instituted for maintaining and educating boys of between 7 and 14 years of age, the children of poor industrious parents; was converted, under a provisional order of 1870, into a day-school; gives similar education to that in George Watson's College School for boys, together with technical instruction; affords to its pupils the same benefits, by competition, as those afforded to the pupils of George Watson's schools; admits as foundationers not more than 40 boys, who must be of age between 9 and 15; and requires that at least one-half of them shall be elected from the day-scholars of some one or other of the Merchant Company's schools.

Gillespie's Hospital sprang from a bequest by James Gillespie of Spylaw, merchant and tobacconist in Edinburgh. It stands in a park opposite the W end of Bruntsfield Links, about ¾ mile S of the W end of Princes Street; occupies the site of a picturesque, irregular, turreted, ancient, baronial pile, belonging to the Napiers of Merchiston; and was erected in 1801-3 after designs by Burn. It consists mainly of an oblong structure in castellated Gothic style, with three projections in front and turrets at the angles, and partly of a neighbouring edifice in the form of a large schoolhouse; and was fitted, in its main structure, for the accommodation and support of a limited number of poor aged men and women, and, in its school structure, for the education of about 150 boys of between 6 and 12 years of age. It was, under a provisional order of 1870, converted into primary dayschools for boys and girls; affords instruction in English, writing, arithmetic, and singing, together with mechanical drawing for the boys, and sewing and knitting for the girls; allows its pupils a limited portion of similar benefits, by competition, as those open to the pupils of the other Merchant Company's schools; and has an average attendance of about 1400 boys and girls. The aged foundationers to the hospital require to be above 55 years of age; and now, instead of being maintained in any building belonging to the governors, are allowed each a pension of not less than £10, and not more than £25.

Hospital Schools.—Heriot's Hospital sprang from a bequest of George Heriot, a native of Edinburgh, goldsmith, first to the Queen of James VI., then to that King himself, and stands in a park immediately W of Greyfriars' Churches, between Grassmarket and Lauriston. It was founded in 1628, but not completed till 1650, and was used by Cromwell as a military hospital for his sick and wounded soldiers after the battle of Dunbar, and did not become available for its own proper uses till 1659. It is commonly said to have been erected after designs by Inigo Jones, but probably owes most or all of its features to some other architect, costing about £30, 000, which would have absorbed more than the entire amount of Heriot's bequest, had not the money for a long time been invested in a manner singularly lucrative. It is a quadrangular pile, with open interior court, measuring 162 feet along each side of the exterior, and 94 feet along each side of the interior; has often been called a Gothic structure, but is really in a style of architecture quite unique; and possesses such features as render it strikingly picturesque. The corner portions are massive square towers, four stories high, surmounted at the angles by round, projecting, oriental turrets; the central portion of the N side contains the entrance archway, flanked with Doric columns, and surmounted by a square dome-capped tower, rising to the height of 100 feet; the central portion of each of the other sides has a salient octagonal structure of medium character between tower and turret, rising higher than the summit of the adjacent walls; all the other portions of the elevations have a height of three stories; and the windows are 213 in number, and have mouldings and carvings in such variety of design that, with one exception, no two of them are alike. The enclosed court is paved with square stones, has an arcade 6 feet broad along its N and E sides, and is pierced on its S side with a Corinthian doorway, leading to a splendidly ornate chapel, measuring 61 feet by 22. The armorial bearings of Heriot and some emblematic sculptures surmount the entrance archway; and a statue of Heriot, in the costume of his time, from the chisel of Robert Mylne, occupies a finely carved niche in the interior side. The old and ordinary access is from Grassmarket; and a modern entrance archway, with a lodge in a style of architecture similar to the hospital itself, is in front of the park at Lauriston. A terrace, with elegant stone balustrade, now surrounds the main edifice; and all the grounds within the park have been beautifully í embellished. The hospital is managed by the magistrates, town councillors, and parish ministers of Edinburgh; maintains and educates 220 boys-120 resident, 60 non-resident, and 40 day scholars, admissible at ages from 7 till 10, and requiring, except under special permission of the governors, to leave at 14; and gives instruction in English, French, Latin, Greek, mathematics, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, shorthand, geography, drawing, vocal music, and dancing. It allows, at the expiry of their term, £30 a year for four years to the most talented who wish to attend the University, and £20 a year to ten more who attend the University; gives to such as become apprentices for five or more years a sum of £50, and to such as become apprentices for fewer years a correspondingly smaller allowance, and a bonus of £5 at the end of apprenticeship; and provides to all, on leaving the hospital, suits of clothes and useful books. The annual income was at first so limited as to maintain and educate only 18 boys; it eventually became so large as to be able to maintain and educate as many as the edifice could accommodate; and, under authority of an act of parliament obtained in 1836, the surplus still over was devoted to the erecting and maintaining of free elementary schools in other parts of the city. The number of these schools has gradually increased, and the last report (April 1882) gave their average attendance as follows: -Heriot Bridge, 288; Cowgate Port, 299; High School Yards, 434; Old Assembly Close, 284; Borthwick Close, 273; Brown Square, 227; Rose Street, 438; Broughton, 233; Abbeyhill, 301; Davie Street, 294; Stockbridge, 303; Infant Schools - Broughton, 90; Abbeyhill, 125; Davie Street, 147; Stockbridge, 110; Victoria Street, 131. Free education is thus provided to about 5000 children in day schools, and, reckoning evening classes, between 6000 and 7000 altogether, of whom a few from the day schools are every year elected as foundationers in the Hospital. The evening classes afford instruction to young men and women, branches of reading, writing, arithmetic, Latin, French, phonography, drawing, etc. All the buildings are commodious, and some of them are ornamental. The one in Cowgate Port was erected in 1840, and, though standing in one of the most squalid parts of the city, has piazzas, towers, ornamented windows, and other architectural decorations; the one in Broughton Street was built in 1855, and stands amid a tolerably fair display of New Town architecture, yet is so ornamented with ground arcades, upper mouldings, and crowning statuary as to be, in a mere architectural respect, a decided accession to the neighbourhood; and the one in Abbeyhill was built in 1874-75, and is both prominent and very handsome. Another school, jointly juvenile and infant, was erected in Davie Street, in 1875-76, at a cost of about £4000; occupies the site of a plain, old, spacious, Lancasterian school; consists of a central block and two receding side wings; and is so ornamental as to exhibit features corresponding, in many respects, with those of the Hospital. Another was built at Dean Street, Stockbridge, about the same time, accommodating about 600 children, and costing about £4000. The income of the Trust for 1881 was £27, 395. (See Historical and Descriptive Account of George Heriot's Hospital, including a Memoir of the Founder, Edinb. 1827; and Steven's History of George Heriot's Hospital, Edinb. 1859.)

John Watson's Hospital sprang from a bequest in 1759 by John Watson, a writer to the signet. It was intended by him to be a foundling hospital, but was turned by his trustees into a hospital for maintaining and educating destitute children. It stands on the left side of the Water of Leith, a short distance WSW of Dean Bridge; was built in 1825-28 after designs by William Burn; is a large and solid edifice, with a Doric portico; maintains and educates about 100 children, between 7 and 14 years of age; affords them instruction in English, Latin, French, mathematics, drawing, music, dancing, and drill; is managed by fifteen directors, comprising a treasurer, the keeper and deputykeeper of the signet, and twelve commissioners of the writers to the signet; and, though originating in a fund which amounted in 1781 to less than £5000, is now, with its grounds and buildings, worth nearly £133, 000.

The Orphan Hospital sprang from an effort of private benevolence in1727, and was countenanced and aided, during their visits to Edinburgh, by Howard and Whitfield. It became incorporated in 1742; occupied a hired house, with about thirty children, in 1733-35; acquired, in 1735, a new commodious structure, with a spire, in the Nor' Loch valley, immediately S of the rear of the W section of Waterloo Place; and vacated that building, on account of the unhealthiness of the situation, in 1833, for a new edifice on the left side of the Water of Leith, about ½ mile WSW of Dean Bridge. It has accommodation there for 200 children; gives maintenance and free education to as many as its funds can support; and admits boarders or presentees at a charge of £16 a year for a boy and £14 for a girl. It affords instruction in all the ordinary departments of an English education, and is upheld almost solely by subscriptions and donations. It suffered such depression of its resources toward 1871 as not to be able to admit more than 90 children, including boarders; and was then threatened with removal to some smaller house and the sale of the property; but it experienced such revival in 1875 that the number of its children was increased in that year from 84 to 106. Its old building in the Nor' Loch valley became an asylum for destitute children, in connection with a charity workhouse, but was eventually swept away by the operations for the North British railway terminus. The new edifice was built in 1831-33, after designs by Thomas Hamilton, at a cost of nearly £16, 000; stands on a terrace, reached by a broad flight of steps; comprises a spacious centre and two moderately projecting wings, all two stories high; has, on the middle part of the centre, a portico with seven Tuscan columns and a plain pediment, overlooked in the rear by a small quadrangular clock-turret; and is surmounted, adjacent to the wings, by two quadrangular towers of two stages, cut with arches and terminating in turrets. The clock of the Netherbow Port was placed in the spire of the old structure, and transferred to the clock-turret of the new edifice.

The Trades' Maiden Hospital was originally a plain edifice in Argyle Square, on part of the site of the Industrial Museum, and is now a commodious house, with large garden, a little S of the Meadows. The institution was founded in 1704, and incorporated in 1707; sprang from donations by Mrs Mary Erskine and the incorporated trades of the city; and is managed by the deacons of these trades, thirteen in all, and fourteen other governors. It maintains 48 girls between 7 and 17 years of age, chiefly children or grand-children of craftsmen, who were educated formerly by a staff of teachers belonging to the hospital, but now receive their education at George Watson's school for young ladies in George Square. Each of the pupils, at the completion of her term, receives £10 and a Bible.

Donaldson's Hospital stands on the N side of the Glasgow Road, and on the right side of the Water of Leith, about 600 yards WNW of Haymarket, and sprang from a bequest of about £210, 000 by James Donaldson of Broughton Hall, proprietor and printer of the Edinburgh Advertiser, who died in 1830. It occupies a gently swelling ground, which exhibits it fully and distinctly in very distant views, and is separated from the public road by successively a bold screen wall with elegant gates, a spacious terrace, a grand stone balustrade, and a fine lawn. It was erected in 1842-51, after designs by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of about £100, 000; forms an open quadrangle, measuring 258 feet by 207 in the exterior, and 176 feet by 164 in the contained court; and is a splendid, palatial, towered structure, in the Tudor style. Its elevation, except at the towers, is about 50 feet high; is divided into two stories, with oriel windows, and with buttresses between every pair; and is surmounted by an embrasured parapet. Four octagonal towers, of five stories, stand at the centre of the main front, flanking the grand entrance, and rise to a height of 120 feet; four square towers, of four stories, stand at each of the corners, and rise to a height intermediate between that of the central towers and the smaller finials; and all the twenty towers have ogee roofs, and terminate in vanes. The number of window-lights is 600. The whole exterior, with perforated scroll ornament surmounting its oriels, ornamental lace-work, and armorial bearings on its corner towers, flowers and cherub-heads on the tympanums of its buttresses, and shields with thistles, shamrocks, roses, and fleur-de-lis, is exceedingly elegant. The contained court is correspondingly imposing; shows impressively the symmetrical proportions of the masses and apertures, the picturesque groupings of the towers and turrets, and the continuous lines of the mouldings and string-courses; and bas a richly ornamented central pedestal, rising like a grand bouquet from the substantial pavements. The interior also is in good keeping with the exterior. The corridors have an aggregate length of about 3500 feet; the principal staircases are about 20 feet square, and from 40 to 50 feet high; the apartments average 17 feet in height, and are 164 in number; the public rooms average about 65 feet in length, and 25 in breadth, and have panelled, corbelled, bossed ceilings, painted in imitation of oak; the corridors, staircases, and public rooms have a wainscot lining to the aggregate length of more than 4 miles; and the chapel is splendidly decorated. The hospital was erected and endowed for maintaining and educating poor boys and girls, after the plan of the Orphan Hospital and John Watson's Hospital; is managed by a mixed body of public functionaries and elected gentlemen, amounting altogether to twenty-seven; admits no children whose parents are able to maintain them; gives preference to children of the names of Donaldson and Marshall; requires them to be between 6 and 9 years of age at admission, and dismisses them at the age of 14; gives them such a plain useful English education as fits the boys for trades and the girls for domestic service; and has accommodation for 150 boys and 150 girls, of whom a number are deaf and dumb.

Board Schools.—In 1873 the city School-Board reported that there were then within the city 169 primary schools, having accommodation for 45, 492 scholars; that 7 of these, for 1218 scholars, were to be discontinued; and that room for upwards of 13, 800 scholars in higher-class schools was unappropriated. They computed that primary school accommodation for 4160 scholars was required, and resolved to erect 7 new schools for 4200 scholars, borrowing for this purpose from the Public Works Department £70, 000, to be repaid in thirty annual instalments. In terms of the Education Act of 1872, they so acquired schools, or provided temporary accommodation, as to have in 1874 17 day schools and 13 evening schools in operation; but found in 1875 that further room for upwards of 1000 scholars was required, and then opened 2 additional schools, purchased and adapted large tenements for a school in Canongate, and resolved to erect another in Dalry district. Since then several of the lesser and temporary schools have been discontinued, and the work of the Board is now carried on in 13 schools, independently of the High School, transferred to the Board by the town council. The following table gives the costs of these 13 schools, together with their actual measurements, with small side-rooms in some, and a district library in another:—

Name of School Cost of Site,
Cost of Erection,
Total Cost. Accomm-
at 8 Square
Feet per
Cost per
Scholar ex-
clusive of
Date of Opening.
*Dean £1,046 14 0 £5,605 3 10 £6,651 17 10 457 £12 5 3½ Sept.  1, 1875.
*New Street 3,102 2 10 2,987 13 4   6,089 16 2 792 3155¼ May       1876.
West Fountainbridge 3,482 18 1 10,956 17 0 14,439 15 1 935 11 14 4¼ June   1, 1876.
*Leith Walk 3,196 16 7 14,466 11 10 17,663 8 5 1,041 13 17 11 Nov.   3, 1876.
*Causewayside 3,254 4 4 9,712 7 2 12,966 11 6 633 15 6 10¼ Dec.  23, 1876.
*Stockbridge 2,535 14 6 9,051 12 3 11,587 6 9 617 14 13 4¾ Jan.     8, 1877.
*Bristo 8,739 16 2 10,518 2 3 19,257 18 5 857 12 5 5½ Sept. 27, 1877.
*Dalry (including
7171 10,223 11 7 10,294 18 8 1,155 8 17 0¼ Feb.  18, 1878.
Sept.  6,  1880.
   North Canongate 5,348 11 7 9,989 8 0 15,337 19 7 1,023 9 15 3½ Jan.    6,  1879.
*St Leonards 66 1 4½ 9,845 4 0½ 9,911 5 5 1,132 8 13 11¼ Jan.     5, 1880.
*Canonmills 55 16 0 7,263 16 9 7,319 12 9 948 7 13 2¾ Sept,   6, 1880.
  Lothian Road 3,182 3 0 7,334 12 5 10,516 15 5 997 7 7 1½ Sept,   6, 1880.
*Abbeyhill 2,503 3 6 7,426 7 1 9,929 10 7 829 8191¾ June  24, 1881.
New Writing Class-
room, R. H. School
£36,585 9 0½ £115,381 7 6½ £151,966 16 7 11,416 £10 2 1½  
.. 1,735 0 0 1,735 0 0 .. .. Oct.    1, 1877.
£36,585 9 0½ £117,116 7 6½ £153,701 16 7

The schools marked * have janitors' houses attached, the costs of which are included in those of the schools. The sums thus expended have been obtained by building grants from the Education Department to the amount of £5587, 10s. 7d., and loans from Public Works Board of £147,041, to this being added £1073, 6s. transferred from school fund, derived from the rates, to defray the cost of extra furnishings, making the gross total of £153,701, 16s. 7d.

These schools give accommodation for 25, 960 children, leaving a deficiency of 1561 places; but this deficiency the Board are meeting (April 1882) by the erection of two other schools at Warrender Park and North Merchiston, with accommodation for 880 and 969 children respectively. The site of Warrender Park school extends to 1912 square yards, and was purchased for £1865; the site of North Merchiston school extends to 1940 square yards, and is feued for £85 per annum. The cost, exclusive of sites, will not much exceed £18, 000. All the details of school management, organisation, and instruction are regulated by the yearly code issued by the Scotch Education Department; and religious instruction is given for about three-quarters of an hour to an hour each morning, very few having taken advantage of the conscience clause upon this point. The annual results of examination for the three years undernoted are as follow:—

Years. Pupils
presented for
passed in the
Three subjects.
Rate of
Passed in
Grant for
        £     s. d. s.   d.     £   s.  d.
1879 5033 91 6308 8 0 16 7¼ 592 117 4  0
1880 6095 88.4 7358 8 2 16 3½ 763 150 16 0
1881 6516 0.39 7810 8 8 16 5 1202 206 11 10

In each of these years temporary schools were closed and new ones opened in their places, and this affects the total amount received for grants, as no grant is paid on account of schools which are closed during the currency of a school year. When this is allowed for, the average grant earned per scholar is as follows: for 1879, 16s. 9¼d.; for 1880, 16s. 9d.; and for 1881, 16s. 11¼d. The following table shows the cost of instruction, sources of income, and total cost of schools:—

Years. No. of
Total amount
received from
Total amount
received from
Total amount
paid out of
Total Cost. Average
Cost per
1879 14 £4046 £6308 £6549 £16,904 7578 £2 4 7¼
1880 16   4609   7358   6872   18,841 9024   2 1 9
1881 14   4595   7810   8442   20,848 9504   2 3 10¼

The total cost includes charges for repairs, rates, taxes, and insurance, and also a sum of £540 of annual feu-duty, properly chargeable to sites. The repayment of loans for building is not included. The heavy item in the cost of the schools is the salaries of the staffs. With the exception of Dean school, where the salary of the head-master is £200, and that of the head-mistress £100, all the head-masters have £300, with £10 additional for every 100 children over 600, until the salary attains £350; the salaries of first assistants, £120, rising to £175; head-mistresses, £120, rising to £150; male assistants, £80 to £100; female assistants and sewing mistresses, £60 to £80; and singing masters £40 for one hour each day. Over and above these salaries, 15 per cent. additional payment is given to those schools which are placed in the first class by the management committee, 10 per cent. to those in the second class, and 5 per cent. to those in the third class. The fees charged in all the elementary schools are at the rate of 2d. to 5d. per week, except in New Street school, attended by the poorest class, where the fee, including books, etc., is only 1d. to 3d. per week. Evening schools have been in operation for nine years during the winter months, and are largely attended by young men and women. In 1880-81 there were eight classes open in the evening, with an average attendance of 301. The cost of teaching in these were - advanced classes, £1, 6s. 6½d.; elementary, £1, 5s. 5d.; the teachers receiving £20 for salary, with a little more from grants. During three years the Board prosecuted 32 defaulting parents under the Act of 1878. Each prosecution cost the Board from 18s. to 18s. 6d., the expense altogether being thus over £29. Fines to the amount of £9 were imposed, but not recovered. Under the new and revised Summary Procedure Act, however, the sheriff can in imposing a fine give an alternative of imprisonment in proportion to the amount of fine imposed, and this it is believed will produce good results. The architectural details of the Board schools are generally in what is called the Scottish Flemish style, with mullioned windows and crowstepped gables, but vary in accordance with site and locality, with the exception of the one at Dalry Road, which is in a pavilion style of only one story in height.

Miscellaneous Public Schools and Institutions.—The Church of Scotland Normal School stands on Johnston Terrace, about 160 yards WSW of the head of Lawnmarket, and was erected in 1845 at a cost of about £8500. It is a large handsome edifice, with an attached playground; contains class-rooms and other appliances for a large attendance of pupils; affords a wide range of training for schoolmasters and schoolmistresses; is conducted by a rector, seven masters, and a matron; and includes a practising school, with head-master and seven assistants in the principal department, a mistress and two assistants in a juvenile department, and a mistress and an assistant in an infant department. Premises in connection with this institution for the training of the male teachers exclusively were recently erected in Chambers Street, and opened in 1879. The building s a handsome and substantial one, and contains, besides lecture-rooms, the offices of the board of general management. A boarding-house in connection with the institution is at No. 12 Picardy Place. The Free Church Normal School, noticed in the section on Canongate, is held in Moray House; has similar objects and similar departments to those of the Church of Scotland Normal School; is conducted by a rector and a master in classics, masters in French and German, a lecturer in mathematics and physical science, a lecturer in history and English literature, teachers in drawing and in music, and five masters, a lady superintendent, two governesses, and an infants' mistress in the practising school; and has in connection with it, at No. 8 St John Street, a boarding-house for female students and pupils. The Episcopalian Training Institution for schoolmasters and schoolmistresses was formerly held in Minto House, Argyle Square, but, being taken down in 1871 for the forming of Chambers Street, is now held in Dalry House, Orwell Place.

The Royal Blind Asylum, or asylum for blind men and blind women, dates from 1793. It originated with Dr Blacklock, David Miller, the Rev. Dr Johnston, and the celebrated Wilberforce, and first occupied a house in Shakepeare Square, whence it was removed in 1806 to No. 58 Nicolson Street, where the large warehouse still is for the sale of the productions of the blind inmates. It included another house at No. 38, obtained in 1822 for females, now used for the males who do not reside with friends; the females and the blind children being provided in 1876 with a spacious new building at West Craigmillar. The institution is managed by a body of seventeen directors; instructs and employs the males in making mattresses, brushes, baskets, mats, and other objects, and in weaving sackcloth, matting, and rag-carpets, -the females in knitting stockings, sewing covers for mattresses and feather beds, and in other employments; and had, as inmates, in 1870, ll4 males and 34 females; in 1875, 146 males and 26 females. Both of its buildings in Nicolson Street were originally private houses; both were purchased for its own uses, and fitted up with every requisite accommodation and appliance; and that at No. 58 was altered and adorned, about 1860, at a cost of about £3500. A handsome new façade, with stone-faced dormer windows, and a neat cornice and balustrade, was then erected; and is pierced with a large central door-way, flanked by two spacious windows, and surmounted by a bust of the Rev. Dr Johnston. The new building at West Craigmillar stands on a rising-ground S of Powburn, and is approached from Newington Road, nearly opposite Echobank cemetery. It was erected in 1874-76 at a cost of £21, 000; is in light French style, with a central handsome clock- tower 80 feet high, surmounted by dome and lantern; has a frontage 160 feet long, and chiefly three stories high; and contains a circular reception hall 111 feet in diameter, a dining h all and chapel 115 feet long and 28 wide, a workroom 72 feet long and 20 wide, and accommodation for about 200 inmates. The school for blind children, prior to its amalgamation with the Royal Blind Asylum, was in a commodious building, originally a private house, at No. 2 Gayfield Square; was managed by a body of fourteen directors; and admitted boys and girls from 6 to 14 years of age. The Institution for the Deaf and Dumb dates from 1810; stood originally in Chessels Court, in Canongate; and acquired, in 1826, an edifice off the N side of Henderson Row, in the western vicinity of the Edinburgh Academy. It is managed by a body of fourteen directors, and conducted by a principal, two assistant teachers, a matron, a female teacher, and a drawing master; and early acquired so much celebrity, by the excellence and success of its system of training, as to be made a model for similar institutions in other cities. The building was erected, by subscription, at a cost of £7000; is large, commodious, and of not unpleasing appearance; and is surrounded with pleasant gardengrounds.

The Roman Catholics have the following schools:—St Patrick's and St Ann's in Cowgate, St Mary's in Lothian Street, St John's in York Lane, and another conducted by the Christian Brothers at Easter Road.

St George's day-school institution, founded by the late Rev. Dr Andrew Thomson, at No. 10 Young Street, All Saints in Glen Street, St Columba's in Johnston Terrace, Dr Bell's schools in Niddry Street and Greenside, the Original Industrial school in Ramsay Lane, the United Industrial school in Blackfriars Street, the Carse Industrial school off Greenside, have buildings remarkable either for commodiousness, elegance, or both.

Theological Colleges.—The Free Church College, or New College, was instituted in 1843, and originally occupied halls modified out of private houses on the S side of George Street. It was removed in 1850 to a new, spacious, imposing edifice of its own, in the Pointed style of the 16th century, at the head of the Mound, and is conducted by a principal and six professors, occupying the chairs respectively of divinity, church history, Hebrew and Oriental languages, exegetical theology, evangelistic theology, and natural science; there being also a lecturer on elocution. Its winter session extends from the first Wednesday of November till an early day in April. The edifice was built in 1846-50, after designs by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of about £30, 000, and is conjoined on the E with the Free High Church. It comprises a hollow quadrangle, with interior court measuring 85 feet by 56; presents its main frontage to the N, overlooking the Mound, and extending 165 feet from E to W; measures 177 feet along the flanks; is divided into two stories, crowned by a range of dormer windows; has a groined archway entrance surmounted by two large oriel windows, and flanked by two square towers, rising to the height of 121 feet, buttressed at the corners from base to summit, and terminating each in four heavy crocheted pinnacles; shows, at the NE corner, belonging to the High Church, a similar tower 96 feet high; is adorned on the S of its interior court with two octagonal towers sur mounted by ogee roofs and gilt vanes; contains a library hall, a senate hall, nine class-rooms, and a number of small apartments; and has in the library hall a statue of Dr Chalmers by Steell. The library, which was begun only in 1843, now contains between 30, 000 and 40, 000 volumes, comprising many works in patristic theology, ecclesiastical history, and systematic theology, while other branches of literature are comparatively well represented.

The United Presbyterian Theological Hall was formerly in Queen Street, between St David Street and Hanover Street, forming a conjunct building with the United Presbyterian Synod Hall, and had till 1876 four professors and a teacher of elocution. In that year a change of session was made from two months in autumn to five months in winter, and the curriculum was shortened from five years to three. The staff now comprises a principal and professors of New Testament literature and exegesis, Old Testament literature and exegesis, systematic theology and apologetics, church history, and practical training, etc., as well as a teacher of elocution. The building was originally a private house, and was exteriorly fitted with a plain large porch, and interiorly altered to snit the uses of the Theological Hall, and to give ingress to the Synod Hall; and contained classrooms, library-rooms, and other apartments. The Synod Hall, in the rear of the Theological Hall, was erected in 1847; handsomely and suitably fitted up for the business of the Synod, containing accommodation for 1100 persons; and is still used on hire for the lectures of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, as well as for occasional public meetings-religions, educational, philanthropic, and miscellaneous. The United Presbyterian Theological and Synod Halls now occupy a large block of buildings on Castle Terrace, between Cromwell Street and Cambridge Street, with fine open view to Princes Street. These premises were originally designed for the West End theatre, opened when incomplete as to exterior condition at the close of 1875, and intended to include an aquarium an d winter garden on its W side and a circus or music hall on the S, estimated to cost altogether about £65, 000. Built in a style resembling Italian, worked upon geometric lines, it presents its principal elevation to Castle Terrace, with considerable ornamentation, and was designed interiorly with much elegance, and had sittings for 3000. Purchased on the failure of the company by the United Presbyterian Church in 1877, it was subjected to considerable alteration both as to its interior and exterior, and now contains one of the largest halls in the city, designed primarily for the annual meetings of the Synod, and has lecture-room for the professors, library, and offices for the various secretaries and other officials of the Church-The Theological College of the Episcopal Church in Scotland is at 9 Rosebery Crescent, and has lecturers on theology, ecclesiastical history, apologetics, and pastoral theology.

The Protestant Institute of Scotland was organised in 1850, and originated in an effort to stem the increase of Romanism. It has its premises on the W side of George IV. Bridge, immediately S of the central or open arches, and maintains classes, conducted by a professor, for training students of all Protestant denominations in the polemics of the Romish controversy. Its principal building was erected in 1862, partly to afford requisite accommodation for its business, partly to celebrate the tercentenary of the Reformation; presents a neat front to George IV. Bridge; and contains a spacious hall and other apartments.

Ecclesiastical Halls.—Victoria Hall, the meeting-place of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and used also as the parochial church of Tolbooth parish, stands at the forking of Lawnmarket into Castle Hill and Johnston Terrace, and occupies a site only a few feet lower than the Castle esplanade, and on a line with the head of Grassmarket and the W side of the Mound. This hall was erected in 1842-44, after designs by Gillespie Graham, at a cost of about £16, 000, and is in the decorated Gothic style. It has an oblong form, 141 feet in length, extending E and W; presents to the E a main front, with a massive tower pierced through the basement with the grand entrance, crowned on the walls with a circle of turret pinnacles, and surmounted by an elegant octagonal spire rising to the height of 241 feet from the ground; shows, on each flank, five handsome windows and a corresponding number of buttresses and pinnacles; and is commodiously and neatly fitted, in all respects, to suit the business of the Assembly. The lower part of it is so closely adjoined by neighbouring buildings and by a curve in Lawnmarket as to be visible only at near distances; but the spire, so adorned as to look in the distance almost like a sheaf of pinnacles, soars above all the surrounding houses, and is fully seen, as a conspicuous feature of the city, from several parts of it and of the surrounding country. Immediately prior to the opening of Victoria Hall, the Assembly met in St Andrew's parish church; the meeting-place for long previous periods being the S aisle of St Giles' Church, and for a time between the Tron Church. The parish church of Tolbooth was formerly the western part of St Giles'.

The Free Church Assembly met, from 1843 till 1858, in a large, plain, low-roofed hall, carved out of an extensive suite of buildings in the style of a Moorish fortress, situated at Tanfield, on the Water of Leith, opposite Canonmills, and erected in 1825 for an oil gaswork, which proved unsuccessful. This place was the scene, in 1835, of a great banquet to Daniel O'Connel, and was used in 1847 for the amalgamation of the United Secession and the Relief synods into the United Presbyterian synod. The present Assembly Hall stands on the N side of Castle Hill, opposite Victoria Hall, and immediately S of the Free Church College, on the site of the palace of Mary of Guise. It was erected in 1858-59, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost of about £7000, and is in a style to harmonise with that of the Free Church College. It measures nearly 100 feet each way; presents to Castle Hill a screen wall, pierced by two entrances, and marked with panellings and a bold stream course; consists chiefly of a hall with accommodation for about 1700 persons, and a spacious corridor on the N side with pointed arches and deep recesses; and has its main entrance, from the college quadrangle up flights of stairs, through that corridor. The Free Church offices are in a spacious edifice, erected in 1859-61, after designs by Mr Cousin, in a florid variety of the Scottish Baronial style, with frontage to the Mound, and immediately E of the Free Church College.

Established Churches.—St Giles' Church stands at the junction of High Street, Lawnmarket, Parliament Square, and County Square. The original church on the site was built before the year 854; but by whom, in what circumstances, or why called St Giles', is not known. A new church, in lien of the original one, was built in the early part of the 12th century by David I.; stood on the site of the north-western portion of the present pile; was extended, at different periods, by additions of aisles, chapels, transepts, and a choir; but suffered demolition, in 1385, by an invading English army under Richard II. A reconstruction of this church, with seemingly much of the old masonry, but consisting mainly of entirely new work, was commenced in 1387, and went forward, in successive portions, at successive periods, all in the Early Gothic style which then prevailed. It acquired, about 1454, a large southern aisle, with richly groined ceiling, originally called the Preston, but at length the Assembly aisle, because used after the Reformation as the meeting-place of the General Assembly. It underwent, in 1462, enlargement of its choir in a style of decorated Gothic, with elevation of the central part into a clerestory; was constituted by James III., in 1466, a collegiate church, with a provost, a dean, 16 prebendaries, a master of the choir, 4 choristers, a sacristan, and a beadle, together with a number of chaplains in attendance upon the 36 altars in the church, and became crowded with monuments, armorial bearings, and costly private lofts or galleries. It was partitioned, after the Reformation, into four churches and some lesser apartments, and put into repair by the proceeds of the sale of the paraphernalia belonging to its altars and connected with Romish ceremonies; was, from 1633 till 1638, the cathedral of the brief bishopric of Edinburgh; witnessed, in July 1637, the well-known cutty-stool exploit of Jenny Geddes, when the dean attempted to introduce the Service Book, leading to events which annulled Episcopacy and restored Presbyterianism; and witnessed also, in 1643, the swearing and subscribing of the Solemn League and Covenant by the representatives of the public bodies of Scotland; but suffered much secularisation in various parts, partly by the use of it as a public exchange, and even a police station, partly by the imprisonment for several months in 1666 of the Covenanters taken at Rullion Green, and partly as a common rendezvons for idle and dissolute persons. Till 1817 what with the Krames, the Luckenbooths, the Old Tolbooth, a western range of shops, the south-western range of New Tolbooth and Goldsmiths' Hall, and the south-eastern piazza range of Parliament Close, it was so enveloped as to be entirely hidden from view, with the exception only of its surmounting tower and parts of its southern and eastern fronts. It had once the ordinary cathedral cruciform outline, but, by additions, alterations, and curtailments, lost nearly all trace of its original form; and it was in styles of architecture ranging from pure Norman till the latest Pointed, but now shows no feature of an earlier date than the 14th century, and scarcely any style except a comparatively plain variety of Gothic. It underwent, in 1829-32, under the direction of Mr Burn, with aid of a government grant of £12, 600, an extensive renovation, which, while giving it an aspect of freshness, harmony, and strength, swept away some of its finest features, some of its unique parts, and nearly all its antique character, so that now it presents exteriorly an irregular, heavy, and comparatively tasteless appearance, with little of either the symmetry of form or grace of decoration commonly found in edifices of its age and class; yet by its massive breadth, and especially by its surmounting tower, it strikes the eye as grand and impressive.

The length of the edifice, in its present form, is 206 feet, and its breadth at the W end 110 feet, at the middle 129 feet, at the E end 76 feet. The steeple was rebuilt in 1648, on the model of a previous one, which, being weather-worn and dilapidated, required to be taken down; it consists of square tower and lantern spire, rises from the centre of the pile to a height of 161 feet from the ground, and, being stinted on an elevated part of the High Street and Lawnmarket, is seen from a great distance, and forms a characteristic feature in all views of the city. The tower terminates in a Gothic balustrade; the spire comprises an open octagonal lantern and a crowning spirelet, showing the form of an imperial crown; and the lantern consists of intersecting arches, set with pinnacles. Within the spire there is a chime of bells, which are played every week-day for an hour. The arrangement of the interior, since the Reformation, has been repeatedly altered, as by the suppression of one of the four parish churches, by changes on the other three, and by disuse of the Assembly aisle for Assembly purposes. In 1872, it comprised the High Church in the E, the New North or West St Giles' in the W, and Trinity College Church in the S, but was freed from the last of these in 1878 by the erection of a separate edifice for the Trinity College congregation; while, in 1881, that of West St Giles' was also removed to a temporary church at the NE corner of Bruntsfield Links, pending the erection of a new edifice at Argyle Park Terrace, facing the West Meadows.

An interior restoration of St Giles' was proposed in 1867, but delayed till 1872, and the part first undertaken was the choir or High Church. Begun under the direction of Mr W. Hay, the process of renewal laid bare and restored to light many beautiful features in pillar, wall, and roof, as the old fittings were cleared away; the passages were then relaid with tiles bearing antique Scottish devices; an elegant royal pew, ornate stalls for the lords of session and civic dignitaries, comfortable open seats for the congregation, and a reredos and pulpit of Caen stone, were all erected, which, with various other improvements, cost about £4490. In its renovated form, this portion of St Giles' was reopened in March 1873. The southern part, occupied by the Trinity College Church congregation, was next undertaken in February l879; began by lifting floors, removing partitions, and opening up aisles; and was completed in August 1880 at a cost of about £3000, nearly double the estimated sum for the restoration of this portion. The most conspicuous additions at this date were the ornamental tiles laid in the S transept and the Moray aisle, also the very tasteful iron-grill in the same aisle. From this aisle there is a descent of a few steps to a crypt, in which are the tombs of the Regent Murray, Alexander, fourth Earl of Galloway, and the Earl of Athole, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, with marble tablets indicating the names and dates. From the crypt there is a further descent to the vault in which was entombed the Marquis of Montrose, in which the name and date, 1661, are likewise inscribed on a tablet. When this vault was taken in hand, it had been transformed into a coal cellar. It is now in thorough order, and a few bones, being all that could be recovered in the vault, have been interred under the tablet on the floor. The Montrose vault is, perhaps, the most interesting historical spot in St Giles'. This completed the restoration of two-thirds of the old cathedral, and there remained only the nave, occupied by the congregation of West St Giles', to be undertaken. This further restoration was completed in 1882, and in the execution of it valuable specimens of 14th and 15th century architecture have been discovered. This last portion includes the Albany and St Eloise's (or Old Hammermen's) chapels. These two chapels, as well as three arches of the southern aisle, being of a higher level than the rest of the edifice, are enclosed within handsome screens of wrought iron. In a recess in the Albany aisle it is designed to place a recumbent figure in white marble of the dying Duke of Rothesay. All the windows in St Giles' are in the Perpendicular style of Gothic art which prevailed from the 14th to the 16th centuries, and these are being filled with memorial windows in stained glass, those in the choir being all illustrative of the life of our Lord; whilst the clerestory windows are similarly filled with the armorial bearings of the several incorporated trades of Edinburgh-the whole being the design and workmanship of Messrs Ballantine & Sons, under the superintendence of R. Herdman, R. S.A. When the work of restoration is fully completed, the cathedral church of St Giles' will be of valuable service to the historian and the student of architecture, and a place of interest second to none within the confines of Edinburgh. It only remains to be noted that much of what has been done and is doing in the restoration of St Giles', is owing in great measure to the public spirit and generous liberality of Dr William Chambers, the eminent publisher. (See Registrum Cartarum Ecclesiœ Sancti Egidii de Edinburgh: a series of charters and original documents connected with the church of St Giles', Edinburgh, ed. by D. Laing, Edinb. 1859; and Chambers's Story of St Giles' Cathedral Church, Edinb. 1879.)

Trinity College Church stood on the W side of the foot of Leith Wynd; was founded in 1462, by Mary of Gueldres, consort of James II., as a collegiate church for a provost, 8 prebendaries, and 2 choristers; and was originally called the Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, but, after the Reformation, known as the College Kirk; and was removed in 1848 by the clearances for the North British Railway. It consisted of choir, transepts, and unfinished central tower, with a richness of design and beauty of execution equal to those of the best Gothic structures in England, and showed, in its salient parts, a great variety of exquisite sculptures, some of them in natural, but most in grotesque or monstrous feature. It had an apsidal termination of its choir, pierced with three lofty and richly-traceried windows; was entered, at the S aisle, by a very fine doorway, beneath a beautiful porch with groined roof; was seated only over the central aisle, leaving the pillars fully exposed to view; and had there a lofty roof, in very rich groining, with remarkable variety of detail. The mortal remains of its royal foundress lay interred in an aisle on the N side; but, at the taking down of the church, these were reinterred in the royal cemetery at Holyrood. The stones of the edifice were removed under registry by a skilful architect, with the view of being reconstructed on some other site; but, becoming the subject of sharp and long-continued litigation, they lay bleaching on a slope adjacent to the Low Calton burying-ground till 1872. The scheme for re-erection was not matured till 1871; and it then merged in designs by the architect Mr John Lessels, for an entirely new building to serve as the church, with an annexe formed out of the old materials to serve as a congregational hall.

The new structure is oblong, and stands with front and main entrance toward Jeffrey Street, and with one side abutting on Chalmers Close. The front contains the main entrance, in form of an exact reproduction of the deeply-moulded doorway, with surmounting Norman Gothic arch, which formed so notable an ornament of the original church; is pierced, over the entrance, with a large, pointed, traceried window; and has, on each side of that window, a niche for a statue. It terminates in a gable, pierced with a circular cusped window, and surmounted by a cross; is flanked, on the W side of the gable, by a square three-story tower 115 feet high-on the E side, by a turret, carried up from the ground, and finished at the top with a stone roof and ornamental finial; and measures 62 feet in width, inclusive of the tower and turret, and 70 feet in height to the top of the cross. The tower is pierced with windows, has buttresses and crocheted pinnacles; and, at the height of 70 feet from the ground, takes the form of a broached spire of octagonal section, relieved, half-way up, with a row of dormer windows. The side elevations are pierced with rows of lancet-shaped windows of two, three, and four lights, rise to the height of 35 feet in clear wall, and are surmounted by a high-pitched roof of single span, rising to the height of about 65 feet. Many of these architectural details are reproductions of features in the original church. A small building, at the S end of the W side, contains an entrance lobby and a minister's room. The pulpit is a handsome structure of carved and moulded woodwork, and is another reproduction. The annexe is mainly a reconstruction of the E end of the original church, entirely from the old stones; but, instead of being placed end-on to the new structure, is so turned round that the apse, with its three deeply-moulded lancet windows, and its buttresses and ornamental finials, stands as part of the E elevation of the composite edifice. A gable, reproducing the old transept window, forms a corresponding feature in the W elevation; two arches, representing two in the old nave, pierce the S wall of the new building; the width of the old nave, and the height to the spring of the arch, respectively 24 and 48 feet, are preserved; the length of the reconstruction is 65 feet, nearly corresponding to the width of the new church; the arched spaces between the aisles and the clerestory, with its beautiful roof of groined stonework, reappear exactly has they were in the old structure.

The Tron Church stands isolated in Hunter Square, at the corner of High Street and South Bridge. lt was founded in 1637, opened in 1647, and completed in 1663, at a cost of above £6000. Consecrated to Christ and the Church, it received its name from being situated opposite a public weighing beam or tron, called the Salt Tron. It suffered curtailment in 1785, at the forming of South Bridge; lost the upper part of its original steeple, a curious lead-covered wooden spire, by the great fire in 1824, but acquired, in 1828, a handsome new spire of stone. It presents its main front, containing the entrance door-way, to High Street; exhibits there characters of architecture which have been styled the Scottish Renaissance, but really do not belong to any regular style, and cannot be called interesting; has, in each face of its tower, a clock-dial which is illuminated from the inside after nightfall; and acquired, in 1870, a large stained-glass window, of triplet tracery, divided by a transom. (See The Tron Kirk, Edinburgh, a Lecture by W. Findlay, Edinb. 187 9.)

The Greyfriars' Churches, Old and New, stand in a recess from the head of Candlemaker Row or S end of George IV. Bridge; they took their name from a monastery founded by James I., situated at the SW corner of Grassmarket; and occupy a site on the crown or south-eastern portion of an enclosure, which rises gently from Grassmarket to the summit at the ancient boundary of the city, and was long the park or garden of the monastery. The monastery was an edifice of great size and munch magnificence; became, in 1449, the temporary residence of the Princess Mary of Gueldres, and a few years afterwards, the asylum of Henry VI. of England; and was demolished in 1559, the garden being then given by Queen Mary to the citizens to be used as a public cemetery. The Old church was built in 1612; had originally an ungraceful form, relieved only by a steeple at its W end; lost that steeple in 1718, by an explosion of gunpowder which had been lodged there by the city authorities for security; and was destroyed by fire in Jan. 1845. It underwent restoration so tardily that it did not become again serviceable till 1857, when it acquired windows of beautifully stained-glass, and became notable as the first Presbyterian Established church to adopt the use of the organ. It numbers among its ministers Principal Rollock, Principal Carstares, Principal Robertson, Dr John Erskine, Dr John Inglis, Dr Guthrie, and Dr Robert Lee; and contains a beautiful medallion monument to Dr Lee, sculptured by Hutchison, and put up in 1870. This church figures in Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering; and is famous for the signing of the Solemn League and Covenant in 1638, partly within its walls, and partly on a neighbouring tombstone. - New Greyfriars was built in 1721 at a cost of £3045, adjoining the W end of the Old church. It forms, conjointly with the Old church, a lengthy oblong edifice, with broad slated roof and comparatively plain appearance. It shared in the fire which destroyed the Old church in 1845, but suffered much less injury, and was soon restored for use.

Lady Yester's Church was founded in 1647 by Dame Margaret Ker, Lady Yester, being built, and partly endowed from a gift of 15, 000 merks, by that lady. It stood a little to the E of the site of the new church which superseded it, and was surrounded by a small cemetery now covered with buildings. The new Lady Yester's Church was erected in 1803 on the N side of Infirmary Street, a plain structure, without a spire, and has a quaint nondescript front, sometimes erroneously described as Gothic. In 1865, it underwent window decoration and internal improvement at a cost of about £600, and again, in Oct. 1881, was further altered and improved at a cost of about £700. -St John's Church stands on the S side of Victoria Street, was built in 1838, and is a large edifice, in mixed architecture, with a Saxon doorway, and without a tower.-Greenside church stands on the northern slope of Calton Hill, at the W end of Royal Terrace, and is sufficiently isolated to expose all its sides to view. It was mainly built in 1838, but did not acquire the greater part of its tower till 18 51; is a quasi-cruciform structure, in very poor modern Gothic; has a tower of only two stages, crowned with poor pinnacles; and, being a conspicuous object in the near neighbourhood of great masses of Græco-Italian architecture, is a blot upon the landscape. -The Gaelic church stood at the corner of Horse Wynd and Argyle Square, adjacent to the W end of North College Street, and was a plain building, without a spire. Being purchased by the City Improvement Trustees for £6000, it was removed in the clearances for Chambers Street in 1871. The congregation, after worshipping for a time in the Reformation Society's Hall in George I V. Bridge, occupy now a place of their own in Broughton Street, which was some years ago vacated by the congregation of the Catholic Apostolic church.

St George's Church stands on the W side of Charlotte Square, on a line with George Street. It was erected in 1811-14, after designs by Robert Reid, at a cost of £33, 000; is in massive Græco-Italian style, on a square ground-plan measuring 112 feet each way; and is surmounted by a miniature of the dome of St Paul's in London, but so large and beautiful as to be more like a reduced copy than a mere miniature. The church front, toward the square, has a lofty Ionic portico, with four columns and two pilasters, between two comparatively plain projecting wings-the columns rising from the platform of a flight of steps, and surmounted by only an entablature and a balustrade, with a heavy and tasteless appearance. The domed superstructure comprises-first, a square basement, with massive cornice; next, a circular tower, engirt with an attic-Corinthian colonnade; next, a great lead-covered dome, and then, successively, a cyclostyle lantern, cupola, and cross, -the last at the height of 150 feet from the ground, the whole being finely proportioned, admirably executed, and gracefully impressive. It figures very nobly both in near views around the square, and in all the general views of the New Town.-St Luke's Church stands in Young Street, was originally a chapel of ease to St George's, and is a large, plain, modern edifice, without a tower.

St Andrew's Church stands on the N side of George Street, opposite the Commercial Bank. It was built in 1785, in plain oval form, without a steeple, but acquired afterwards an attached structure on its front, comprising an elegant tetrastyle Corinthian portico, surmounted by a tower and spire 168 feet high; and is notable as the meeting-place, in 1843, of the General Assembly, at which occurred the Disruption, or secession of the Free Church. It underwent interior improvement and decoration in 1862. The tower is of three stages, very symmetrical and adorned with pillars, and contains a fine chime of eight bells; the spire is octagonal and beautifully tapering; and the two together form a graceful steeple, which figures conspicuously in almost every view of the New Town. -St Stephen's Church stands at the foot of the northern New Town, on a site confronting the line of St Vincent Street. It was erected in 1826.28, after designs by W. H. Playfair, at a cost of £21, 000; is in a mixed style of architecture; has an octagonal outline and heavy appearance; and presents to St Vincent Street a narrow façade, with spacious lofty flight of steps, leading to a massive arched doorway, flanked by comparatively plain receding fronts, and surmounted by a massive square tower, rising 163 feet from the ground, and terminating in a lofty balustrade, with elegant double cross at each angle. Its commodious interior underwent considerable alteration and renovation consequent upon the introduction of an organ in 1880. -St Mary's Church stands in the centre of the unfinished Bellevue Crescent. It was built in 1824, after designs by Thomas Brown, at a cost of £24, 000; has an oblong form, with the NE end as its main front; and is adorned there, from the platform of a spacious flight of steps, with a noble, lofty, hexastyle, pedimented Corinthian portico, surmounted by a tower of three stages, terminating in a cupolar superstructure, rising to the height of 186 feet. The first stage of the tower is square, and has Doric pillars at its corners; the second and the third stages are circular, and have respectively Ionic and Corinthian pillars around them; the cupola is little more than an arched stone roofing over the third stage, and entirely out of harmony with the rest of the pile, but is crowned by a beautiful, small, open cyclostyle in the form of a lantern.

St Cuthbert's or West Church has been noticed in the section on St Cuthbert's parish. -St Bernard's Church stands in West Claremont Street, was built in 1823 as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's, and is a spacious and comparatively plain edifice, with a low, neat steeple.-Buccleuch church stands in Buccleuch Street, opposite Crosscauseway, 120 yards E of George Square, and was erected in l755, as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's, at a cost of £800; but, being a very unsightly structure, it underwent restoration and embellishment in 1866, after designs by D. M'Gibbon, at a cost of more than £2000. It has now a lofty gable over its entrance, and a turret 70 feet high on its S side, and is adorned with several very fine memorial windows, one of them erected by the Marquis of Bute to the memory of his ancestress, Flora, daughter of Macleod of Rasay.-St David's Church stands in Gardner's Crescent, was originally a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's, and has a Grecian portico, but very plain flank.-Dean church stands in the suburb of Dean, erected as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's, and has been already referred to under Dean.-Lady Glenorchy's Church, in Roxburgh Place, was built in 1809 as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's; was long called Roxburgh church; and is a plain edifice. The original Lady Glenorchy's Church sprang from the beneficence of the wife of John Viscount Glenorchy. It was, for some time, a rented chapel in Niddry's Wynd, designed for Evangelical ministers of all denominations; but by-and-by a large plain edifice of 1774, situated at the foot of Leith Wynd, in connection with the Establishment, and demolished for the North British Railway in 1845. It is now represented, on the part of the Establishment, by Roxburgh church, and on the part of the Free Church, by a new edifice in Greenside Place. -Grange church stands at the corner of Kilgraston Road and Strathearn Road; was erected in 1871, after designs by Robert Morham, at a cost of about £6000, as a memorial to Professor James Robertson; and consists of nave and transepts, with a steeple in the centre of the breast gable, rising to a height of 150 feet.-Morningside church stands on the E side of the upper part of Morningside suburb, and has been already referred to under Morningside. -Newington church is on the S side of Clerk Street, a little N of Newington; was erected in 1823 as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's; is a neat, large, oblong edifice, with a Roman end front, and a steeple 110 feet high.-Abbey church stands on the S side of London Road, near Abbeyhill station; was erected in 1875-76 at a cost of about £7000; is a handsome edifice in the Gothic style, with tower and spire; contains 850 sittings; and serves for a quoad sacra parish formed out of Greenside and South Leith parishes.-St Leonard's Church stands in Parkside Place, opposite the E end of Lutton Place; was built in 1876 at a cost of about £5500; contains 900 sittings; and serves for a quoad sacra parish formed out of St Cuthbert's, Lady Yester, and Newington parishes.-Queen's Park church stands in Prospect Place, Dumbiedykes Road; is in the Gothic style, with a spire rising 150 feet, having accommodation for 850 sittings; and cost about £4000. -West Coates church stands on the Glasgow Road, not far from Donaldson's Hospital; was erected in 1869, after designs by Mr Bryce, at a cost of £7500, as a chapel of ease to St Cuthbert's; is in the later Pointed style, with a tower and spire 130 feet high; and has been pronounced 'clumsy, squat, and badly detailed.'-Mayfield church is in Newington, and is also a neat, though small, building in Gothic style, with handsome interior. A new church is at present in progress (1882) at North Merchiston, which is estimated to cost £13, 000.

Free Churches.—Barclay Church stands on the western verge of Bruntsfield Links, opposite the entrance to Gillespie Crescent, and was erected in 1862-63, after designs by F. T. Pilkington, at a cost of £10, 000, defrayed from a bequest by a lady named Barclay. It is a curiously intricate example of the Venetian-Gothic style, pronounced by Professor Blackie, 'full of individual beauties or prettinesses in detail, yet, as a whole, disorderly, inorganic, and monstrous.' It has an elegant tower and spire, rising to the height of 250 feet, relieving the monotony of the surrounding scenery, and figuring grandly from many distant points of view. Barclay Church underwent considerable interior alteration in 1880, adding materially to the comfort of the congregation.-Buccleuch church stands in the western section of Crosscauseway, nearly confronting the Esta in pleasing Gothic style, and acquired, in 1861-62, after a design by Hay of Liverpool, a lofty, well-proportioned, octagonal spire.-Canongate or John Knox's Church is on the N side of Netherbow, immediately E of John Knox's House, and was erected in 1850. It has a remarkably beautiful façade of florid Gothic, terminating in four richly crocheted pinnacles, and in a decorated pediment, surmounted by a cross.-Cowgate and Cowgatehead churches are comparatively recent buildings, erected on the territorial principle for Cowgate district. -Dalry church is at the corner of Cathcart Place, Dalry. It is a very handsome building, with fine front and en trance porch, with several pinnacles on its roof, and at its western corner a very graceful spire rising from a lantern tower. It has a congregational hall with rotunda-shaped front at its eastern side. -Dean church has been already noticed.-Grange or Chalmers' Memorial Church stands at the angle of Lovers' Loan and opposite Grange cemetery. It was erected in 1866, after designs by Patrick Wilson, at a cost of £5000, as a memorial of Dr Chalmers; consists of nave and transepts, respectively 60 and 67 feet long, and each 31 feet wide; is in the Geometric style, with a highlypitched gable on the nave, forming the principal front; has there a large four-light traceried window above the entrance door-way; and was designed to have an octagonal spire, surmounting a three-stage tower, and rising to the height of 165 feet.-Greyfriars' Church is in Graham Street, and has a neat Saxon front, with two small turrets and a pediment. -High Church forms the eastern part of the Free Church College buildings, is of plainer character than the rest of these buildings, and has, on its E side, a small neat porch.-Holyrood church stands amid a block of buildings immediately W of the Palace-yard of Holyrood, and is a plain edifice.

Lady Glenorchy's Church stands in Greenside Place, opposite the junction of Picardy Place and Leith Walk; and has a factitious front in the Tudor style, with low, broad, embattled tower.-M 'Crie Church stands in Davie Street, is a plain large building, formerly belonged to the Original Secession, and is notable for the ministry in it of Dr M 'Crie, the biographer of Knox and Melville.-Martyrs' Church, originally belonging to the Reformed Presbyterians, amalgamated with the Free Church in 1876, and is on the W side of George IV. Bridge. It was built in 1860, and has a Gothic front; a former building being in Lady Lawson's Wynd. -Mayfield church is at the corner of St Andrew's Terrace and Mayfield Loan; is Gothic in style, cruciform in plan; and has a very neatly decorated doorway and frontage.- Moray Church stands in the grounds of Moray House, contiguous to South Back of Canongate; was erected in 1862; and is a reduced copy of Barclay Church, without the tower.-Morningside church has been already noticed under Morningside.-Newington church is on the E side of Clerk Street, a short distance S of Newington Established church; was built partly in plain style immediately after the Disruption, partly somewhat ornately a number of years later; and is a spacious edifice, with a Gothic front. -New North Church stands in the sharp angle at the junction of Forrest Road and Bristo Place, confronting the line of George IV. Bridge. It was erected about 1846; is an oblong edifice in the Gothic style, with main front on the end toward George IV. Bridge; and has, on the basement of that front, a projection about 12 feet outward, adorned with an unfinished Gothic colonnade. -Pilrig church stands at the N corner of Pilrig Street and Leith Walk, and was erected in 1861-62, after designs by Peddie & Kinnear, at a cost of about £6000. It is in the French-Gothic style, has two wheel windows toward respectively Pilrig Street and Leith Walk, and is surmounted by an octagonal spire 150 feet high. -Roseburn church stands near Coltbridge and Murrayfield, and is a handsome modern edifice, with a spire.-Pleasance church was a plain building in Pleasance, but the congregation, in 1875, purchased the Independent Chapel in Richmond Place, an edifice erected about 1842, and presenting pleasant Early Gothic features.-Roxburgh church has a rear front to Richmond Place, and a neat porch opening into Hill Square, and is a plain building. -St Andrew's Church stands behind the street-line of the S side of George Street, and is entered by a lobby through the house which was occupied till 1850 by the Free Church College.-St Bernard's Church stands on the S side of Henderson Row; was erected, in lieu of a previous building, in 1856; and is in the Gothic style, consisting of nave and aisles with a small spiral tower. -St Columba's or the Gaelic Church and St Cuthbert's Church stand in short streets between Castle Terrace and Lothian Road, and are neat Gothic structures.-St David's Church stands in Morrison Street, and is a plain building, with a large hall behind, added in 1881.

St George's Church stands at the corner of Shandwick Place and Stafford Street, and snperseded a previous church in Lothian Road on ground now occupied by the Caledonian station. It was built in 1866-69, after designs by David Bryce, at a cost, including site, of about £31, 000; is in the Palladian style, perfectly classical, but with an aspect which would have been suited equally for a music hall. It presents its main front to Shandwick Place, with an entrance flanked by coupled Ionic columns, and slightly projecting wings adorned with Corinthian attached columns, and has also an elaborately finished flank to Stafford Street. It measures 125 feet in length and 78 feet in width; includes, over a vestibule and corridor, a large congregational hall; is fitted with lowbacked seats, open at the ends; and has a platform, instead of a pulpit, in an apse with semi-dome roof, supported by six pillars of polished Peterhead syenite. In 1882 a spire was added, rising from the SW corner of the building, where from the level of the church roof the campanile springs as a plain square tower, buttressed at the corners, and pierced with one small window near the base, to a height of 68 feet. Here the buttresses are finished off with scrolls, while round the tower is carried a deep frieze enriched with festoon ornaments. Over the tower rises the belfry, showing double pilasters at each corner, and having each side divided by Corinthian pillars into three-arched openings. Then comes another frieze and cornice, which supports the lantern forming the crowning stage of the structure. The angles of the octagonal lantern are filled with vases, each of the eight sides presents a round-headed arch, and the pyramidal top terminates in a small ornamental finial at the height of 185 feet from the ground. There has been much discussion as to the harmony of the spire with the building. -St John's Church stands at the E end of Johnston Terrace, close by what in old times was the West Bow Port, and was erected in 1847, after designs by Robert Hamilton, in a mixed style of Early Gothic, with a considerable amount of pleasing embellishment. It presents its main front, with a moderate elevation, to the junction of Lawnmarket and Johnston Terrace, nearly opposite Victoria Hall; rests its rear front on a lofty substruction facing Victoria Street, nearly opposite St John's Established Church; and is notable for the ministry in it of Dr Guthrie and Dr Hanna. -St Luke's Church stands behind the house-line of Queen Street; is entered by a lobby thence; and has, on the house-line, a factitious front, in the Tudor style, with two crocheted turrets.

St Mary's Church is at the N corner of Albany Street and Broughton Street, superseding a previous edifice in Barony Street, and was erected in 1859-61, after designs by J. T. Rochead, at a cost of about £13, 000. It is in a mixed style of Third Pointed and Tudor; exhibits some fine work, with occasionally an excess of detail; and has a richly carved steeple 180 feet high.-St Paul's Church stands in St Leonard's Street, nearly opposite the end of Rankeillor Street. It was built before the Disruption, and has a plain Roman front, surmounted by a quadrangular belfry, each face of which is pierced with a wide arch.- St Stephen's Church is in Wemyss Place, and was formed out of the upper parts of large private houses; and shows lofty windows, surmounted by a broad entablature. - Stockbridge church, adjacent to the foot of Dean Street, in Stockbridge, was erected in 1867 out of the materials of St George's Church in Lothian Road, and is mainly an exact reproduction of that church, originally built after a design by Mr Cousin. It is in the Anglo-Norman style, with some mimic arcade decorations and two carved turrets, and acquired much heaviness of aspect by the carrying up of its original front into a broad pyramidally-roofed tower. - Tolbooth Church stands behind the N side of St Andrew Square, with rear and flank exposure to the view from Queen Street, being entered by a lobby through a house from St Andrew Square. It was erected in 1857, and is in the Gothic style, with large end window and roof-lights.-Tron Church was formerly in a close off High Street, quite concealed from general view, but now occupies an ornate building in Chambers Street, opposite the Industrial Museum.-Viewforth Church stands at the end of West Gilmore Place, and was built in 1871-72, after designs by Pilkington & Bell, at a cost of about £4500. It is in the Geometric-Gothic style; includes a sunk story, with school-room and vestry; and has an ornate front, with large central gable, smaller side gable, and a corner tower 120 feet high.-West Port church stands in West Port, was erected as the result of Dr Chalmers' personal territorial mission work, and is in the Gothic style.

United Presbyterian Churches.—Argyle Place church is cruciform in plan, presenting a gabled front to Carlung Place, through which is the principal entrance by a projecting porch, with the doorway recessed and flanked on both sides by two engaged columns, supporting a finely carved arch pediment, flanked on the NW angle with a square tower, above which a graceful spire rises to a height of 150 feet from the ground; the whole is in Pointed Gothic style, and cost about £5000. -Arthur Street church belonged originally to Baptists; was purchased in 1833, by a Relief congregation, for £2100; and became United Presbyterian at the union of the Relief and the United Secession. -Blackfriars Street church stands in Blackfriars Street, superseded a previous place of worship occupied as a mission church, was erected in 1871 at the rebuilding of the Blackfriars Street portion of the city improvements, and is a neat edifice.-Bread Street church was built in 1831, and has a Roman front with pilasters and pediment.-Bristo Street church is in a court off Bristo and MarshaIl Streets, and is on the site of the oldest dissenting Presbyterian church in Edinburgh. It was built in 1802 at a cost of £4084, enlarged at a cost of £1515, interiorly renovated in 1872 at a cost of about £1300; and is neat and very spacious.-Broughton Place church stands across the E end of Broughton Place; was built in 1821 at a cost of £7095, and repaired and altered in 1853 and 1870 each time at a cost of about £2000; has a Roman front, with elegant tetrastyle Doric portico; and is notable for the ministry of the Rev. Dr John Brown. - Canongate church superseded a previous place of worship used as a mission church, was built in 1869 at a cost of £3200, and is in the Early Pointed style.-College Street church is in South College Street, was rebuilt in 1857, has a front in the Florentine style, and is roofed and lighted in the manner of a Gothic clerestory.-Colston Street church is in a new street of that name off Leith Walk, and is neat and elegant.-Dr Davidson Memorial Church stands in Eyre Place, Canonmills, and is occupied by the congregation which formerly worshipped in the Synod Hall, Queen Street.- Dalry Road or Haymarket church, a short distance SW of Haymarket station, superseded an iron structure of 1871, destroyed by a storm in Oct. 1874; was erected in 1875 at a cost of about £5000; includes a basement tower, intended to be surmounted by a spire; is in the Gothic Romanesque style, with joint buttresses rising to a height of about 100 feet; and contains 840 sittings. -Dean Street church stands in Stockbridge, and was built in 1828 at a cost of £2100. -Hope Park church is adjacent to the E end of the Meadows, in the near vicinity of the Newington Established and Free churches; superseded a previous church of 1793 in Potterrow; was erected in 1867; and is a handsome edifice.-Infirmary Street church was built in 1822, belonged for a time to the protesting Antiburghers, was noted for the ministry of Rev. Dr Paxton, came into its present connection in 1856, and is adorned in front with Doric pilasters. -James Place church was built in 1800 at a cost of £3600, and repaired in 1828 at a cost of £650; and is plain but spacious. -Lauriston Place church was built in 1859, is a handsome Gothic structure, a large congregational hall being recently added to its western side.-London Road church stands at the corner of London Road and Easter Road; was erected in 1874-75; is in the Pointed style, with a tower and spire 160 feet in height; and contains 950 sittings. -Lothian Road church was built in 1831, and has an Italian front of three stories, with recessed centre, rusticated basement, and surmounting balustrade.-Morningside church has been already noticed.-Newington church stands at the corner of Grange Road and Causewayside; superseded a previous church in Duncan Street, purchased in 1847 from Baptists; was erected in 1862-63; and is in the Early Pointed style, with a tower.-Nicolson Street church stands near the S end of Nicolson Street; was built in 1819 at a cost of £6000; has a broad Gothic front, with turret pinnacles 90 feet high; and is notable for the ministry of the Rev. Dr John Jamieson, author of the Scottish Dictionary and of various theological works.-North Richmond Street church is small and neat. -Palmerston Place church stands on the SW side of the street, a little SW of Coates Crescent; was erected in 1873-75 at a cost of about £13,000; is in classic Italian style, with a hexastyle portico of circular-headed arches, and with two massive flanking towers about 100 feet high; and contains about 1100 sittings. -Portsburgh church, in the Vennel, was built in 1828 at a cost of £1927. The congregation removed in 1881 to a new church in Gilmore Place, costing £4600. -Rose Street church was rebuilt in 1830 at a cost of £3042, and presents to the street the greater side of an oblong, in Roman architecture, with pilasters and balustrades. -Rosehall church is on the E side of Dalkeith Road, adjoining Rosehall Terrace; is small and ornate in appearance; has two side entrances, arched and supported by pilasters; recessed over each of these are square towers, with open stonework lanterns at top; has a font of Caen stone like that of St Giles'; behind is a large congregational hall.

Episcopalian Churches.—St Mary's Cathedral Church for the diocese of Edinburgh stands on the E side of Palmerston Place, in a direct line with Melville Street. It originated in a bequest by the Misses Walker, who owned the estate of Coates, comprising the sites of Coates Crescent, Walker Street, Melville Street, and several other thoroughfares in West End, and yielding a revenue of £20, 000, which represents a capital of about £400, 000. The whole was bequeathed for erecting and endowing a cathedral, and for purposes connected with it, so far as the funds would allow, and they became available in 1870. The work was begun in 1874 from designs by Sir Gilbert Scott, after whose death, in March 1878, the building was carried on and completed by his son, Mr John Oldrid Scott, and formally consecrated and opened in Oct. 1879. The cathedral is cruciform in plan, with lofty central tower and spire; the nave, choir, and transepts are respectively seven, four, and two bays in length; each of the four arms have aisles on both sides, and by the arrangement of the reredos the choir aisles are connected at the E end. At the W end the nave aisles are terminated by two steeples; but the funds were not available for carrying these above the roof-level of the nave, the cathedral being thus deprived of a most interesting external feature. The style is that which preceded the Early Pointed, and is partly founded on that of Holyrood and Jedburgh Abbeys, and others of the finest churches in Scotland. The choir, crossings, and aisles are groined in stone, the nave and transepts in wood. The four façades are varied in designs: the E end has three lancets commencing at the height of 15 feet, above is a range of niches containing figures about life size, while over these is an ornate design of a seated figure of our Lord in glory, a series of angels being grouped around; the fronts of the N and S transepts possess wheel windows; the W front is occupied by a great arch, within which are four lancet windows of equal size and design, a beautiful rose window being above these. In this front is the main entrance, with recessed arch and elaborate carving; the doorway is double, being divided by a central pier, on which rests a sculptured tympanum. The total external length is 262 feet; width across transepts, 132½ feet; across nave and aisles, 75 feet; internal height of nave, 71 feet; choir, 60 feet; of ridge of roof externally, 84 feet; diameter of central tower, 42 feet; height of spire, 225 feet. Internally the whole is of rich design-the pavement of the choir being of Sicilian marble and tiles; the wooden fittings, stalls, bishop's throne, etc., being of walnut wood. In 1880 there was added a reredos at the upper end of the chancel, of reddish-veined alabaster with enrichments of variously coloured marbles, and sculptures in white Carrara-the most important of the latter being a relievo of the Crucifixion by Miss Grant. The structure is approached by steps from the level of the chancel floor; presents a central elevation and two receding wings. The lower stage consists of a plain base 5 feet high, with a row of medallions, and surmounted by a carved cornice. Over this rises upon two pairs of marble shafts a wide pointed arch, decorated with beautiful carving, and carrying a crocheted gablet with ornamental cross by way of finial; the gablet supports four angelic figures, and its tympanum is pierced by a six-leaved opening. Within and behind this arch is a second, supported at either side by four columns of pinkish Jura marble. Behind this again comes an arcade of three openings, resting on four octagonal columns of a darker shade, forming a screen to the central relievo of the Crucifixion, which entirely fills the three openings. Two statues occupy the flanking wings of the reredos-on one side St Margaret of Scotland, on the other St Columba bearing the crosier of St Fillan. (See History of the Erection of the Cathedral Church of St Mary, Edinb. 1879.)

St Paul's Church, on the N side of the E end of York Place, was previously the bishop's church or quasicathedral, and was erected in 1816-18, after designs by Archibald Elliot, at a cost of about £12, 000. It consists of nave and aisles, standing E and W, and measuring 123 feet by 73, and is an elegant edifice in the later Pointed style, with some intermixture of Tudor. Rich mouldings, fine tracery, crocheted pinnacles, and beautiful Gothic balustrades adorn the street side and the two ends; a grand window is in the E, re-decorated with painted glass in 1850; and four octagonal turrets, almost wide and high enough to be called towers, all of one pattern, rise from the four angles of the inner walls, and are cut throughout their upper parts into open ornate stone-work. The organ was originally built in 1774 by Schnetzler for the church which preceded the present, and underwent, from time to time, such improvements as won for it the reputation of being the finest organ in Scotland. It underwent further improvement in 1870; measures 27 feet in length and 30 in height; and has forty stops, besides eight couplers. This church is notable also for the ministry in it of the Rev. Archibald Alison, author of Essays on Taste, who died in 1839.

St John's Church stands at the corner of Princes Street and Lothian Road, and was erected in 1818, after designs by W. Burn, at a cost of £15, 000. It is an oblong edifice, with nave and aisles, 113 feet long and 62 wide, and is in a florid Gothic style, with details copied from St George's Chapel at Windsor. It is adorned on the sides with beautiful windows, symmetrical buttresses, finely crocheted pinnacles, and large niches with richlycarved brackets and canopies; is surmounted at the W end by a square well-proportioned tower, pierced through the basement with a noble doorway, relieved in its sides by beautiful windows, and crowned, at the height of 120 feet, with ornate pinnacles; rests along the S side on ornamental burial-vaults, with a terrace and other burial-vaults to the S; and has attached to its E end a large low vestry, in a style harmonious with the main building. The pillars and arches of the interior are light and symmetrical; the middle roof is ornamented with mouldings and a profusion of decorations; the great E window is 30 feet high, and exhibits figures of the twelve apostles by Eggington, of Birmingham; the reredos is a splendid erection of 1871, after designs by Peddie & Kinnear; and the organ is a very fine instrument. An addition of a new chancel at the E end was made in 1882. This erection has a length of 25 feet and a width of 21 feet, having large traceried windows in each of its sides; is carried to the full height of the nave; and finishes on the top with ornamental parapet and pinnacles. A new entrance door in the side next Princes Street gives access to the church and to the choir vestry below the chancel. The total cost of these later alterations was about £2600. Dean Ramsay, the author of Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character, was long incumbent of St John's. A school-chapel, connected with St John's, stands in Earl Grey Street; was built in 1852, and enlarged in 1862; and is a plain cruciform structure, used as a school on work-days, and as a chapel on Sabbaths.

Trinity Church is at the NW end of Dean Bridge, and is noticed in the paragraph on Dean. -St George's Church stands on the S side of York Place, was built in 1794 after designs by Robert Adam, and is a quaint-looking edifice, in a mixed style of Gothic and Grecian.-All Saints' Church, in Brougham Street, was erected in 1867, after designs by R. Anderson, at a cost of about £4000; consists of nave, aisles, transepts, and octagonally-ended chancel; is surmounted, at the S W corner of the nave, by a tower 110 feet high, with richly-moulded belfry stage and saddle-backed roof; and in 1875-76, at a cost of about £1500, underwent much alteration and improvement. It has a school attached, entering also from Glen Street. —St Andrew's Church stands in the South Back of Canongate, opposite St John Street; was built in 1857; and is a small oblong edifice of unpolished stone in the Saxon style, with an apse and a low square tower. -St Columba's Church, in Johnston Terrace, is a Gothic building, with only one flank exposed to full view; and has, at its W end, a low square battlemented tower.-St James' Church stands on the N side of the W end of Broughton Place, and is a large plain building, uniform with the contiguous range of private houses. -St Peter's Church is in Lutton Place. It is a plain, high-roofed Gothicwindowed edifice of 1858, and has a tower and spire of later date, too large and lofty to harmonise with its own bulk.-St Paul's Church, in Carrubber's Close, already referred to, was built by the Jacobites immediately after the Revolution. It was cleared away on the formation of Jeffrey Street, and a new Gothic edifice is being erected in its place in the new street.—Christ Church Scottish Episcopalian Church stands at Morningside, and has been already noticed.

St Thomas' English Episcopalian Church stands compact with private houses on the E and the W; presents a S front to Caledonian Station; has a N front in the recess angle facing the point where Princes Street, Hope Street, Queensferry Street, and Maitland Street meet; and is adorned there, in the Norman style, with a beautiful porch, some exquisite mimic arcade work, and a profusion of chevron ornaments.- Christ Church English Episcopalian Church stands in St Vincent Street, opposite St Stephen's Established Church; was built in 1856; is a small Gothic edifice, with nave, chancel, N aisle, and spirelet; and looks both dwarfish and ambitious in comparison with the confronting massive form of St Stephen's.

Other Churches.—The United Original Secession Church stands at the W end of Victoria Terrace; was built in 1866 at a cost of about £1700; is in the Byzantine style, with an ornamented front gable; and adjoins the old building in West Bow known as Major Weir's house, now converted into a vestry and other offices in connection with the church.

Augustine Independent Church faces the E side of George IV. Bridge, but rises from Merchant Street at 30 feet lower level. It superseded a previous church in Argyle Square on ground now occupied by the Industrial Museum, and was erected in 1859-61, after designs by Hay, of Liverpool, at a cost of about £15, 000. It includes two stories below the level of George IV. Bridge, disposed in congregational hall, school-rooms, and other apartments; is in the Byzantine style, with three recessed arched doorways, and a surmounting circular headed window 16 feet high; and is surmounted, on the front, with a tower and minaret of pagoda-like appearance, rising to the height of 120 feet.—Albany Street Independent chapel stands at the SE corner of Albany Street and Broughton Street; was built in 181 6 at a cost of £4009, and improved in 1867 at a cost of more than £2000; and presents an ornamental flank to Albany Street and an end front in mixed Roman style, with entrance doorway, to Broughton Street. -Caledonian Road or Dalry Independent chapel was built in 1872, after designs by A. Heron, at a cost of more than £3000, and is in the Gothic style, with a belfry spire 100 feet high.-Hope Park Independent chapel stands at Hope Park Terrace; was erected in 1875-76 at a cost of about £4000; serves in lien of Richmond Place chapel, sold to the Pleasance Free church congregation; is in the Romanesque style; and contains 650 sittings. -Richmond Independent chapel is a plain building, formerly used as a school; stands in a recess off East Preston Street; and is now almost shut out of view from the street by a range of houses.

The Brighton Street Evangelical Union chapel blocks the head of Brighton Street, off the N side of Lothian Street; was originally a Relief church; and bas a Roman front of curved contour, with pilasters and pediment.-Buccleuch Evangelical Union chapel stands in West Crosscauseway, was erected in 1874 at a cost of £2500, is a neat edifice with a Gothic front, and contains 550 sittings. A similar building of the same denomination is in Fountainbridge.

Dublin Street Baptist chapel was built in 1858, and is a handsome Gothic edifice, with a double transept and a spirelet.-Charlotte Street Baptist chapel, at the corner of West Rose Street and Charlotte Street, was originally Episcopalian; went by sale to Baptists; has a neat Roman front; and is notable for the ministry of Christopher Anderson, the author of several well-known works. -Duncan Street Baptist chapel is in Newington; was originally Baptist; went by sale, in 1847, to the United Secession; returned by re-sale, in 1863, to Baptists; and is a plain, but pleasant edifice. -Bristol Place Baptist chapel has a neat Roman front. —Marshall Street Baptist chapel is a new and neat building—The Glassite chapel in Broughton is very plain.

The Catholic Apostolic church stands at the N corner of Broughton Street and East London Street, and was mainly built in 1874-76 at a cost of about £17,000. It is in the later Norman style, after designs by M. Anderson; measures 200 feet in length, 45 in height to the wall head, 64 to the apex of the roof vault; comprises a nave 100 feet long and 45 wide, a chancel 61½ feet long and 23 wide, an apse terminating the chancel and containing an altar, an Episcopal throne and clerical stalls, and a circular baptistry 28 feet. in diameter; and has a W end tower measuring 35 feet on each side, a grand entrance porch through the base of that tower, an arcaded passage from the S side of the entrance porch to the baptistry, three arched openings in the division-line between the nave and the chancel, and four massive, square, spired turrets at the corners of the nave.

The Wesleyan Methodist chapel stands at the SW corner of Nicolson Square; has a handsome Roman front, with basement arcade and crowning balustrade; and was interiorly redecorated in 1872. -The Primitive Methodist chapel stands in Victoria Terrace; was built in 1866, after designs by Paterson & Shiells, at a cost of about £1300; and is in simple Italian Gothic style, with a canopied bell-turret. -A Methodist chapel is also at Stockbridge. - The Unitarian chapel stands in Castle Terrace, was built in 1835, and has a Roman Corinthian front, a fine interior, and a good organ.

St Mary's Roman Catholic church or Pro-Cathedral is at the head of Broughton Street, on the ascent toward St James Place; was erected in 1813, after designs by Gillespie Graham, at a cost of £8000; shows a handsome Gothic front with pinnacles 70 feet high; measures exteriorly 110 feet by 57; and has a fine organ and a splendid altar-piece. -St Patrick's Roman Catholic church is at the E end of Cowgate; was built in 1771-74 at a cost of £7000; belonged originally to Episcopalians, and was long occupied by Presbyterians; is a large oblong edifice in the Italian style, with a bell tower; and contains wall paintings by Runciman. -The original St Patrick's Roman Catholic church stands at the corner of Lothian Street and Bristol Place; was built in 1839, and occupied as a church till about 1856, being then transmuted into St Mary's Roman Catholic school; and has a handsome pinnacled Gothic front.-The Roman Catholic church of the Sacred Heart in Lauriston Street was built in 1859-60, and has an Italian front and cupola lights.-St Margaret's Roman Catholic convent, already referred to, has attached to it an elegant chapel in the Saxon style, after designs by A. W. Pugin.-St Catherine's Roman Catholic convent stands in Lauriston Gardens, adjacent to Chalmers' Hospital; was built in 1861; and is in the Collegiate style.

Blackfriars' Monastery stood on or near the site of the old High School, having gardens extending to Cowgate, Pleasance, and Potterrow. It was founded in 1230 by Alexander II., and became so frequent a residence of its founder, as to be called the King's Mansion. It had a large cruciform church, with central tower and lofty spire, which suffered partial destruction by fire in 1558, and total demolition at the hands of the Reformers of 1558, the lands belonging to it being given by the Crown to build and endow Trinity Hospital. -Greyfriars' Monastery has already been incidentally noticed in our account of Greyfriars' churches. -The Carmelite Monastery stood at the NE base of Calton Hill, was erected in 1526, and disappeared at the Reformation. - St Anthony's Chapel and Hermitage stood on a precipitous knoll, near the base of the N side of Arthur's Seat; were founded in 1435 by Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig; and belonged to a preceptory of St Anthony at Leith. The chapel stood 9 yards distant from the hermitage; was a Gothic edifice 43 feet long, 18 broad, and 18 high, with a square tower fully broader than itself and about 40 feet high; and continued to stand, in a roofless state, till about the middle of last century. The hermitage was 16 feet long, 12 broad, and 8 high; and a fragment of it, with plain corbels, and a piece of groined roof, still exists. A clear cool spring, called St Anthony's Well, celebrated in the old song, O waly, waly up yon bank, is at the foot of the rock on which the fragment stands. A number of other ancient ecclesiastical edifices, chiefly small chapels, stood in various parts of the city and the suburbs, but either were not of any note or have already been incidentally noticed.

Cemeteries.—The first great cemetery of Edinburgh has already been incidentally noticed in our account of Parliament Square, and lay around St Giles' Church extending down the slope toward Cowgate. It received the remains of John Knox in 1572; became completely secularised before 1607; was then, or soon afterwards, entirely effaced; and yielded up its best known relic in 1800, in the form of a curiously sculptured stone, found at the head of Forrester's Wynd, supposed to have been part of a decorated gateway at the cemetery's western boundary, and showing a group of figures similar to those in Holbein's Dance of Death. -Greyfriars' Cemetery has already been mentioned in our account of Greyfriars' churches, and succeeded St Giles' as the chief burial-place for the city. It became, and long continued, so overcrowded as to give cause for alarm; but it was subsequently relieved from pressure, and adorned with walks and shrubbery. It commands picturesque views of the S face of the Old Town and the Castle rock; exhibits a striking mixture of monuments, curious and beautiful, old and recent; and has, on its enclosure walls, a number of richly sculptured monumental stones, chiefly of the 16th and the 17th centuries. A spot at its E wall, where lie the remains of most of the martyrs of the Covenant who were executed in the Grassmarket, imparts a great interest to this churchyard. Here are also the remains of Regent Morton, George Buchanan, George Heriot, Alexander Henderson, Sir George Mackenzie, Sir James Stewart, Principal Carstares, Principal Robertson, Dr Pitcairn, Sir John de Medina, Allan Ramsay, Colin Maclaurin, Dr Joseph Black, Dr Hugh Blair, Dr M 'Crie, Lord President Forbes, Lord President Blair, the two Professors Munro, Dr Carson, Patrick Fraser Tytler, and many other distinguished men. (See Epitaphs and Monumental Inscriptions in Greyfriars' Churchyard, collected by J. Brown, Edinb. 1867.)

St Cuthbert's and Canongate Cemeteries have been already noticed. Several other ancient cemeteries lay within or near the city, but were neither large nor notable, and are now mostly extinct.

High Calton Cemetery is comparatively modern. It was broken in upon at the formation of Waterloo Place, from which it is now fenced by a lofty retaining wall, adorned with projections, niches, pillars, and cornice. It is reached by a flight of steps commencing at a doorway in the retaining wall; surmounts on its S side a lofty cliff overhanging North Back of Canongate; is flanked on the two other sides by the old Post Office and the Prison; and contains the mausoleum of David Hume, the metaphysician and historian, the political martyrs' monument, and that of David Allan, the Scottish painter. -Low Calton Cemetery occupies part of the slope between Regent Road and North Back of Canongate, was formed by removal of the tombs of High Calton Cemetery, and has many monumental tombstones of good design.-Buccleuch Cemetery lies round Buccleuch Established church, is small and obscure, and contains the remains of the blind poet, Dr Blacklock, and the classical scholar, Dr Adam.- Warriston or Edinburgh Cemetery is on a southward slope on the N side of the Water of Leith, 600 yards N by E of Canonmills, and was formed, about 1844, in the manner of an ultra-mural ground. It is all laid out with much taste; has broad winding walks, parterres, and shrubberies; and commands, from some of its walks, one of the finest of the northern views of the city and its environs. It is entered by two approaches, the one from Canonmills by a bridge, the other from Inverleith by a road deflecting near the Botanic Garden. It contains an ornate range of catacombs, a handsome Gothic chapel for Episcopalian burial service, a number of beautiful monuments, and the remains, among others, of the poet Alexander Smith, the distinguished physician Sir James Y. Simpson, and other eminent persons. - Grange Cemetery lies in Grange suburb, and was formed subsequently to Warriston Cemetery. It is large and ornamental, and contains the remains of the Rev. Dr Chalmers, Sheriff Spiers, Sir Andrew Agnew, Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, the second Lord Dunfermline, Hugh Miller, Rev. Dr Robert Lee, Dr Guthrie, Dr Duff, Dr John Brown, and many other distinguished persons.-Dean Cemetery, a most picturesque and beautiful place, is noticed in the paragraph on Dean.-Rosebank Cemetery lies on the W side of the N end of Pilrig Street, is modern and ornate, and contains, among many interesting monuments, a tombstone erected by Queen Victoria to the memory of an attached servant who died in 1854.- Dalry Cemetery lies in the western outskirts, and is of similar date and character to Rosebank Cemetery.- Echo Bank Cemetery, in the Newington district, is well laid out, and has a railed-off portion set apart as the Jews' place of burial. -Morningside Cemetery lies in the valley between the southward slope of Morningside and the rising slopes of Braid Hills, beautifully situated and ornately laid out.

Infirmary and other Institutions.—The Royal Infirmary was first contemplated in 1725, instituted on a small scale in 1729, incorporated by royal charter in 1736, and provided with suitable buildings in 1738. It maintained for a time a serious struggle with various difficulties, but rose eventually to such eminence as to become a national institution and a school of medicine; admitted to its wards at length a yearly average of more than 3000 patients; and afforded courses of lectures and demonstrations to medical students. It long held property worth about £26, 000, exclusive of buildings which did not yield any revenue, and also had a very large income from voluntary contributions. The principal building of the old Infirmary was on the S side of Infirmary Street, off the E side of South Bridge, presenting a rear to Drummond Street, and was erected in 1738. It formed three sides of a quadrangle, 210 feet long and 94 wide, plain, and four stories high in parts of the main building and in the entire sides; showing in the centre front a rusticated basement, a surmounting attached Ionic portico, a crowning attic terminating in a glazed turret, and, in a niche above the entrance, a statue of George II. in Roman costume. The arrangement generally was that of separate wards for male and female patients, and it contained about 400 beds. Other extensive buildings, serving variously as fever, lock, and surgical hospitals- one of them the old High School, another the old hall of the College of Surgeons, and a third a neat structure of 1855-were in a large area extending from the principal building eastward to the back of Pleasance, and separated from Drummond Street by the old city wall, cut down to half its original height and topped with an iron-railing. These buildings are all now, since the opening of the new ones, in Oct. 1880, in disuse for Infirmary purposes, with only the exception of a portion retained as a fever hospital by the city authorities, and refitted for this purpose at a cost of about £3000. The new buildings stand on and around the site of George Watson's Hospital, and are only separated from the new medical schools of the University by the fine avenue leading to the Meadows, which the Infirmary closely adjoins, thus enjoying the great requisites of fresh air and the vicinity of excellent pleasure-grounds. These buildings, the foundation-stone of which was laid with great public and masonic ceremonial by the Prince of Wales in the latter part of 1870, were erected partly from the Infirmary's own funds and partly from a very munificent special public subscription; and they occupy ground purchased from the governors of George Watson's Hospital for £43, 000; and are in a modified variety of the old Scottish style of architecture, after designs by Mr Bryce. They present a main frontage to Lauriston fully 100 feet long, four stories high, surmounted by a massive square tower with round corbelled turrets at the corners, and very similar to Holyrood Palace in appearance; and include ranges of pavilions connected with the main building by corridors, and in similar architecture to the main frontage, also a separate pathological house and laundry house, and are all arranged and fitted on the most approved methods for ventilation and management. During 1881 there were 5288 patients admitted, of whom 2801 were dismissed cured, and 1651 relieved. Of the cases brought to a close during the year, 480 were cases of infectious disease, 2113 ordinary medical cases, and 2659 surgical cases. The daily average of patients during the year was 520. There was a staff of 65 nurses and 36 probationers, and the income for 1881 was £28, 474, 17s. 11d.; the expenditure (including fever hospital), £31,720, 16s. 8d. - The Convalescent Home of the Royal Infirmary for males was formerly in Sciennes House, Grange, that for females in Preston Street; but a number of years ago both were conjoined, and a large airy villa-like residence erected for the purpose on a slope at Corstorphine Hill, with large garden, and every necessary requisite for a home of the kind. During 1881 considerable improvements were effected in the internal arrangements, which occasioned an increase in the extraordinary expenditure of the establishment, while the ordinary expenses remained the same. The number of patients during the same year was 704, being 118 less than the preceding year-the average period of residence being 22 days.- Ravenscroft Convalescent Home for poor people, invalids from disease, belonging to Edinburgh and its neighbourhood, has its quarters at Gilmerton. -The Royal Infirmary Samaritan Society, for assisting the families of Infirmary patients, for giving clothing and other needful assistance to patients on leaving the Infirmary, procuring work for, and generally befriending and aiding them as far as possible, has a room for carrying on its work in the Infirmary itself. The number of patients who received pecuniary or other aid during 1881 for themselves or their families was 178. The receipts in 1881, including a balance of £216, 16s. 6d. from preceding year, was £525, 17s. 3d., and the expenditure £304, 7s. 11d., leaving a balance in favour of the society of £221, 9s. 4d. -The Incurables Longmore Hospital occupies ground in Salisbury Place, Newington. Soon after the foundation of the hospital at 8 Salisbury Place in 1874, the association found their accommodation insufficient for carrying on the work, and setting themselves to remedy this, were enabled, shortly after, through the liberality of the trustees of the late Mr Longmore, in voting a grant of £10, 000 for the purpose, to purchase the adjoining property. Temporary accommodation was found at Fisherrow for the inmates till the new hospital was built, and opened on 3 Dec. 1880. The new building has a frontage of 160 feet, and consists of a centre block and two wings three stories in height. It is treated in the classic style, and having a large number of windows-no fewer than 48 in the frontage-possesses a light and cheerful appearance. The windows on the second floor of the central part are treated with pilasters and projecting balconies, those above being plain. The entrance is through a porch in keeping with the rest of the façade, and at the top of the building over the entrance is a pediment containing a large panel with the inscription, ' The Association for Incurables, Longmore Hospital.' There is a considerable piece of ground at the back suitably laid out. The cost of the site was £4000, and the outlay in erection about £10,000. There is accommodation for 44 patients, besides apartments for matron, nurses, etc., and also for cases requiring special treatment.-The Royal Hospital for Sick Children was commenced in 1860 in a small house in Lauriston Lane, acquired afterwards for itself a separate building in the same locality with fine frontage and lawn bordering the West Meadows, and was enlarged in 1871 by the addition of two fever wards. During 1881 it admitted into the wards 528 children, and treated in the dispensary attached 6052, making a total of 6580. Since its establishment in 1860 the number of patients has year by year increased, and altogether up to the end of 1881, 106, 333 sick children had received treatment in the hospital. For 1881 the income was £1839, 2s. 5d., while the expenditure was £2568, 5s. 3½d. The expenditure over income in 1881 had arisen mainly from placing the whole sanitary arrangements of the hospital in a more efficient state.-Chalmers' Hospital for the Sick and Hurt stands in Lauriston, opposite the Cattle Market, and sprang from a bequest by George Chalmers, a plumber in Edinburgh, of about £30, 000, left at his death in 1836, and allowed to accumulate till 1861. The hospital was erected in 1861-63, is an oblong edifice of comparatively plain but pleasing aspect, and is under the management of the dean and faculty of advocates. In 1881 the number of patients treated in non-paying wards was 226, those in other wards, 60-in all, 286. The number treated in the waiting-room and surgery as out-door patients, 2620. Expenditure for the year, £1549, 7s. 3d.; income, £1631, 8s. 6d.-A Home for Cripple Children under the age of 12, suffering from spinal affection and hip-joint disease, is at 20 North Mansion house Road, Grange.-An Hospital for the Diseases of Women was proposed in 1870 to be erected in Edinburgh, as a memorial of Sir James Y. Simpson, to be arranged in accordance with the latest expressed views of that great professor:-to afford both suitable relief to suffering women, and instruction to medical students in women's diseases; and to be available for patients from distant places, even as far as London and Dublin. This proposal was carried into effect and brought into conjunction with the Maternity Hospital, instituted in 1843; has a fine building at West Lauriston Place; and is known at the Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital. - The Lying in Institution, established in 1824, is at 46 Cockburn Street; it provides for delivering poor married women at their own houses, and has attached to it a wardrobe department managed by a committee of ladies.-The Society for relief of poor married women of respectable character when in childbed is managed by ladies, and has a wardrobe keeper at 20 Dublin Street.-The Royal Dispensary and Vaccine Institution is in West Richmond Street; was established in 1776; became, toward 1872, utterly insufficient for its objects, so as then to require some extension of the building; and during 1881 ministered to 8643 persons, 1190 of these being attended at their own homes. The New Town Dispensary is in Thistle Street, and was instituted in 1815; the Throat Dispensary is also here. - A northern district dispensary is in Dean Street, Stockbridge, at which, in 1881, 1300 persons were attended by the medical officers, 400 were visited in their own homes, 1500 free prescriptions were given, and 130 children vaccinated -The Eye Infirmary is at 6 Cambridge Street, and was instituted in 1834.-The Eye Dispensary is at 54 Cockburn Street, and was instituted in 1822.-The Ear Dispensary is in Cambridge Street, and was instituted in 1857.-The Dental Dispensary is conjoined with the Dental College at 32 Chambers Street.-The Edinburgh Provident Dispensary, established in 1878, is in Marshall Street.-The Scottish Nursing Institution, established in 1872, has it home at 44 Castle Street, and the training institution for sick nurses at 125 Princes Street. -A lepers' hospital was erected, after the Reformation, on the site of the Carmelite Monastery, at the NE base of Calton Hill, and was under regulations which indicate both the frequent prevalence of leprosy at the time, and the great dread in which the distemper was held, but it has ceased to be required, and has disapeared.

The Royal Lunatic Asylum stands within a high wall enclosure at the foot of the W side of Morningside; is partly a large edifice of 1810-13, partly an extensive addition of about 1 850, jointly costing upwards of £80, 000; and has all the most approved arrangements for the treatment of the insane, with fine contiguous garden-grounds-The Midlothian and Peeblesshire district Lunatic Asylum is also at Morningside, and consists of a main building two stories in height, with central block and two wings, presenting a frontage of about 370 feet. Parallel with this building is another block of 140 feet in length, connected with the first by a one story range. Accommodation is provided for about 250 patients. The architectural features are Italian, and the buildings cost about £20,000.

Refuge Asylums.—Trinity Hospital was founded, in connection with Trinity College Church, by Mary of Gueldres, consort of James II., being originally an edifice on the W side of Leith Wynd, which became ruinous about the time of the Reformation, and was afterwards the residence of the provost and prebendaries of Trinity College Church. Refitted for new use, it formed two sides of a parallelogram two stories high, and presented interesting features of monastic architecture, but was all swept away in 1845 by clearances for the terminus of the North British Railway. It maintained 42 inmates, either burgesses of Edinburgh or the wives or unmarried children not under fifty years of age; and gave to the inmates, at the demolition of the premises, pensions of £26 a year each. A new scheme for Trinity Hospital was drawn up by the Court of Session in Feb. 1880, and the number of pensioners, of whom one-eighth are incurables, was fixed at 60 on the higher pension of £25 a year, 22 of these being appointed by private patrons; on a lower pension of £15, the number was fixed at 100.-An hospital, called the Hospital of our Lady, for the support of 12 poor men, stood in Leith Wynd, and was founded in 1479 by Thomas Spence, Bishop of Aberdeen. It passed, at the Reformation, into the possession of the town council, receiving then, in some unaccountable way, the name of Paul's Work, after which it was converted first into a workhouse, next into a house of correction, and next into a broadcloth factory, bequeathing its name of Paul's Work to a court and cluster of buildings on and around its site.-The House of Refuge and Night Refuge, or temporary pauper home of houseless wanderers and night asylum for the destitute, is Queensberry House, a large building in Canongate already noticed, managed by a committee, drawing its income from voluntary contributions, an allowance by the town council, payments by friends of inmates, and the proceeds of work done within it. According to its last biennial report (Jan. 1882), it had relieved and sheltered, during the two preceding years, over 23, 000 persons, besides giving breakfast and dinner to numbers of poor children. - The Night Asylum and Stranger's Friendly Society has its premises in Old Fishmarket Close, off High Street.-Four sets of improved lodging-houses belonging to an association for giving lodgers good accommodation and appliances for health and comfort at low charges, are in Cowgate, West Port, Merchant Street, and Mound Place respectively -the first for 80 lodgers, the second for 58, the third for 48 married persons and females, and the fourth, for females only, accommodates 30 lodgers.-Queensberry Lodge, for the treatment of ladies addicted to intemperance, stands within the grounds of Queensberry House, adjacent to South Back Canongate. It is a neat building in the Scottish Baronial style, erected in 1860; and, during the first four years after its opening, admitted as boarders 91 ladies from all parts of the kingdom; and its estimation has risen so much since then that the daily average of boarders has increased from about 7 to nearly 20.-A training home for friendless girls of good character is in Lauriston Lane; a girl's house of refuge or western reformatory is near Dalry; and an institution for the reformation of juvenile female delinquents is at Dean Bank.-The Magdalene Asylum, instituted in 1797, is at Dalry; an industrial home for fallen women is at Alnwick Hill, near Liberton; and the rescue and probationary home for fallen women, instituted in 1861, is at St John's Hill. -An institution for the relief of incurables was founded by the late Mrs Elizabeth Keir in 1805.

Workhouses.—The old workhouse for the city parishes, built partly in 1743, and partly about a century later, stood on the W side of Forrest Road, close to the grounds of Heriot's Hospital. It then comprised a huge barrack-looking mass four stories high, and some separate structures, with accommodation originally for 450 inmates, together with a children's hospital; afterwards increasing its accommodation first for 691, and then for 909 altogether; but these buildings were sold in Dec. 1870 and March 1871 for £23, 000. - The new workhouse stands at Craiglockhart, about 3 miles SW from the centre of the city, and was erected in 1867-70 at a cost of about £50, 000. It is in the Scottish Baronial style with a corbelled octagonal tower 105 feet high at the centre of the main workhouse, and contains a dininghall 74 feet by 48, and a kitchen 30 feet square and 19 feet high. It comprises three distinct groups of buildings-the main workhouse in the centre, the infirmary to the E, and the lunatic asylum to the W; has accommodation for about 800 inmates in the main workhouse; and there is a detached villa for the governor.-The town offices stand on the W side of Bristol Place, occupying part of the site of the old Darien House, and were erected partly in 1844, and the rest of them in 1871-72, and are neat and commodious. The return of poor for Jan. 1882 showed that the number of paupers on the out-door roll was 741, as against 772 in Jan. 188l, while the number of inmates in the poorhouse was 695 as compared with 766 at the same time in 188l. -St Cuthbert's Poorhouse formerly stood in St Cuthbert's Lane, a short distance W of St Cuthbert's Church, and was a dingy group of buildings. They were removed in 1866, along with St George's Free Church and other buildings, to give place to the new station of the Caledonian Railway.-That of Canongate occupied a series of old buildings in Tolbooth Wynd, overlooking the churchyard lying round the parish church, and were in many respects altogether unfitted for their purpose.- The Combination Poorhouse for St Cuthbert's and Canongate stands in an airy situation near Craigleith, in the western part of St Cuthbert's parish. It was erected at a cost of about £40,000, a considerable portion of which sum accrued from the sale of the old buildings, and is a most imposing edifice, thought by some to be unduly attractive to paupers, It has considerably more accommodation than the old poorhouse; yet, even with this additional room, it was found inadequate to meet the requirements, so that additional wings, four stories in height at either end, and in unison with the original design, were added in 1880. This extension cost about £10,000, and gave room for 192 more inmates. From the inspector's report for the half-year ending Nov. 1881 it appeared that the number of poor on the outdoor roll, exclusive of lunatics, was 1238, being an increase of 12 compared with the number at the same date of the previous year. The average number of inmates in the poorhouse and dependants for the year was 641.

Market Structures.—The chief public flesh market is situated on the northern slopes of the Old Town, close by the North Bridge; it comprises a series of terraces, and is partitioned into departments, well arranged and tidy. Smaller flesh markets were formerly at West Nicolson Street, Dublin Street, and Stockbridge, but are now as such almost wholly disused. Large quantities of fish are brought from the coast, chiefly from Newhaven and Fisherrow, and sold in a fresh state variously in markets, shops, and on the streets. A great weekly market of country produce in quantity, connectedly with the sample sales of grain in the Corn Exchange, is held every Wednesday in the spacious area of Grassmarket. The cattle market is a commodious enclosure, in the triangular space between West Port, Lady Lawson's Street, and Lauriston Place; and is open every Wednesday from an early hour for sales, which commonly amounts to about 800 or 900 head of cattle and about 2000 head of sheep. The old Green Market, for vegetables and fruit, lay in the bottom of the valley to the E of the chief flesh market, and was transferred in 1869 to the North British Railway Company, for extension of their station. The present vegetable market adjoins Princes Street, opposite St Andrew Street. It occupies the northern part of the site of what was the terminus of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway, now amalgamated with the North British, and was constructed by the railway company in lien of the old market. It rests on a series of archways, so high as to furnish storage places below, and so strong as to bear any great public building which might be erected on them; is fenced from Princes Street by a neat iron railing, though it presented for a time so plain an appearance as to be somewhat of an eyesore amid the many fine public buildings in its neighbourhood. Of recent years this has been greatly amended, and a platform roof was made, resting on a system of iron beams and main girders, crossing the open space in two spans, supported in the centre by a range of iron columns. The platform roof has a series of wells o deep depressions, with glass on sides and top to afford light to the market below; is furnished along the edges with a low parapet and railing, having at intervals pedestals carrying flower vases; presents to the W a semicircular two-story façade, close beneath which is an aquarium; and to the S, in full view from North Bridge, a similar façade to that on the W; whilst the greater portion of the roof is laid out in walks and flower parterres, presenting quite an attractive appearance, and known by the name of the Waverley Gar en.

Slaughter Houses.—These are so intimately connected with markets, that they may be fitly noticed here. The old shambles stood under the North Bridge, beside the chief flesh market, and were a horrible nuisance. The new slaughter houses are situated on the grounds of Lochrin, between Fountainbridge and Lochrin Distillery, at the south-western extremity of the city; they were opened in 1852, and occupy an area of nearly 4 acres. They are entered through a massive Egyptian façade at Fountainbridge, with emblematic figures and stone caryatides of cattle, supporting arches and serving as corbels; and are interiorly fitted with every convenience, comprising ranges of shambles, which are let out to the butchers of the city.

Water Works.—All the supply of water for the city was, in 1875, brought from springs and rills on the northern slopes of the Pentlands, within the rivers-systems of the North Esk and the Water of Leith; and the works, which afforded supplies also to Leith and Portobello, comprised erections for damming the rills, appliances for filtering the water, trunk-pipes for bringing it to Edinburgh, a reservoir on Castle Hill for receiving it, and pipes for distributing it through the city. It was in 1621 that the magistrates obtained parliamentary authority to cast ' seuchs and ditches, ' in the lands between the city and the Pentlands, for bringing water, but they were not able for half a century to execute any of the works; about which time they engaged a German plumber, in 1674, for £2950, to lay down a leaden pipe, of 3 inches in diameter, from Comiston to a reservoir on Castle Hill. At length, in 1722, a new pipe, of 4½ inches in diameter, was laid from the same quarter, with supply from additional springs; and subsequently new parliamentary authority was obtained for extending the works, and a cast-iron pipe, of 5 inches in diameter, was laid in 1787 from Comiston, and another of 7 inches in diameter, in 1790, from springs on the lands of Swanston. These works were executed out of the city funds, at a cost of £20, 000; but, owing to increase of population, they failed to furnish a sufficient supply, and could not be further extended except on some basis of compulsory assessment. A water company, with the town council holding shares in it as representatives of the citizens, was accordingly formed in 1810, and incorporated in 1819, with a capital of £135, 000. The Company obtained new powers in 1826, with a further capital of £118, 000, and opened a new grand source of supply at the Crawley springs, nearly 9 miles from the city. A cistern was formed at these springs, 6 feet deep, 15 wide, and 45 long, with retaining walls and an arched roof; a large artificial pond being also formed to provide compensatory supply to mills on the North Esk. A cast-iron pipe, of from 15 to 20 inches in diameter, was laid from the cistern along the vale of Glencorse, through a tunnel of about a mile in length, thence by Straiton, Burdiehouse, and Liberton Dams to the N side of the Meadows, next through a tunnel 2160 feet in length under the surface of Heriot's Green, then across Grassmarket, sending off there branch pipes to reservoirs near Heriot's Hospital and on Castle Hill, and proceeding by a tunnel 740 feet long through the rock of Castle Hill, and 120 feet beneath the reservoir there, to Princes Street. Pipes, which ramified from these reservoirs, were laid through all the principal streets; and, previous to being laid, were tested by a pressure equal to a vertical column of 800 feet of water. The new works cost nearly £200, 000, and raised the total supply of water to the rate of about 298 cubic feet per minute; yet, from increase of population and great scarcity in times of drought, even these works were not enough. The Company, therefore, obtained new powers in 1843 and at subsequent dates; and from time to time made repairs and improvements on their previous works, constructing extensive new ones, which drew large supplies from the Black, the Listonshiels, and the Bavelaw springs, situated respectively 9, 10, and 12½ miles from Edinburgh. The supplies from the Listonshiells and the Bavelaw springs, about forty in number, which became available in 1847, are conveyed, in clay pipes, into a stone cistern at Westrigg, about 12 miles from the city; thence through an aqueduct nearly 5 miles long to Torphin Hill, and afterwards by an iron pipe of 16 inches internal diameter to the city. The reservoirs then at Crawley, Loganlea, Clubbiedean, Bonally, and Torduff had collectively a storage capacity of 112, 962, 267 cubic feet, and were capable of affording a supply of 3500 cubic feet of water per minute for a period of four months without rain. The Company, in 1863, though they expended altogether on their works £485, 937, and were able to give, or professed themselves able to give, a daily supply of water to the amount of 31.12 gallons for each inhabitant, obtained powers to raise £46,000 for the purchase of new gathering grounds and the construction of new works; and expected to be able, after the completion of the new works, to furnish a daily supply amounting to 39 gallons for each inhabitant. Dissatisfaction, however, arose among a large section of the community; doubts were entertained as to the sufficiency of the works; complaints were made regarding great and frequent scarcity in some districts of the city; and this eventually led to measures which terminated in the transference of the works, by compulsory sale, to the town council in 1869. The water trustees appointed by the town council speedily concocted a gigantic scheme for bringing a new supply from St Mary's Loch in Selkirkshire, variously estimated to cost about £500, 000 and upwards; spent considerable sums in preparatory measures for that scheme, and in seeking authority for it from parliament; came eventually into collision with the opinions of a large proportion of the ratepayers; and, in 1871, though they carried their scheme through the House of Commons, were defeated on it in the House of Lords, mainly on the ground that the evidence adduced by their opponents tended to prove that a sufficient supply was obtainable from the gathering grounds in the Pentlands. The gentlemen who succeeded to the trusteeship in November 1871 mostly held views antagonistic to the St Mary's Loch scheme, and they directed their attention to the improvement of the existing works and to further survey of the Pentland gathering grounds, but held themselves open to consider any scheme for new works which might be desired or approved by the general body of the ratepayers. An act was obtained in 1874 to construct works for bringing an additional supply from parts of the Moorfoot Hills within the basin of the South Esk; and another act was applied for, in the winter of 1875, to grant power for the construction of additional works within the basin of the North Esk, and making of arrangements for furnishing supplies to Lasswade, Dalkeith, and Musselburgh. The water is of excellent quality; and, with exception of some densely peopled and poor districts where defective distribution has been more or less due to the bad fittings in the houses, it has generally been supplied so regularly and plentifully as to contribute greatly to the comfort and health of the population. The average supply is 12,897, 000 gallons per day, equal to 41.54 gallons per head to a population of 310, 400. The total quantity of water stored in the reservoirs is nearly 2, 061, 726, 000 gallons. Of the 12, 897, 000 gallons supplied, 4, 473, 000 are from Listonshiels and Bavelaw, 7, 080, 000 from Alnwickhill, 810,000 from Tordnff, and 534, 000 from Swanston and Comiston. The 7, 080, 000 gallons from Alnwickhill were made up as follow:-2, 700, 000 were from Glencorse, 3, 048, 000 from Gladhouse, 800, 000 from Portmore, and 532, 000 from Tweeddale Burn.

The reservoir on Castle Hill stands at the head of the W corner of Ramsay Lane, near the NE verge of the Castle esplanade, and was originally constructed about the year 1674. It was a remarkably plain structure, 5 feet deep, 30 wide, and 40 long, with a capacity for about 6000 cubic feet of water; but, being too small for the increasing wants of the city, it was demolished in the autumn of 1849, to give place to a much larger one. The present reservoir stands on the same site, and is constructed with great strength, and has an ornamental appearance, rising exteriorly to the height of one story. It measures interiorly 30 feet in depth, 90 in width, and 110 in length; has capacity for about 297, 000 cubic feet of water; is fed by a pipe which delivers 253 cubic feet per minute; and sends off from its bottom a series of pipes for distributing the water to the higher parts of the city. A large cistern, for furnishing an ample ready supply to the troops in garrison, and affording ordinary supply to such houses in Castle Hill, Lawnmarket, and the upper part of High Street a sare situated at a greater altitude than the reservoir on Castle Hill, is in the shot-yard of the Castle, and was constructed in 1850.

There are drinking fountains in various parts of the City and the suburbs, which originated chiefly about 1859, and are largely due to the beneficence of the late Miss Catherine Sinclair. They are nearly all of simple action, sending a flow of water into a metal cup by pressure of a valve - stud, some being of iron, some of polished granite, and several fitted in a species of well-case, with self-acting tap fixed to a wall front. A prominent one is a neat triangular structure, erected in 1859 at the expense of Miss Sinclair, on the thoroughfare at the meeting-point of Princes Street, Lothian Road, Maitland Street, and Hope Street. Another prominent one is a neat structure, erected in 1869 at the expense of Mrs Nicol of Huntly Lodge, at the NE of Boroughmuirhead entrance to Morningside; and both of these, in addition to drinking-cups for pedestrians, have watertroughs for cattle, and surmounting ornamental lamps. A large ornate public fountain, designed by Durenne of Paris, stands on the middle walk of West Princes Street Gardens, was presented to the city by Mr Ross of Rockville, and cost him upwards of £2000. It arrived at Edinburgh, in 122 pieces, in the autumn of 1869, and cost about £450 from private donations or other sources before it could be erected. It forms an interesting feature in the landscape seen from the Mound; and, being visible from Princes Street, is an ornament also to that great thoroughfare. Another highly ornate public fountain is in Holyrood Palace-yard, already noticed in the section on Holyrood.

Gas Works.—The Edinburgh Gas-Light Company was formed in 1817, and incorporated in 1818, with a capital of £100, 000 in shares of £25. Their chief premises stand between Canongate, New Street, North Back of Canongate, and Canongate cemetery; are very extensive; and have a principal chimney, erected in 1847, and rising to the height of 342 feet. The chimney is a cylindrical brick column, springing from a square stone pedestal measuring 30 feet each way; it tapers in diameter from 26 feet to 16 feet, is finished at the top with belts and coping, and has an endless chain inside, affording the means of ascent at any time to the top. It stands so near the bottom of the hollow at the southern base of Calton Hill as not to figure largely in most of the architectural groupings of the city; but, as seen from some vantage-grounds of the southern environs, particularly about Liberton, it soars well aloft. A gasometer adjacent to the principal works has a diameter of 101½ feet; seven other gasometers are in different situations; and about 100 miles of supply pipes, from 1½ inch to 15 inches in diameter, are ramified through the streets. -The Edinburgh and Leith Gas-Light Company was formed in 1839; purchased gas-works in Leith, belonging to a previous company; and laid pipes through the streets to supply both Leith and Edinburgh from the Leith works.-Extensive premises for making oil-gas were erected in 1825 at Tanfield; but, proving unsuccessful, the buildings went by sale to the Edinburgh Gas Light Company, and were partly reserved, with four gasometers, for supplying the northern parts of the city from the Canongate works, and partly converted into a large hall, used for the early meetings of the Free Church Assembly, but now used entirely as warehouses.

Railway Works.—The Old Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway, now amalgamated with the North British, commences at St Leonard's, near the boundary of the Queen's Park, on the south-eastern verge of the city, and passes through a sloping tunnel in the near neighbourhood of the terminus. It was used for passenger traffic in carriages drawn by horses for some time after locomotive engines ran on other railways, got thence the popular name of the ' Innocent Railway,' and is now used only for the conveyance of coal. -The original terminus of the Caledonian Railway was on the W side of Lothian Road, about 350 yards S from the W end of Princes Street, and was designed to be a spacious ornamental edifice, but became little more than a huge open shed. It ceased to be used for passenger traffic about the beginning of 1870; underwent then extensive changes, converting the whole of it into a goods station; and presents now to the street a long range of low stone front, partly ornamental, including a heavy goods store 65 feet long and 30 wide, and a grain store 290 feet long and about 30 wide, with ample room and every facility for all sorts of goods traffic. The new terminus of the Caledonian Railway is in the angle between Lothian Road and Rutland Street, at the W end of Princes Street, and occupies part of an extensive area, reaching to the old terminus. It was purchased and cleared at enormous cost, and fenced from Lothian Road by a lofty retaining wall. Erected in 1869 at a cost of more than £10, 000, it presents a neat one story elevation, 103 feet long and 22 wide; and is intended to give place to a magnificent permanent structure, with an adjoining great hotel. The railway line, from both the old terminus and the new, passes beneath lofty houses at Tobago Street and Gardner's Crescent, and has there a remarkably interesting short tunnel. Beyond this tunnel there is a sub-station for the convenience of passengers in that portion of the city.-Haymarket Station stands in the angle between Corstorphine or Glasgow Road and Dalry Road, and was the original terminus of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. It presents a neat two-story Italian front to the thoroughfare leading on to Princes Street; has ample yards and other spaces for the different departments of traffic; and serves now as the station of the North British system for the W end of the city, and as an extensive coal depot.

The ultimate terminus of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, the original terminus of the North British Railway, and the terminus of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway, were all situated in the Nor' Loch valley, at the E side of Waverley Bridge. That bridge was erected in connection with the termini, and occupied the site of a previous raised roadway, called the Little Mound. It was a substantial and somewhat neat stone structure, comprising several arches, all spanning lines of railway; rose to an elevation much below that of the margins of the valley; and had neat, spacious, descending approaches from respectively the reach of Princes Street, between St Andrew Street and St David Street, and the point of southern thoroughfare to which Cockburn Street was opened in 1861. The three termini occupied much ground; occasioned the demolition of several old streets, the old Orphan Hospital, Lady Glenorchy's Church, Trinity Hospital, and Trinity College Church; and were so well fitted into the valley, and so neatly constructed, as to present an appearance partly ornamental and entirely pleasant. The Edinburgh and Glasgow terminus, and that of the North British, were conjoint, the former on the S, the latter on the N, and extended E and W. The stationhouse presented to the roadway of Waverley Bridge a one-story elevation with elegant arcade piazza, and contained, on the level of the roadway, handsome booking-offices, with compartments sustained by Corinthian pillars. The carriage platform was on a level two stories lower, reached by long, spacious, descending flights of steps from the sides of the booking-offices, and covered, in the manner of a crystal palace, with a roof of great height, yet not so high as the level of Princes Street roadway; and offered egress both to pedestrians and to vehicles, by roads comparatively steep, and somewhat similar to many other ascending thoroughfares of the city. The Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee terminus stood between the other two and Princes Street, communicating with them, in goods traffic, by underground rails, and separated from them, for passenger transit, by only the breadth of a roadway.

The present North British terminus concentrates the lines of all the three original termini. and occupies the entire areas of the original North British and the Edinburgh and Glasgow termini, about half that of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee terminus, the whole of that of the old vegetable market, and other ground to the E and S. Involving the entire reconstruction of the Waverley Bridge, and material improvements on the approaches, it consists partly of retained portions of the original structures, but generally of entirely new works. It was formed, in successive parts, throughout the years 1869-1873; is much more convenient and commodious than the three termini which preceded it; and was planned with reference to any further extension which subsequent increase of traffic might require. The new Waverley Bridge was formed on a similar model to that of the new Westminster Bridge in London, and rises to a higher elevation, and less below the level of Princes Street, than the previous bridge. It is also considerably wider than that bridge was; consists mainly of iron, with an appearance somewhat plain and stiff; and rests on three rows of iron pillars, supported by substantial stone piers. The pedestrian approach from Princes Street is wider and much more convenient than the old pedestrian approach to the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee terminus; descends from the NE corner of new Waverley Market; and has also an entrance by flights of steps from North Bridge, at the SE corner of the Post Office. The carriage access, both from Princes Street and the Old Town, is a spacious roadway in line with Waverley Bridge, which curves from that line round the retaining wall of the new vegetable market, and terminates in a large paved space in front of the booking-offices. These offices, together with waiting and other rooms, have the form of an oblong square, and are two stories high, and flat-roofed. They present a plain but neat elevation to the N, extend across the terminus platform, and have a corridor from end to end, affording easy access to any point of the platform. The platform is of vast length, extending from a short distance W of Waverley Bridge to the near vicinity of Leith Wynd, and is considerably broader at the central part, where the offices stand, than was the entire previous platform of the original North British and Edinburgh and Glasgow termini. It resembles the Newcastle-on-Tyne station in being one-sided; has, along its S side, four lines of rails for through traffic; contains, to the E and to the W of the booking offices, several ' docks ' for the local passenger traffic; permits twelve trains, without more than ordinary bustle or confusion, simultaneously to take in or discharge passengers; and is covered, throughout its entire extent, by a glazed iron roof, 40 feet high, of similar construction to that of the Victoria Station in London. The goods station lies to the S and E of the passenger platform, a very large new shed having recently been erected eastwards. The cost of the entire reconstruction of the terminus was estimated to amount to about £90, 000. The westward line from the North British terminus traverses the centre of the East and West Princes Street Gardens, being conducted by a tunnel through the Mound. It passes under neat, light foot-bridges, within West Princes Street Gardens; almost hugs the skirts of the romantic cliffs of the Castle; and then plunges into a tunnel, running about 3000 feet under the streets of the western New Town, and emerging at Haymarket Station. The northward line of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway formerly passed immediately from the terminus into a tunnel at a decorated arch-work beneath the brow of Princes Street; descended that tunnel, on a rapidly inclined plane beneath the whole breadth of the New Town, to the foot of Scotland Street; and was worked along that inclined plane by means of a stationary engine at the terminus, and an endless cable. This tunnel was one of the most remarkable pieces of engineering work in modern times, only a little less wonderful than the tunnel beneath the Thames at London, and was formed at great cost, and not without considerable degrees of risk; yet, subsequently to the amalgamation of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway with the North British, was entirely relinquished, and is now a mere useless curiosity. The eastward line, or line of the North British proper, traverses the southern spur of Calton Hill in a tunnel right below Burns's Monument; curves thence, above the level of the surrounding hollows, partly on embankments and partly on arched viaducts, till it reaches the railway engine and workshop depot at St Margaret's; and, at a point adjacent to Abbeyhill 450 yards E of the end of the tunnel through the spur of Calton Hill, sends off a branch, completed in 1869, to communicate with the N in lieu of the line down the tunnel to Scotland Street. That branch passes under the London Road, or rather under a new, long, raised roadway formed at great cost in lieu of the original road; curves rapidly from an east-north-easterly to a west-north-westerly direction; goes under Leith Walk, having there a depot and a station; and passes thence north-north-westward, to a considerable distance, into junction with the original line from Scotland Street. A Suburban and Southside Junction Railway is in process of construction (1882) in connection with the North British, and branches off W of Haymarket, passing round by Dalry, Morningside, Powburn, Newington, and thence onward to join with the main line near Joppa Station.

The Tramways.—A system of tramways for the principal thoroughfares of the city and its environs was authorised in the early part of 1871, and now comprises lines from the General Post Office to Leith, Newhaven, and Trinity; from the General Post Office to Haymarket and Coltbridge; from Princes Street, by St Andrew Street, York Place, and Picardy Place into junction with the first line in Leith Walk; from the General Post Office, along Waterloo Place, Regent Road, and London Road to Portobello; from the General Post Office, along North Bridge, South Bridge, Nicolson Street, and Clerk Street, to Newington and Powburn; from the W end of Princes Street, by Lothian Road and Earl Grey Street, to Morningside, and thence eastward into junction with the Newington line at Minto Street. An omnibus runs in connection with the tramway system from Post Office to Stockbridge. A new extension of tramway lines goes by Gilmore Place to Merchiston and other places westward, while another, by way of Lauriston, Forrest Road, George IV. Bridge, and High Street, connects the Merchiston district with the heart of the town. For the last six months of 1881 the average number of horses employed was about 600, with 60 cars and 3 omnibuses. The Portobello section of the tramway system was long only a single line of rails with passing curves for meeting cars, but in the course of 1881 was made double the whole way. Parliamentary sanction has been given to the Company to use mechanical traction power throughout their system, subject, however, to sanction being given by the Board of Trade and a two-thirds majority of the town council.

Miscellaneous Buildings.—Most of the numerous hotels are large and beautiful. The Regent, in Waterloo Place, is a splendid edifice, erected in 1819 at a cost of nearly £30, 000; the Waverley, in the same street, occupies the old Post Office; the Edinburgh, in Princes Street, is a very large and finely embellished edifice of 1864; the Royal extends through three edifices, and has a sumptuous interior; the Bedford is part of the gorgeous edifice of the Life Association of Scotland; the Clarendon, in Princes Street, is the greater part of an elegant six-story structure, completed in 1876, and pierced through the basement with the entrance to a beautiful bazaar-hall arcade; whilst several others, # the same line of street, compete with these in extent, embellishment, and other attractions. The Café Royal, in West Register Street, is a beautiful, large, Italian edifice of 1865; the Cockburn, at the foot of Cockburn Street, is a picturesque structure in the Scottish Baronial style; whilst, in the central parts of the city, there are others which have more or less of corresponding character. The New Club, in Princes Street, a little W of Hanover Street, was built, and is maintained for their own exclusive use, by an association of noblemen and gentlemen, limited to 660 in number, and elected by ballot; is a very spacious edifice, after designs by W. Burn, with Tuscan doorway, projecting basement windows, stone balcony on curved trusses, and surmounting balustrade; and underwent considerable enlargement about 1865. The University Club, in Princes Street, between Castle Street and Charlotte Street, was erected in 18 66-67, after designs by Peddie & Kinnear, at a cost of nearly £14, 000; is in the Palladian style, with elegant Grecian details; and has a handsome interior, with accommodation for 650 members. The United Service Club in Queen Street, and the Northern Club in George Street, are also handsome and spacious buildings. The Liberal Club, at the W end of Princes Street, is an imposing dome-capped edifice; and the new buildings for the Conservative Club at 112 Princes Street, built in 1882, are of an imposing character.

The Masonic Hall, on the S side of George Street, stands behind the street-line of houses, and is entered by a vestibule through the house No. 98. It was erected in 1858-59 after a design by David Bryce, and is a spacious well-arranged edifice. The Masonic Hall, on the new side of Blackfriars Street, was built in 1871, and is a substantial structure in the Scottish Baronial style. The Oddfellows' Hall, on the E side of Forrest Road, was built in 1872-73, after designs by J. C. Hay, at a cost of about £5000; is in the Italian style, with balcony, several sculptured figures, and corner turrets; and contains a principal apartment with accommodation for about 800 persons, another apartment with accommodation for 300 persons, and several smaller rooms. The Calton Convening Rooms, at the E end of the N side of Waterloo Place, have a one story frontage to the S and to the E, adorned with Doric three-quarter columns, and are interiorly adapted for public meetings and popular exhibitions. The Young Men's Christian Association building, on the W side of South St Andrew Street, was erected in 1875, after designs by George Beattie & Son, at a cost of about £18, 000; is a six-story edifice in the Italian style; and contains a hall 60 feet long and 26 wide, a reading room 26 feet square, a library, a conversation-room, and other apartments. The Catholic Young Men's Institute, in St Mary Street, was built in 1869, after designs by D. Cousin, at a cost of £4930; is in the old Scottish domestic style; and contains a hall, with accommodation for above 900 persons.

The Inland Revenue Office stands on the S side of Waterloo Place, and is the central building to the W of Regent Bridge; it rises to the height of four stories, and is in the Græco Italian style, harmonious with that of the adjacent buildings. The Royal Academy building, popularly known as the Riding School, stood on the W side of Lothian Road; was a large handsome edifice, with adjoining yards; contained suites of apartments for the Military and Naval Academy, and apartments and other accommodation for teaching equestrian exercises; but was taken down in the course of the clearances for the Caledonian new railway station. The Volunteer Drill Hall occupies part of the site of the old city workhouse, off the W side of Forrest Road. It was erected in 1872; comprises a main hall 135 feet long, 96 wide, 12 high in side walls, and 46 high from the ground to the roof-ridge, with segment-circular roof supported on iron ribs and glazed in three stretches; and includes a meetingroom, a store-room for 2500 rifles, a spacious room for work and cleaning, a gallery 50 feet long and 8 wide for visitors, and other apartments. The Militia Depot stands off the E side of Easter Road, adjacent to the new northern line of the North British Railway. It was erected in 1868; comprises neat ranges of two-story buildings, for the occupancy of the resident staff; and has commodious enclosed grounds for drill exercise.

Many of the business premises, in the principal thoroughfares, are both extensive and ornate. The arcade, in Princes Street, was opened in 1876; stands associated with the new Clarendon Hotel; has an entrance through the basement of the hotel edifice, 13 feet wide, surmounted by the royal arms; and is not a thoroughfare, but rather a fashionable promenade bazaar-hall. It measures upwards of 100 feet in length and about 30 in breadth; is floored with Austrian marble in alternate squares of black and white, and roofed with glass supported on perforated girders of lace work pattern, and picked out m gold and colours; terminates in three circular-headed stained-glass windows, with handsome rope mouldings and capitals; and contains, on each side, seven elegant shops, each measuring 17 feet by 13. Cowan's warehouse, in West Register Street, was erected in 1865, after designs by Beattie & Son, at a cost of about £7000; it is in the Venetian-Gothic style, with profusion of carved work; presents ornamental fronts to the E, the S, and the W; and has a height of four stories, besides a sunk one and an attic. Taylor & Son's premises, in Princes Street, were erected in 1869, after designs by J. Lessels; are in the Italian style, with French features, and considerable variety of detail; present a façade 80 feet long and 60 high to the wall top, 76 feet to the roof-ridge; and have a basement story disposed in shops, and three stories and attics fitted as a hotel. Jenner & Co.'s premises, in Princes Street and St David Street, comprise several spacious blocks of buildings, highly decorated.

Rows, ranges, and groups of working-men's houses were erected in the years 1872-82, at Norton Park, Dumbiedykes, East Montgomery Street, Dalry, and other places in the city's outskirts or immediate environs; and are now so numerous that, had all been built in near neighbourhood, they would have formed a considerable town. They stand mostly in airy situations, with more or less of rural surroundings, form generally symmetrical ranges or neat blocks, and present a striking contrast in structure, accommodation, and salubrity, to the dense and squalid dwellings of the lower classes in the old and central parts of the city. They were, to a large extent, erected by joint stock companies; and have, from year to year, yielded good dividends on the subscribed capital. The grounds of Warrender Park, S from the West Meadows and Bruntsfield Links, have been largely built upon also, and here many fine streets and crescents are being formed of houses of a superior class to those referred to above. The majority of the houses in the wynds and closes are almost blocked against pure air and a due measure of light; stand on steep inclines, with inconvenient access to the main thoroughfares; are sectioned, floor above floor, into small separate domiciles; and are in the upper stories accessible by staircases that are steep, dark, and dangerous. As many as 121 families, at the census of 1861, occupied singleroomed domiciles, each without a window; as many as 0,209 families lived each in a domicile of only one apartment; and 1530 of these families comprised each from 6 to 15 individuals. Considerable relief from this state of things has been afforded by the erection of the new houses for working-men; and corresponding improvement on the architectural aspects of the city has accrued partly from the erection of these houses, and partly from the demolitions and reconstruction's noticed in a previous section, as done under the City Improvement Act of 1867.

Public Promenades.—Thoroughly public promenades always open, readily accessible, containing 'ample scope and verge enough ' for exercise and games, are not so good and abundant in Edinburgh as they ought to be, yet the space for such is much larger and better than in many other populous towns. Not a few of the public thoroughfares, likewise, comprising several in the Old Town, and the majority in the New, whether for walking exercise, for good air, or for exquisite scenery, are eminently good public promenades.

East Princes Street Gardens were first formed in 1830, and then planted with 77, 000 shrubs and trees, under the direction of Dr Patrick Neill. When broken in upon by the extension of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, they were reformed in 1849-50 at the expense of £4400, received from the railway company as compensation. They comprise much diversity of ground, ascending from a deep centre over high graduated banks, and are so skilfully and tastefully laid out as to contain, within their comparatively narrow limits, a remarkable variety of promenade, parterre, shrubbery, and grove. A terrace about 100 feet broad, on the same level as Princes Street roadway, extends along their N side; is traversed by a gravel walk 20 feet broad, and partly occupied by the Scott, Wilson, Black, and Livingstone monuments; and is bounded, along the S, by a handsome parapet wall 4 feet high, with pedestals at regular intervals for six statues. A walk about 10 feet wide extends along the middle of the face of the N slope; and is reached, from the ends of the terrace, by two fine flights of steps, each 15 feet wide at the top, expanding with circular wing walls to nearly 30 feet toward the bottom. The tract between the terrace and that walk is carpeted with sward; and the lower tracts are variously sloping and level, have intersections of walks and interspersions of shrubbery, and are separated from the railway by an ornamental embankment. The W end, comprising the eastern skirts of the Mound, is traversed by a broad gravel walk, connecting the N and the S sides, and commands thence interesting views toward the North Bridge and Calton Hill. It lost much of its sylvan appearance by the operations for improving the Mound about the year 1855, acquiring, instead, an ornamental iron railing along the margin of the broadpaved footpath then formed along the Mound. The S side rises more steeply and to a higher elevation than the N side; is laid out in a manner more diversified and less embellished; retains much of the appearance given it by the planting of 1830; and has narrow winding footpaths, commanding good views. The gardens contain one or two bowling green plots, but are not otherwise available for athletic sports.

West Princes Street Gardens, reclaimed from the marshy and fetid remains of the Nor' Loch in that quarter, were formed, under powers of a special statute, in 1816-20. They have a similar appearance to that of the East Princes Street Gardens, but extend to fully twice the length, and ascend their southern acclivity to the verge of the Castle esplanade. They belonged originally, as a common, to the citizens; but were allowed to become private property, attached to the tenements in Princes Street. The town council unsuccessfully attempted about 1852 to recover them, either wholly or partially, for public use; after which they became accessible to the public, at certain hours on certain days of the summer months, when entertainment's were given by regimental or other music bands; and could also at any time be entered by respectable strangers with keys easily obtainable from any of the hotels and principal shops in Princes Street. About l876 they were, on terms of purchase and agreement, obtained by the town council, and thrown completely open to the public, after undergoing alterations and improvements. They exhibit now a kind and amount of embellishment not much different from that of the East Princes Street Gardens; and it is even now (1882) proposed to add a new feature to them in the shape of a covered rock garden and fernery, for the erection of which £1500 have been left by the widow of the gentleman who presented the Ross Fountain.

Calton Hill was formerly a common belonging to the citizens, which, as such, suffered serious curtailment by the formation of the Regent and the London Roads, the construction of the Regent and Royal Terraces, and especially the enclosing of all its gentler slopes to form gardens or pleasure-grounds to the houses of these terraces and to the High School; so that now little more than its mere crown is Public property. Nevertheless it has been so greatly improved there with broad, fine walks, and made so easily accessible by stairs, gravelled paths, and a carriage-way, as to form one of the finest promenades in Great Britain. The walks and the carriage-way were partly cut through solid rock; the former making such circuits and traverses round and over the crown as to afford a full and easy command of the very extensive and surpassingly picturesque panoramic views for which the hill is celebrated.- The Queen's Park far outrivals Calton Hill in spaciousness -having a circuit of nearly 5 miles-as well as in diversity and romance of aspect, due particularly to the features it derives from Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat. It competes with it likewise in the grandeur of views commanded by its loftier vantage - grounds; excels it, too, in containing large expanses of level ground, available for athletic sports; while, though strictly the property of the Crown, and under special surveillance, it is scarcely more restricted than if it belonged directly and entirely to the citizens.

The Meadows extend west-north-westward from the northern verge of Newington, and measure nearly ¾ mile in length and fully 1 furlong in mean breadth. They were anciently covered with a lake, called the South or Borough Loch, which, being gradually drained in the 17th century, degenerated into a marsh, unsuited to any useful purpose, and injurious to the salubrity of the environs. In 1722 they were let, over their eastern parts, to Mr Thomas Hope, under obligation to drain and enclose them, which was so effectually done-the father of Robert Burns, it is said, assisting in the operation -that they received, over these parts, the name of Hope Park, and became, in the latter part of last century, the favourite promenade of nearly all the literati and the fashionables of the city. They were afterwards, over their other parts, completely drained, nicely levelled, beautifully enclosed, clumped with wood, and zoned all round and cut across the middle by broad level avenues between lines of trees; and then, as a whole, partly disposed in archery-ground for the Queen's Body Guard in Scotland, let partly for drying clothes, and partly for grazing cattle. They acquired in 1850 an ornamental wide entrance from the E end of Lauriston Place, and were opened in 1854 to general public use for promenading and athletic sports. They were subsequently improved by the formation of footpaths across them, the construction of a carriagedrive along their S side, and various modifications of their general surface, and underwent further improvements, in completion of well-considered plans, during the five years ending in 1875. In 1881 a new and ornamental entrance was erected opposite Hope Park Terrace at the expense of the Messrs Nelson, and further embellishments are being added by the planting of trees and the formation of shrubberies at prominent parts. The hall of the Queen's Body Guard or Royal Company of Archers stands in the neighbourhood of Hope Park, and is a neat plain building. Bruntsfield Links and Boroughmnir are continuous with the south-western side of the Meadows. Bruntsfield Links, or Downs, belong to the city, and are open to all the citizens. They are claimed by the golfer, who is tenaciously jealous of his ancient rights over them, and they were formerly used as a parade-ground for troops.

A large field at Raeburn Place, in Stockbridge, was given to the public in 1854 by Mr Hope of Moray Place, under special regulations, as a public promenade and place of athletic sports.

Baths.—Excellent facilities for summer sea-bathing exist at the parts of the Firth nearest the city, especially at Granton, Seafield, and Portobello. The dwelling-houses, indeed, of even the New Town of Edinburgh, excepting in the more recent parts of it, are not near so generally provided with fixture baths as the dwelling-houses in the new parts of Glasgow; but an excellent suite of safety swimming baths, and of other baths of all kinds, was erected about 1860 on the low ground at the foot of Pitt Street; while another suite of swimming-baths was erected about the same time at the South Back of Canongate. Good public baths, of various kinds and various extent, for the upper and the middle classes, are in several parts both of the city and its environs. Public baths for the working classes were long a desideratum, though earnestly desired by many of the working classes themselves. A proposal to establish them by subscription was at length spiritedly begun in 1844, but somewhat flaggingly carried out. The chief suite of them was fitted up in a tenement purchased for the purpose in Nicolson Square. They cost upwards of £1000 beyond the amount of the subscriptions paid in or obtainable; passed under the immediate management of persons who became bound for the extra sum; and were so well constructed and so much appreciated that nothing but the debt upon them prevented the immediate extending and cheapening of baths for working men.

Drainage and cleaning.—The configuration of great part of the site of the city, with the inclination of streets and alleys, and the descent to natural outlets for water, is favourable to good drainage at all seasons, and provides powerful natural flushings in times of rain; yet this has not served to preserve certain portions from remarkable foulness of condition, and contributed nothing, but the reverse, to the drainage of thoroughfares, or other places on dead levels, or in the bottoms of the valleys. The artificial sewerage system, throughout the greater part of the New Town and in some modern parts of the Old, is unexceptionable in structure, ramification, and outlet; yet it is checked or marred, more or less in most of these quarters, by mal-arrangement in its connection with houses or in its intersection by open foul drainage; and a good system of sewerage, in the other parts of the city and in the outskirts, is in some cases defective or wanting. The Water of Leith, which receives great part of the sewerage, has not water enough, in times of drought, or even in times of moderate rain, to carry off impurities;-and often, for successive weeks, it used to be little else than a great open common sewer;-but, under an act of parliament obtained in 1864, it was subjected to sweeping improvement all round its vicinity to the city and onward to Leith, at a cost of not much short of £100, 000, and is now under the surveillance of a board of commissioners, comprising the chief magistrates and certain town councillors of both Edinburgh and Leith. The district of St Leonard's, comprising an area of 413 acres, acquired for itself a new sewerage system in 1871 at a cost of fully £10, 000, and is drained by that system to an outfall of its own in the Queen's Park opposite Salisbury Terrace. The city still requires a thorough and complete system of main drainage, sweeping down towards Leith, and having such outfall as might permit the sewerage to be utilised for irrigation on some neighbouring tracts, or sold to inland farmers.

The surface-cleaning of the streets, particularly in the removal of solid refuse from houses, is conducted in a way to yield the corporation an income of about £7000 a year. Edinburgh suffers little from the diffused manurial accumulation which prevails in Glasgow and some other large towns, and which acts there as a constant provocative of pestilential diseases; and yet, through its defective sewerage system, it suffers probably quite as much as if manurial accumulations were permitted to be made. Ashes, rubbish, and all occasional refuse are carried off daily, at stated hours, under a code of special regulations, in well appointed police wagons. The regulations, however, cannot always be enforced; and, notwithstanding somewhat vigorous efforts to maintain them, are very extensively infringed. They do not prevent the contents of many buckets being emptied on the street, to lie there perhaps for hours, or to be widely scattered by bone-gatherers and by the winds. Excrementitions matters also, in those parts of the city where no connecting pipes exist between the houses and the sewers, are treated and carried off in the same manner as the ashes; and there the nuisance is frightful-all the more so that these parts of the city are just the parts where the population is densest, or where the houses are highest and most crowded. Perhaps, too, the general deposits of the street manure, the prodigious heaps which are formed by the daily discharge of the wagons, are not far enough from the city, not secluded enough from the nearest suburbs, and not disposed of quickly enough to farmers; so that they have been blamed, we do not say with what justice, as an appreciable exciting cause of pestilence.

A very large tract in the eastern environs, extending all the way from the vicinity of Holyrood by Restalrig to the Firth of Forth, is disposed in foul water irrigation meadows-being kept in a state of constant swamp by the diffusion over them of the contents of great common sewers from the city. This irrigation produces indeed large crops of herbage, but is a serious nuisance, loathsome to look upon, horrible to the olfactory nerves, and probably, even when the noxious gases arising from it are diluted with the pure air of the surrounding high grounds not unaccompanied with material injury to the public health. In winter, when the irrigation is not much practised, and the water is, for the most part, either diluted with rains, or allowed to flow directly to the Firth, very little disagreeable odour arises from these meadows; but in summer, when the irrigation is vigorously prosecuted, a strong odour, sometimes a heavy stench, is diffused; and in dry, sunny, hot weather, in particular-especially if a keen wind blow from the E, wafting up to the city the exhalations from their entire length of the meadows, and their greatest breadth, while the exhalations are held close to the ground by means of thick fogs-the odour becomes comparatively far spread and disgustingly offensive. Dr Littlejohn, in one of his reports on the sanitary condition of the city, says,-' The easterly are our most prevailing winds, which pass across these meadows before they sweep over the New, and the more elevated portions of the Old, Town; and it has been plansibly conjectured that the insalubrity of these winds depends largely on this contamination. But, at any rate, a city surrounded by swamps cannot be regarded as in a sound sanitary condition; and it is highly probable that a great part of the mortality of the Abbey and some of the poorer districts of the Old Town is, in a great measure, owing to the unhealthy character of these breezes which blow so continuously during many months. '

Government.—Edinburgh was made a royal burgh by David I., and was governed from 1583 till 1856 by a council consisting of 17 merchants, 6 deacons, and 2 trades' representatives-from whom were chosen a lord provost, a dean of guild, treasurer, and 4 bailies; it then had the character of a close burgh, with some little admixture of popular representation. Since 1856 it has been governed, in terms of a special act of that year, by 39 popularly elected councillors, from whom are chosen a lord provost, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 6 bailies. The councillors are elected by the burgh constituency, divided into thirteen wards, three by each ward, and one-third of them retire from office every year, but are eligible for re-election. The constituency amounted, in 1862, to 8833; but, under the extension of the franchise in 1867, it amounted, in 1871, to 23, 735; in 1876, to 26,180; in 1881, to 28, 894; and that constituency also sends two members to parliament. The lord provost is elected by the council for a term of three years, and is eligible, at the expiry of his term, for immediate reelection. He bears the title of Right Honourable, and is, ex officio, lord-lientenant of the county of the city, high sheriff of the royalty, and has precedence of all official persons within his jurisdiction. The other magistrates retire at the expiration of one year, and cannot be reelected till the end of another year, yet may remain in the council from year to year by filling the different offices in succession. The magistrates, prior to the Act of 1856, had ordinary burgh jurisdiction, civil and criminal, over only the ancient royalty and the extended royalty; but now it extends over all the parliamentary burgh. They also, within the same bounds, have exclusive jurisdiction as to weights and measures, and coordinate jurisdiction with the sheriff as to offences against the public-houses Act; they likewise wield the authority formerly possessed by the police commissioners, and form committees to carry out police acts; are also commissioners of supply for the city, and sit in the commission of the peace, comprising about 160 members, for the county of the city, which extends beyond the parliamentary burgh toward the Firth of Forth. The town council now act as city road trust, and also govern Trinity Hospital; unite with the city parochial clergy to govern Heriot's Hospital; appoint 1 of the assessors and 4 of the curators of Edinburgh University; and were also formerly patrons of the High School, now under the jurisdiction of the city schoolboard. The lord provost, 2 bailies, and 4 councillors likewise are members of the Water of Leith sewerage commission; the lord provost, 2 bailies, the dean of guild, and 12 councillors are members of the board of trustees under the Edinburgh and District Waterworks Acts of 1869 and 1874; and all the magistrates and councillors are trustees under the City Improvement Act of 1867. The chief committees of the town council are the lord provost's, including watching and coal-weighing; Trinity Hospital; markets, including slaughterhouses; plans and works, including fire engines and police house department; cleaning and lighting, including workshops; streets and buildings, including drainage, public parks, and bleaching greens; education, public health, law, treasurer's, and police appeals. The town council formerly held the patronage of a number of the University chairs, but were deprived of this by the University Act of 1858; and also the patronage of thirteen of the city churches, which was taken from them by the Annuity Abolition Act of 1860.

Ordinary courts for the city, in all the departments of the burgh jurisdiction, are held daily; a sequestration court for the city is held in the Council Chamber every Friday; and a tenmerk court for the city and county of the city is held in the Council Chamber every Monday. The sequestration court disposes of summary cases, takes affidavits and declarations; and the tenmerk court determines claims of servants' wages to any amount, and claims of other kinds for sums not exceeding 11s. 1½d. A justice of peace small debt court for the city and county of the city is held in the Council Chamber every Monday; a justice of peace small debt court for the county at large is also held every Monday; and a sheriff small debt court for the county is held in the sheriff court-house every Wednesday. The sheriff ordinary courts for the county also are held in the sheriff court-house every Wednesday and Friday.

The Court of Session in Parliament House is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and takes cognisance of the same kind of cases as, in England, are determined severally by the Court of Chancery, the vice-chancellor and Master of the Rolls, Courts of Queen's Bench, and of Common Pleas and Exchequer, Court of Admiralty, with exception of prize cases, Court of Doctors' Commons, and the Court of Bankruptcy; and consists at present of a Lord President, Lord Justice-clerk, and ten other judges. The Lord President and three judges form the first division, the Lord Justice-clerk and two judges form the second division, of the court, these two divisions being termed the Inner House; the remaining five judges sit all separately from one another, and are severally lords ordinary, and aggregately the Outer House; and the latest appointed attends particularly to the business of the bill chamber or proceedings of the nature of injunction or stay of process, which require summary interposition. Each of the vast majority of cases brought into the Court of Session is tried, in the first instance, by one of the lords ordinary, and may either terminate in his judgement on it, or may be appealed to either division of the Inner House. No appeal lies from one division to the other, or from one division to the whole court; yet either division may call in the opinion of the other judges, and whatever judgement may be given, either by one of the divisions or by the whole court, when required to conjoin opinion, is final as to all authority in Scotland, but may be appealed to the House of Lords. The Lord President, the Lord Justice-clerk, and five other judges form the High Court of Justiciary, having supreme criminal jurisdiction; they sit in Edinburgh, at occasional times, for despatching criminal cases belonging to the three Lothians, together with such cases as, from their importance or other reason, may be brought from any of the assize towns to Edinburgh for trial; and they distribute themselves every year during the vacations of the Court of Session for holding assizes at Jedburgh, Dumfries, Ayr, Glasgow, Inverary, Stirling, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, and Inverness. The four senior lords ordinary form a court under an act of 1868, for hearing appeals from sheriff-courts; one of the lords ordinary transacts the business of the Court of Exchequer; and one that of the Court of Teinds, embracing all questions as to modification of the stipends of the clergy, and the liabilities of parties subject to the payment of the stipend; and three judges form the Registration Appeal Court.

The High Court of Admiralty consisted, after the Union, of a judge appointed by the lord vice-admiral of Scotland, and functionaries of inferior jurisdiction appointed by the judges; and, in civil causes, was subject to review by the Court of Session. An admiralty jurisdiction was possessed also by the city magistrates over the county of the city, and to the mid waters of the Firth of Forth, limited on the W by a line drawn from Wardie brow to the Mickrie stone, and on the E by a line drawn from the extremity of the Pentland Hills to the middle of the Firth E of Inchkeith. The commissary court, or head consistorial court of Scotland, was, as to its business, nearly all merged in the Court of Session in 1830. Two deputies, with office chamber in the New Register House, perform the duties of the Lyon court, or, more strictly, of the sinecure office of LyonKing-at-Arms. The Convention of Royal Burghs, a court constituted in the reign of James III., meets annually on the first Tuesday of April in Edinburgh, and is presided over by the lord provost of the city. It consists of delegates chosen year by year by the several royal burghs, and possesses all the characters of a corporation, with qualities and privileges which have been conferred by statute. It has no funds, yet possesses a statutory power to assess the burghs annually for the supplies of the current year; discusses and determines questions of trade affecting the interests of the burghs; and, before dissolving itself at the end of its sittings, appoints a committee, who wield its powers till the meeting of next year. Three portions of the city-Canongate, Portsburgh, and Calton-situated beyond the old royalty, but lying contiguous to the old streets, had formerly separate burgh jurisdictions, but were annexed to the city-burgh by the Municipal Extension Act of 1856. A trivial separate jurisdiction over the precincts of Holyrood still exists, and there is an ordinary court on the first Saturday of every month.

Police.—After the Battle of Flodden, the citizens began voluntarily to perform the duty of what was called the watching and warding of the city, and did it in rotations of four. In 1648, a paid gnard of 60 men, with a captain and two lieutenants, was appointed for the duty; but it proved distasteful to the inhabitants, and the voluntary system was resumed. About 1689, there was raised, under authority of an Act of Parliament, another paid body, 126 in number, which received the name of the town-guard, and had its rendezvous in the lower portion of the Old Tolbooth. This body perambulated the streets at night, clothed in old military costume, with long blue coats and cocked hats, each man carrying a huge Lochaber axe. A militia regiment, called the trained bands, was contemporaneous with the town-guard, comprised 16 companies of 100 men each, and had the lord provost as colonel; but was called out only on great occasions, such as for some state pageant or on the anniversary of the King's birthday. A better system was inaugurated in 1805, improved in 1812 and 1822, and matured in 1848, which acquired, and continues to retain, all the characteristics of the best modern police organisation. It served, till 1856, not only for all the parliamentary burgh, but also for a tract to the N of it; was originally administered by commissioners, some ex-officers, some elected by certain public bodies, and others elected by rate-payers. By the Municipal Extension Act of 1856, the administration was transferred to the magistrates and town council, and relieved from the charge of the northern tract, which was assigned to the police district of Leith. The force consists of 415 men of all ranks, with a chief constable at a salary of £600. The court department comprises the city magistrates, the county sheriff and sheriff 's substitutes, a public prosecutor and clerk, clerk of court and depute-clerk, three superintendents, lieutenants, inspectors, and a court sergeant; and the civil department comprises the chief constable, medical officer of health, burgh engineer, inspector of lighting and cleaning, inspector of nuisances, master of fire-engines, inspector of markets, inspector of dealers in coals, a treasurer, a collector of assessments, an accountant-auditor, a law agent, and several other minor officials. Stations, subsidiary to the head police office in High Street, are at Fountainbridge, Canongate, St James Street, St Leonard's, and Stockbridge; but they are merely lock-ups, each in charge of a sergeant stationkeeper; and the one at Fountainbridge contains only very indifferent cells, inferior to those in small provincial burghs. Another station was added to these in 1874 at Torphichen Street, and was built in the style of old Scottish architecture at a cost of £4000. All are in communication with each other by telegraphic wires. The revenues and expenditures will afterwards be noticed under the head of finances.

Sub-Municipal Bodies.—The Guildry Court comprises the lord dean of guild, the old dean, 10 councillors, a clerk and extractor, a master of works, a procurator fiscal, and 2 officers; and the guildry council comprises the lord dean of guild, 15 councillors, a secretary, a treasurer, and an officer. The jurisdiction of this court was at one time very extensive, and included mercantile and maritime causes; now, however, its chief duty is to see that all buildings are according to law, neither encroaching on private property nor on the public streets; and also that houses in danger of falling be taken down; no building can be erected in the burgh without its sanction. The Merchant Company was constituted by royal charter in 1681, embracing ' the then haill present merchants, burgesses, and gild brethren of the burgh of Edinburgh, who were importers or sellers of cloths, stuffs, or other merchandise for the apparel or wear of the bodies of men or women, for themselves and successors in their said trade in all time comeing.' They received ratification by Act of Parliament in 1693, a second royal charter at a subsequent date, and regulating ratifications by two other Acts of Parliament. The latest of these, in May 1827, admits, in terms of these ratifications, all persons ' being merchants, burgesses, and gild brethren, or entitled to be chosen merchant-councillors, or magistrates of the city of Edinburgh.' It charges £63 as the rate of entry-money, possesses property and funds yielding about £1100 a year, and expended chiefly in aiding widows and decayed members, and is managed by a master, 12 assistants, treasurer, secretary, and law agent, an accountant-auditor, a chamberlain, a collector, and widows' fund trustees. The Trades' Corporations were formerly bodies wielding much influence and power in the community; amounted to thirteen under a convenery, and represented in the town council, with two others standing apart from the convenery and the town council representation; and now form decayed bodies, all still choosing their own deacons. The thirteen under the convenery are waulkers, constituted by seal of cause in 1500; skinners, by seals of cause in 1586 and 1630; furriers, by acts of council in 1593 and 1665; goldsmiths, by seal of cause in 1581, and crown charters in 1586 and 1687; hammermen, by seal of cause in 1483; wrights, by act of council in 1475; masons, by act of council in 1475; tailors, by seals of cause in 1500, 1531, and 1584, and by royal charters in 1531 and 1594; baxters or bakers, of date before 1522; fleshers, by seal of cause in 1488; cordiners, by seals of cause in 1440 and 1479, and by crown charter in 1598; websters, by seals of cause in 1475 and 1520; and bonnet-makers, by seals of cause in 1530 and 1684. The two other corporations are candlemakers, constituted by deeds of 1517, 1597, and 1695, and barbers, by deed of 1722. A remnant of incorporated trades, with a convener, also exists in the ancient burgh of Calton; and remnants of eight incorporated trades, with a convener, under a common royal charter of 1863, exist in Canongate. The High Constables, instituted in 1611, are a numerous body available for aid in preserving the public peace in cases of emergency, and are ruled by a head functionary called the moderator, and have thirteen captains, one for each of the thirteen wards of the parliamentary burgh.

Finances.—The city corporation revenue is now derived principally from landed property, feu-duties, and market dues; but was formerly derived also from the shore-dues of Leith, from imposts on wines and malt liquors, from the annuity-tax for ministers' stipends, and from the seat rents of the city churches. The amount of it in 1788 was about £10, 000; in 1841-42, £19,884; in 1853-54, £33,247; in 1870-71, £36, 521; in 1881-82, £37,757. The value of the whole heritable and movable property in 1833-exclusive of the Leith dues, the church patronage, the High School, council chambers, and the court-rooms-was £271,657; yet in that year the corporation had long lain under heavy embarrassment, and was declared insolvent. No actual embezzlement or fraudulent malversation, but merely imprudent management, over-sanguine expectations of increasing revenue, profuse expenditure for civic parade and entertainments, and extravagant outlay on public buildings and public works, could be charged as causing the disastrous state of the finances; yet these were cumulatively such as to require prompt and permanent rectification, quite as much as if the causes had been of a graver kind. A debt to government of no less than £228,374 for the works of Leith docks had recently been contracted, other debts to the amount of £407,181 were due at the insolvency, and these stood contrasted with a total debt of only £78,164 in 1723. An act of parliament legalising a settlement was obtained in 1838; and this relieved the corporation from all responsibility with the Leith docks, assigned a certain annual payment from the dock revenues in aid of Edinburgh, and arranged that the pnblic creditors of the city should receive bonds bearing 3 per cent. of perpetual annuity, that the bonds should be transferable, and be redeemable only by payment of the full sum, or by purchasing the bonds at their market value. Since 1838 bonds have been can celled representing £70,600 of debt and £2118 of annuity; there being still outstanding in Aug. 1881 bonds representing £314, 435, 16s. 8d. of city debt, £9433, 1s. 6d. of annuity being payable thereon. Other additions to the corporation liabilities, to the aggregate amount of £96,557, arose out of respectively the Cattle Market Act of 1844, the Corn Market Act of 1847, the Slaughter-houses Act of 1850, the Annuity-tax Abolition Act of 1860, and the Amendment Act of the Annuity-tax Abolition Act of 1860. What remained of all these liabilities at 1 Aug. 1871 was only £338,145, 16s. 8d. of principal, or £10,144, 7s. 6d. of annuity or interest, under the act of 1838; £5735, 14s. 7d. of principal, or £229, 8s. 7d. of annuity or interest, under the act of l850; and £53,675 of principal, or £1878, 12s. 6d. of annuity or interest, under the act of 1870.

The gross amount of municipal revenue for the year ending 1 Aug. 1881 was made up as follows:-Creditors' account, £17, 987, 8s. 9d.; proper municipal account, £11,578, 18s. 6d.; Water of Leith sewerage fund, £1101, 14s. 2d.; city clerk's fee fund, £1724, 14s. 10d.; registration of births, deaths, and marriages, £2065, 6s. 5d.; valuation of lands, etc., £2131, 11s.; registration of voters, £1653, 5s. 5d.; markets and customs, £13,419, 17s. 6½d.; slaughter houses, £4162, 14s. 0¾d.; Trinity Hospital, £3867, 2s. 9d.; which, with the revenue from 35 minor trusts, gave a total revenue of £71,047, 19s. 1½d., against an expenditure on the same trusts of £62,911, 10s. 0½d. The Veterinary College trust income was £1194, 4s. 4d.; expenditure, £1446, 6s. 6d. The police revenue for the year ending 15 May 1881 was £95,764, 6s. 8d. in current expenditure, £2172, 3s. 6d. in capital expenditure, £18, 8s. 6d. sinking fund-for general police purposes; £20,558, 9s. 6d. streets and public safety; £5131, 0s. 9d. current expenditure, £2540 capital expenditure-for general improvements; £4243, 17s. 5d. for sewers and drains; £2827, 14s. 3d. for public health; allowances in watching department, £264, 6s. 6d. -total revenue £142, 520, 7s. 1½d., against an expenditure of £169,409, 7s. 3d.

The total amount of revenue in the two departments, police and municipal, was £246,141, 12s. 10d., but that suffered deduction of capital sums in the municipal department of £3457, 3s. 1d., in improvements department of £6166, 10s., in police department of £4712, 3s. 6d., and therefore amounted practically only to £231,805, 16s. 3d., which was thus classified in regard to its destination or uses into six several departments- municipal, inclusive of city, markets, and slaughterhouse revenues, £40,513, 18s. 0¾d.; police, inclusive of watching, lighting, cleaning, fire-engines, public parks, sewers, public health, etc., £137,543, 17s. 1½d.; improvements, under act of 1867, £24,778, 6s.; registration, valuation, inspection, etc., £7372, 7s. 5d.; trust revenues, inclusive of Trinity Hospital, etc., £11,111, 2s. 3d.; and other revenues transferred from one account to another, £10, 486, 5s. 4¾d.

The income and the expenditure of the city improvement trust are classified into two accounts, the cost account and the revenue account; and, in the year ending 2 Aug. 1875, were as follow:-The income, under the cost account, comprises £16,524, 19s. 11d. for properties sold off or forming roadways, £695, 7s. 2d. of the year's surplus on the revenue account, £15,000 from the sinking fund for discharge of loans, and £193,984, 1s. of loans on mortgages, etc.; the expenditure, under the cost account, comprised £42,753, 14s. 4d. for properties acquired and in connection with the purchases, and £8669, 11s. 8d. for removal of old buildings, disposal of building areas, and formation of roadways, drains, etc.; the income on the revenue account comprised £20,656, 5s. 8d. of assessments, and £723, 7s. 3d. of rents and ground-annuals; and the expenditure, on the revenue account, comprised £1395, 15s. 6d. for management and collection, £7374, 10s. 3d. for interest and fen-duties, and £11,914 of contribution to the sinking fund. The total receipts from 1867 till 2 Aug. 1875 were £197,193, 7s. 5d.; the total expenditure, during the same period, was £383,565, 15s. 4d.; and the amount at credit of the sinking fund, at 2 Aug. 1875, was £7611, 13s. 1d. In 1881 this account stood as follows:-revenue, £31, 379, 2s. 3d.; expenditure, £14,314, 3s. 1d.; sinking fund, £3995, 13s. 5d., leaving a gross balance against the scheme of £108,887, 18s. 4d. The yearly rental of the parliamentary burgh, since the passing of the valuation act in 1855, has increased more or less from year to year. The amount, in 1855-56, was £761, 863, 9s. 1d.; 1860-61, £844, 542, 4s. 1d.; 1865-66, £1, 003,793, 8s. 4d.; 1870-71, £1,214, 046, 0s. 10d.; 1875-76, £1,419,043, 15s. 9d.; 1880-81, £1,727,740, 15s. 4d.; showing a total increase since 1855 of £965, 877, 6s. 3d.

Social Condition.—Edinburgh is strictly the metropolis of Scotland, the centre of everything national which remains to it since the union of its crown and its parliament with those of England. It is the principal seat of the administration of justice for the whole country, the meeting place of the supreme courts of the several religious denominations, the fountain head of scientific and literary activity, the seat of the greatest of the Scottish universities and of numerous first-class schools, and the focus of influences of all kinds over the entire country. The city contains so many people connected with these interests, and draws such large numbers of the refined classes of society, as visitors either for business or for pleasure, that the population, in the average months of any year, exhibits a proportion connected with intellectual matters almost as large as the population of Glasgow or Manchester exhibits in connection with cotton manufacture. The status of the city is truly national, or strictly Scottish. ' Nothing,' remarks Mr Lorimer, ' can be more erroneous than to liken Edinburgh to such places as Bath or Cheltenham, or any of the mere pleasure towns of England. Edinburgh, after her quiet fashion, is a busy place enough, and, London excepted, unquestionably fulfils the idea of a capital more than any other city in the United Kingdom. She has nothing of that air of a proconsular residence which, while it confers on Dublin a certain external splendour, unfortunately renders her more like to what we imagine Calcutta or Montreal, than to the capital of any European country, however small. There is no foreign ruling class in Edinburgh; what she has is Scotch, and what Scotland has is hers. The true centre of Scottish life, from her, as from the heart of the land, the life-blood of Scotland issues forth, and to her it returns freely again. Every Scotchman finds in her a common centre for his sympathies. The inhabitants of Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Perth, and the like, have no bond of union other than as the inhabitants of a common country; but every man of them feels that he has a tie to Edinburgh. It is to her that he looks for his news, his praise, his influence, his justice, and his learning. And there is always a large body of sojourners within her walls who compose a fluctuating, but, as regards both wealth and position, by no means an important part of her population. These persons, we believe, are attracted hither for the most part by one or other of the following causes-the beauty of the place, the excellence and cheapness of the elementary education which they can here procure for their families, and the prospect which Edinburgh society holds out of their being able to gratify those refined and cultivated tastes which they may have elsewhere formed. '

The city has a calm, steady character, in keeping with the predominance of legal, educational, literary, and artistic pursuits, from which it derives its chief maintenance, and contrasts broadly with the fluctuations, excitements, and mercantile convulsions, which produce so much vicissitude in manufacturing towns. ' Edinburgh, ' remarks Alexander Smith, ' is not only in point of beauty the first of British cities, but, considering its population, the tone of its society is more intellectual than that of any other. In no other city will you find so general an appreciation of books, art, music, and objects of antiquarian interest. It is peculiarly free from the taint of the ledger and the counting-house. It is a Weimar without a Goethe-a Boston without its nasal twang.' The number of capitalists, bankers, professional men, and other liberally educated persons in 1831, in Edinburgh and Leith's total population of 161, 909, was 7463; while the number in Glasgow's population of 202,426 was only 2723; in Manchester and Salford's population of 182,812 was only 2821; in Birmingham's population of 146,986 was only 2388; and the respective numbers, in times subsequent to that year, have shown an increasingly greater proportion of the liberally educated class in Edinburgh apart from Leith. The comparative wealth of the higher classes, however, is widely different, seldom rising in Edinburgh above mere patrician competency, and it makes no such display among even the highest as among the merchant princes of the great manufacturing towns. ' Edinburgh,' says Alexander Smith, ' is a patrician amongst British cities, " a penniless lass wi' a long pedigree." She has wit, if she lacks wealth; she counts great men against millionaires.' Edinburgh has a reputation for taste in certain departments which ranks above that of most other British cities, and to stand the test of her critics, is accepted as an assurance of a splendid success. ' The success of the actor, ' remarks Alexander Smith again, ' is insecure until thereunto Edinburgh has set her seal; the poet trembles before the Edinburgh critics; the singer respects the delicacy of the Edinburgh ear; coarse London may roar with applause, but fastidious Edinburgh sniffs disdain, and sneers reputations away.' The drama, formerly not very much patronised, has come increasingly into favour; the circus draws great assemblies; music, in the form of concerts, oratorios, and operas, has risen into enthusiastic esteem; exhibitions of the fine arts attract crowds of connoisseurs; travelling celebrities, of almost all kinds, are warmly welcomed; the races in neighbouring towns are frequented by numbers; and athletic sports in the open air, from the coarsest to the most refined, are zealously practised and extensively admired. The poorer classes, however, as may be inferred from statements in previous sections, are, to a great extent, excessively poor and depressed, not from any peculiar bad tendency in themselves, nor merely from the bad influence of their unhealthy domiciles, hut also, and perhaps chiefly, from the want of scope for industry, and of healthy stimulus to exertion. The disproportion of females over males, too, is much greater than in almost any other town in the empire; and has been accounted for on two grounds-the one, the unusually large proportion of female servants in the city, tending to draw girls hither from the country; the other, the paucity of general industrial occupation, forcing young men to seek employment elsewhere, while compelling their sisters to remain in their native town.

Numerous clubs and societies exist for purposes of amusement or recreation. Among these are the Edinburgh Chess Club, instituted in 1822; St Cecilia Amateur Instrumental Society (1848); Edinburgh Choral Union (1858); Edinburgh Harmonists' Society; Scottish Vocal Music Association; Amateur Quartette Union; the Southern Musical Society; Greyfriars' Choral Society (1865); St George Quartette Club (1874); St Andrew Boat Club (1846); the Edinburgh University Boat Club; Midlothian Province of Royal Caledonian Curling Club (1838); Duddingston Curling Club (1795); the Edinburgh Curling Club (1830); the Coates Curling Club (1854); Merchiston Curling Club; Waverley Curling Club and Skating Club; Lochend Skating Club; Edinburgh Burgess Golfing Society (1735); Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, instituted prior to 1744; Bruntsfield Links Golf Club (1761); Bruntsfield Allied Golfing Club (1856); Warrender Golf Club (1858); the Edinburgh Thistle Golf Club (1871); Viewforth Golf Club (1872); Salisbury Archers' Club (1836); Forth Swimming Club and Humane Society (1850); Lorne Swimming Club and Humane Society (1870); Royal Caledonian Hunt (1777); Lothian Racing Club (1846); Celtic Society for promoting the general use of the ancient Highland dress in the Highlands of Scotland, and for encouraging education among the Highlanders and the distribution of prizes in schools, instituted in 1820. Of bowling clubs, there are the Edinburgh, the Edinburgh and Leith Associated, the Whitehouse and Grange, and the Drumdryan; while of cricket and football clubs, there is an innumerable host.

The clubs, institutions, and associations, which claim, in some manner or other, to be patriotic or benevolent, have purposes which range from that of mere selfgratification to the highest flights of philanthropy and religion, and are exceedingly numerous. One set of them are the Edinburgh City Artillery Volunteer Corps, with nine batteries; the Edinburgh City Rifle Volunteer Corps, with twenty companies; the Second Edinburgh Volunteer Corps, with six companies; the British League Cadet Corps; Edinburgh and Midlothian Rifle Association (1861); the Midlothian Rifle Club; and, in some degree, the First Midlothian Rifle Volunteer Corps, and the Midlothian Coast Artillery Volunteers. Another set are the Grand Lodge of the Freemasons in Scotland; the Religious and Military Order of the Temple; the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Freemasons of Scotland; the Royal Order of Scotland, dating from Kilwinning; the Supreme Council for Scotland of the 33d and last degree of the ancient and accepted Scottish rite; Imperial Council of Scotland of order of Red Cross of Constantine; the Rosicrucian Society of Scotland; and the mason lodges in Edinburgh-1, Mary's Chapel; 2, Canongate Kilwinning; 5, Canongate and Leith; 8, Edinburgh Journeymen; 36, St David's; 44, St Luke's; 48, St Andrew's; 97, St James'; 145, St Stephen's; 151, Edinburgh Defensive Band; 160, Roman Eagle; 291, Edinburgh and Leith Celtic; 349, St Clair; 392, Caledonian; 405, Rifle. Another set are St Cuthbert's Lodge of Free Gardeners (1824); St Andrew's Lodge of Free Gardeners (1863); St George's Lodge of Free Gardeners; Athole Lodge of Free Gardeners; Barony of Broughton Lodge of Free Gardeners; and St Giles' Lodge of Husbandmen Gardeners. Of Oddfellows, there are the City, Sir Ralph Abercromby, Dun-Edin, St Bernard's, and the Excelsior Lodges; the Edinburgh School of Arts Friendly Society (1828); the Saturday Half-Holiday Association (1854); the Edinburgh Christmas Club (1867); the Edinburgh Booksellers' Society; the Edinburgh Academically Club; the Edinburgh Institution Club; the High School Club (1849); the High School, Bryce, and Donaldson Associations (1865); the School of Arts Watt Club; the Edinburgh Health Society; the Cockburn Association; the Sanitary Protection Association; the Edinburgh Naturalists' Field Club; the Cobden Club, instituted in 1868; and the Edinburgh Parliamentary Society.

Of county associations in Edinburgh, there are the Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine Association; Angus Club (1841); Argyle, Bute, and Western Isles Association; Ayrshire Club (1854); Border Counties Association (1865); Borderers' Union (1874); Breadalbane Association (1876); Caithness Association (1838); Dumbartonshire and Lennox Association (1872); Dumfriesshire Society; Galloway Association (1843); Fife, Clackmannan, and Kinross Association; Clan-Gregor Society (1822); Inverness, Ross, and Nairn Club (1863); the John o' Groat Association (1863); Lanark Club (1847); Upper Ward of Lanarkshire Association (1840); East Lothian Association (1874); Morayshire Club (1838); Peeblesshire Society (1782); Perthshire Association; Renfrewshire Association (1873); Sutherlandshire Association (1866).

Other associations are, the Society for the Sons of the Clergy (1790); Widows' Fund of the Church and Universities of Scotland; Elders' Union of the Church of Scotland; Lay Association in support of the Schemes of the Church of Scotland; College for Daughters of Ministers of the Church of Scotland, and of Professors in the Scottish Universities, opened at Whitehouse in 1863; The Edinburgh School of Cookery, instituted in 1875; Scottish Ladies' Association for promoting Female Industrial Education in Scotland; Scottish Ladies' Association for the advancement of Female Education in India; Ladies' Association for promoting the Christian Education of Jewish Females; Ladies' Association for the support of Gaelic Schools; Free Church Ministers' Widows' and Orphans' Fund; Society for the benefit of the Sons and Daughters of Ministers and Missionaries of the Free Church; Ladies' Society for Female Education in India and Cafraria; Edinburgh Ladies' Association on behalf of Jewish Females; Ladies' Continental Association; Association for the Religious Improvements of the remote Highlands and Islands; Society of Sons of United Presbyterian Ministers; Friendly Society for providing Annuities for the Widows and Orphans of Ministers in connection with the United Presbyterian Church; Scots Episcopal Fund; Scotch Episcopal Friendly Society; Scottish Episcopal Church Society; Scottish Free and Open Church Association (1877); Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; and Edinburgh Diocesan Association for the support of Foreign Missions.

Another class are, the Society for the Relief of the Destitute Sick (1785); Senior Female Society for the Relief of Aged and Indigent Women (1797); Charitable or Junior Female Society for the Relief of Indigent Old Women (1797); Edinburgh Society for Relief of Indigent Old Men (1806); Fund for the Relief of Indigent Gentlewomen, founded in 1847; Edinburgh Society for Promoting the Employment of Women; the Paterson Fund for Assisting Decayed Old Men and Women who have seen better days (1867); Edinburgh Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (1870); Edinburgh and Leith Society for the Relief of Deserving Foreigners in distress; Fund of Scottish Masonic Benevolence, founded in 1846; the Thomson Mortification, for selling Oatmeal at reduced cost to poor householders; the Craigcrook Mortification, for the benefit of Orphans and the Aged; Scottish Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, established in 1839; Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society (1836); Edinburgh Ladies' Total Abstinence Society; many variously-named temperance associations, Good Templar lodges, etc.; and the numerous hospital, asylum, and school institutions, which were noticed in the account of the city's public buildings. Another class still, are the Edinburgh City Mission (1832); Edinburgh Parochial Mission, for the Employment of Scripture Readers in the Old Town; Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society; Edinburgh Bible Society; Edinburgh Auxiliary Naval and Military Bible Society; Ladies' Association in aid of that society; Scottish Branch of the British Army Scripture Readers' and Soldiers' Friend Society; Royal Navy Scripture Readers' Society; Edinburgh Auxiliary to the London Missionary Society; University Missionary Association (l825); Edinburgh Church of England Missionary Association; Waldensian Missions' Aid Fund; Italian Evangelisation Society; Scottish Evangelistic Association (1862); Edinburgh Subdivision of the Evangelical Alliance; Edinburgh Young Men's Christian Association (1855); Edinburgh Young Women's Christian Association (1874); Edinburgh Working Boys' and Girls' Religious Society (1870); Edinburgh and Leith Seamen's Friend Society (1820); Edinburgh Gratis Sabbath School Society (1797); Edinburgh Sabbath School Teachers' Union (1841); Edinburgh Sabbath School Teachers' Association, in connection with the Church of Scotland; and Sabbath Morning Fellowship Union (1840).

Trade.—Edinburgh abounds in productive industry, in all departments of ordinary artificership, and in noble efforts of both skill and labour; yet has not, and never had, any considerable staple of produce for the supply of the general market. Her manufactures, perhaps, are more diversified, exhibit a larger aggregate of genius, than those of many other great towns; but some are of the common kinds for the supply of local wants, and therefore need not be mentioned, while the rest are all on so limited a scale as to require only the briefest notice. The linen manufacture was at one time considerable, but sank many years ago into decline, and is now extinct. The making of rich shawls and plaids, in imitation of India shawls, was commenced in 1805, and promised for a time to become a staple; but never made much way against competition in other quarters, and eventually fell into decline. Silk manufacture was commenced, in 1841, in a large handsome edifice at Fountainbridge, but did not succeed, and was soon relinquished. The manufacture of overshoes and other articles in india-rubber was commenced in 1855, in the building which had been used for the silk manufacture; employed for a time about 350 hands; and now em ploys about 600 within the premises, and about as many more in an indirect way. A similar manufacture, bearing the name of vulcanite, was commenced in 1862, in a new building near that of the India-rubber work; underwent such increase of production and enlargement of premises as to be about fourfold greater in 1868 than at the commencement; turns out about 7,500,000 combs a year, and corresponding quantities of other articles; and employs about 500 persons.

Of the other industries carried on, there may be mentioned that of carpet-making, floorcloth-making, fringe and tassel making, and furniture print; coach-building, coach lace making, coach spring making, and saddlery and harness; glass-making, glass-cutting, glass-staining, and glass chandeliers; brass-founding, plumber work fittings, finishing, and gas-meters; type founding is carried on in two establishments, and employs in one of them upwards of 500 persons; iron-working, the making of agricultural implements and of machines, the making of tools, carpenters' tools, saws, articles of cutlery, steel punches, beams and steelyards, wire work, and wirenetting.

Working in electro plate, silver, gold, and precious stones employs upwards of 1000 persons, having for a number of years been on the increase. This branch of industry gives promise of still further increase, and has long been noted for the excellence of skill and taste displayed in it. A number of paper mills in the vicinity, particularly in the valley of the North Esk, may be regarded as belonging to Edinburgh, and are represented in it by a number of wholesale stationery warehouses. The brewing of malt liquors is carried on very extensively, and it has long been famous for the superior quality of its ales. The distilling of whisky is also carried on largely, as well as the rectifying of spirits; and one of the distilleries, the Caledonian, erected in 1855, covers 5 acres of ground, and is 5 stories high in all its principal buildings. Other branches are cabinet work, venetian blinds, iron bedsteads, clocks and watches, trunks and portmanteaus, basket-making, brush-making, comb-making, whips and thongs, fishing-tackle, glove-making, button-making, artificial flowers, bandages and artificial limbs, and lasts; colour-making, candle making, and soap making; coloured paper, leather, ropes and sails, dies and stamps; printers' presses; stuffing birds and quadrupeds; stucco work, marble cutting; hats, pocket books, and dressing cases; philosophical instruments, musical instruments, and building organs; manufacturing chemicals, vinegar, pipes; refining sugar, refining metal; printers' ink, globes, chemical instruments, gold and silver lace, hair, bits and spurs, bows, waterproofs, and air proofs, mill stones, whiting, gelatine, and varnish. Extensive suites of flour-mills stand in various parts of the suburbs; and the nurserymen likewise purvey extensively for a large part of Scotland, and have their nurseries in the environs of the city, or almost interlaced with some of its outskirts, most of them being very large. The workers in the fine arts, particularly painters and sculptors, may well be regarded as a great body of producers.

The city has a very extensive general retail trade, for the supply of the wants of its own stated population, the many transient visitors and travellers passing through it, and a large breadth of surrounding populous country. In consequence of being the winter residence of many of the country gentry, it also draws considerable portions of the rents of distant estates, and of the dividends of all kinds of stocks to its banks. It likewise is the seat of a large market for rural produce; of weekly markets in Grassmarket for grain; of weekly markets in the cattle market for sheep, black cattle, etc.; and of a great annual fair during three days of November, for sheep, black cattle, and horses. By its intimate connection with Leith and Granton, it carries on a very large commerce; much of that of Leith and all that of Granton being actually the commerce of Edinburgh, and technically regarded as separate, mainly for the reason that these places are not within the city's municipal boundaries. Edinburgh is likewise the seat of numerous public bodies, boards, and committees, who control or manage the traffic of great part of the kingdom; and has its own Merchant Company, established in 1681; its Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures, instituted in 1786; and its own Stock Exchange, formed in 1845. The North British and the Caledonian Railway systems directly connect the city with most parts of Great Britain; the Union Canal affords a cheap communication with the mineral fields of Linlithgowshire and Stirlingshire; the Leith and Granton steamers open up ready intercourse with numerous continental ports, with all the principal ports of the E coast of Great Britain from London to Lerwick, and with the coast towns and other accessible places of the Firth of Forth. Printing and Publishing.—Literature, and the arts connected with its production, may be said to hold the most prominent place among the productive industries of Edinburgh, employing many thousands in the mechanical branches, as well as a goodly host of literary men, who find the facilities accorded them by the free use of the great libraries of very material advantage-these facilities being, perhaps, greater in Edinburgh than in any city of the kingdom, excepting London. About thirty years after Caxton set up his press in Westminster Abbey, the first printing press in Scotland was put up in the Cowgate, at the foot of Blackfriars Wynd. Scotland's first printer was Walter Chepman, with whom was associated Andro Myllar, and the date of the introduction is about 1507. It may at first seem strange that the art should have been so long in coming to Scotland, when we know that such Scotch men as Duns Scotus, Barbour, Fordun, Hector Boece, and others, lived and wrote prior to that date; but such an art like printing could not easily take root in a country so disturbed and torn by faction as Scotland had long been.

In an address at the Librarians' Congress in 1880, Mr Clark, of the Advocates Library, says:—'The facts regarding the first introduction of printing into Scotland were settled beyond dispute by a discovery of the late Mr William Robertson, of the General Register House, who, about the end of last century, found among the records a patent dated 15th September 1507, granted by King James IV. to Walter Chepman and Andro Myllar, burgesses of Edinburgh, in which it is set forth that they, " at his Majesty's request, for his pleasure, and the honour and profit of his realm and lieges, had taken upon them to bring hame ane print, with all stuff belonging thereto, and expert men to use the same, for imprinting within the realm of the books of the laws, Acts of Parliament, chronicles, mass-books, and portuns after the use of the realm, with additions and legends of Scottish saints, now gathered to be eked thereto, and all other books that shall be necessary; and to sell the same for competent prices, by his Majesty's advice and discretion, their labours and expenses being considered." To what extent Chepman and Myllar made use of this privilege granted to them we cannot determine, but as Chepman lived till 1530, we may reasonably conclude that a great number of works issued from their press; but of these only two are now known-the first, a volume of metrical tales and ballads such as were popular in those times; and the second, the Breviarium Aberdonense. It was not till 1788 that any earlier production of Chepman and Myllar's press than the Aberdeen Breviary was known to exist, but in that year there was presented by a Mr Alston, of Glasgow, to the Advocates Library, the volume of ballads already referred to, and of which that prince of re-printers, the late Mr David Laing, of the Signet Library, in the pre face to his facsimile reprint of this volume, published in 1827, says- " This neglected and long forgotten volume proved to be a collection of those tracts which had been published in or about the year 1508; and which, mutilated and defective as it was, possessed an almost inestimable value, and contained various compositions nowhere else preserved, as being a book completely unique, and as exhibiting unquestionably the earliest productions of the Scottish press. " ' It is known that Chepman was a burgess of Edinburgh, and that, as well as being a printer, he was in a good position as a merchant in the city. He settled a chaplainry at the altar of St John the Evangelist in an aisle which had been built by him in St Giles' Church, and endowed the chaplainry with an annual rent of twenty three merks. This aisle, built by Scotland's first printer, has recently been restored by one who may also justly be styled Scotland's first printer, as far as regards the publication and dissemination of wholesome cheap literature-Dr William Chambers, who has also erected a tablet to the memory of Chepman. The tablet has the following inscription, in which both the names of these ' first printers ' are fittingly combined: ' To the memory of Walter Chepman, designated the Scottish Caxton, who, under the auspices of James IV. and his Queen Margaret, introduced the art of printing into Scotland 1507; founded this aisle in honour of the King and Queen and their family, 1513, and died in 1532; this tablet is gracefully inscribed by William Chambers, LL.D., 1879.

Thomas Davidson, the next Scottish printer, appears in 1536. His first work seems to have been a Strena or Latin poem, written on the occasion of James V.'s accession to power in 1528. The only copy known of this work is in the British Museum. John Scott, or Skot, was, in chronological order, Scotland's next printer, and he is supposed to have acquired the art in St Paul's Churchyard and other places in London between 1521-1537, and he probably came to Edinburgh in 1538. In 1539 the king granted to Scott chambers on the N side of Cowgate, at the foot of Borthwick's Close. It is thought that some of Scott's productions gave rise to an Act of Parliament in 1551-52 against printing books without licence, there being among the books enumerated Tragedies, as well in Latin as in Inglis tongue; probably this was Lindesay's tragedy of The Cardinal. Scott apparently did not pay any attention to this enactment, for he appears to have been summoned before the Privy Council ' for his demerits and faultes, ' a summons which he took care not to obey. The next printer is Robert Leyprevick, a contemporary of Scott, and who took an opposite side from him in the Reformation contests. In March 1564-65 Leyprevick received a licence to print the Acts of Parliament, and also the Psalms of David in 'Scottis metir' for seven years. This licence was renewed in 1567-68 for twenty years, and again in April 1568, giving the exclusive right to print Ane buik callit ye Inglis Bybil imprentit of before at Geneva. But we do not find that either these Psalms or Bible were issued by Leyprevick, and in 1574 the Privy Council found it necessary to levy a contribution of £5 from each parish in the kingdom to enable Thomas Bassendyne to print an edition of the Bible. He became bound under penalties to deliver copies ' weel and sufficiently bund in paste or timmer ' for the sum of £4, 13s. 4d., the remainder of the enforced contribution being detained to defray the cost of collection. Having ' guid characters and prenting irons, ' the council thought the work, great as it was, would go quickly on. The hope was not realised, for Bassendyne found it necessary to petition for longer time in 1576; and in the following year he was ordered by the council to deliver up his printing-office and Bible to Alexander Arbuthnot, who finished the work and had it in circulation in 1579. The sale of this work was rather enforced, for the council soon after enacted that all persons worth £500 should possess a Bible in the vulgar tongue, under a penalty of £10. After so far overcoming its rudimentary stage, the art still made but comparatively slow progress in Edinburgh till about the middle of last century. Arnot, writing in 1779, says regarding it,-' Till within these forty years, the printing of newspapers and of school-books, of the fanatic effusions of Presbyterian clergymen, and the law papers of the Court of Session, joined to the Patent Bible printing, gave a scanty employment to four printing offices. Such, however, has been the increase of this trade, by the reprinting of English books not protected by the statute concerning literary property, by the additional number of authors, and many lesser causes, that there are now no fewer than twenty-seven printing offices in Edinburgh. ' Even with that number of printers at work, literature could hardly in the strict sense be much more a source of employment at that time in Edinburgh than in Glasgow, Perth, or some other Scottish towns. It soon, however, acquired a new energy, and increased with such a rapidity, as eventually to earn for the city the name of Modern Athens, in compliment as much from being a seat of learning and a source of literature, as from the corresponding features of the city's situation and surroundings. Among its earlier publishers was Allan Ramsay, who published and sold his own songs and his pastoral play of the Gentle Shepherd, and was among the first to establish a circulating library. Of those who followed were Creech, Bell, Donaldson (father of the founder of Donaldson's Hospital), Elliot, and Constable, the first publisher of the Waverley ovels and the Edinburgh Review; still later, we come to the well known names of Blackwood and Black, who have fully sustained the reputation of their predecessors for enterprise and liberality.

Towards the end of last century and the beginning of this, while Byron, Wordsworth, Shelley, Coleridge, and a host of others were making their splendid contributions to English literature, there arose a society of littérateurs in Edinburgh which soon became worldfamous, -Jeffrey, Cockburn, Wilson (Christopher North), Dugald Stewart, James Hogg (the Ettrick Shepherd), Leonard Horner (the founder of the School of Arts), Abercrombie, Jameson, Lockhart, and many others. These, though they might scarce compare with their southern contemporaries, yet formed a literary body which had for its central point one of the greatest authors of the age-Sir Walter Scott. The earliest magazine of any note published in Edinburgh, above the status of a newspaper, was the Scots Magazine, begun in 1739, which was followed by the Weekly Magazine in 1768. The latter magazine was, in consequence of a legal dispute, ultimately divided into two sections-the one a literary miscellany, the other simply a newspaper; and both continued to exist for a number of years. The increased literary vitality, however, led to the starting, in the early part of this century, of the Edinburgh Review, a celebrated critical and political journal, the earliest of the large quarterlies, and the first great expositor of Whig principles. The opening number was published on the 10th of October 1802. The idea of the Review originated with Sydney Smith; but Francis (afterwards Lord) Jeffrey became editor; and with them were associated Horner, Brougham, John (afterwards Lord) Murray, and Dr Thomas Brown. Among the names of later contributors are those of James Mill, Hallam, Sir William Hamilton, Hazlitt, Macaulay, and Carlyle. The projectors of the Review found a publisher in Constable-' to whom, ' says Lord Cockburn in his Memorials, ' the literature of Scotland has been more indebted than to any other bookseller. ' The largest circulation attained by the Edinburgh Review was 13, 000 copies in 1813; and Jeffrey, as editor, received at first £50, and afterwards £200, for each number. The literary criticisms of the Review were often prejudiced, but always able; while, as for its editor Jeffrey, Carlyle says, in 1876, ' it is certain there has no critic appeared among us since who was worth naming beside him. ' The fame of his organ, however, stands highest as a political organ. The publishing house of this Review has now been removed to London. A rival to this followed in 1817, when Mr William Blackwood issued the first number of the celebrated magazine which bears his name. Gathering round him some of the ablest literary men of the day, including Wilson, Hogg, and Lockhart, Blackwood instantly achieved success. Till his death, Sept. 16, 834, Blackwood was the leading spirit of the magazine, of which there was never a sole and irresponsible editor. As a political organ of the Tory party it was long a power, and at first a terror. But its forte was literature; and if the ' sound of revelry by night ' was in the old days too loudly echoed in its pages, it has now completely died away. Yet it has not lost, but only changed its spirit. Under the successors of 'Ebony, ' Blackwood maintains its position in the face of numerous and formidable rivals, and is still admirable for the various talent it commands.

Other similar literary ventures followed, such as Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, with various success, but generally of short duration, till Dr William Chambers started Chambers's Edinburgh Journal in 1832, a periodical-purely literary and entirely unsectarian as regards either politics or religion-which was at once successful, and still retains, in undiminished degree, its excellence and popularity. After its fourteenth number Robert Chambers became joint editor, and the firm of William and Robert Chambers was established. By the sterling merits both of the publishers and their works, the firm soon became, and has ever since continued to be, one of the foremost in the northern part of the kingdom. The people of Scotland have long regarded it with a feeling of national pride not bestowed on any other firm however eminent. The jubilee of Chambers's Journal was celebrated in February 1882. This firm did not confine their attention solely to their Journal, but have been the publishers of many educational works and other books of a popular kind. Various other periodicals and magazines are published in Edinburgh, but these are mostly of a sectional or ecclesiastical character, having limited circulations.

Perhaps the greatest work ever published by the press of Edinburgh is the Encyclopœdia Britannica, first published in 1771 (the ninth edition of which being now in course of publication); but important as that work was in its first issue, it was but an imperfect indication of the literary activity soon to follow, and which has had so important an effect upon the city's prosperity. The far-reaching speculations of Constable with his popular Miscellany and other works, the many productions of the Ballantyne Press, with its everflowing stream of novels from the pen of the author of Waverley, gave ample proof to the world that Edinburgh was rapidly becoming a centre of literature. Since then this has rapidly increased, and now it may be said to produce a more than proportional quantity of informational standard works than any other city, with perhaps the exception only of London. It ought not to be forgotten, as an important aid to the cheap production of literature, that the process of stereotyping was the invention of an Edinburgh silversmith, named John Ged, specimens of whose work may be seen in the Advocates Library, where a case in one of the halls contains stereo-plates of an edition of Sallust, which were made by him. The publishing firms now are many, the printing establishments numerous and complete. That of Messrs Nelson, where publishing and printing are combined, gives employment to nearly 700 people, and that of Messrs Chambers to about 600, while several others have nearly as many. Engraving, lithographing, and bookbinding are carried on also in many large establishments-some in connection with printing offices, and others independently, and altogether many thousands of people are thus engaged in the production of books. The literary prestige which the northern capital attained in the days of Waverley and the Edinburgh Review has thus been well maintained, even although in these latter days the great capital attracts and absorbs the principal literary talent of the nation.

Newspapers.—The newspaper press of Edinburgh originated during the civil wars of the 17th century-the first being the Scots Intelligencer (1643), which was followed in Oct. 1653 by a reprint of a London paper called Mereurius Politicus. This was first issued at Leith by Christopher Higgins, a printer who came with Cromwell's troops in 1652 to garrison the citadel of that town, and who afterwards transferred his office to Edinburgh, where he continued to print his paper till 1660. The Politicus was almost wholly devoted to the affairs of Cromwell and of his army of invasion. Shortly after the discontinuance of Higgins' reprint, the Mercurius Caledonius was issued, the first number bearing the date, ' From Monday Decemb. 31 to Tuesday, Jan. 8th, 1661, ' and this paper was the first which was wholly edited and published in Edinburgh. It shortly changed its named to Mercurius Publicus, and was succeeded by The Kingdom's Intelligencer. For some time the in. habitants were wholly destitute of anything in the shape of a ' news-letter, ' till a printer named James Watson started the Edinburgh Gazette in 1669, and followed this by the Edinburgh Courant in 1705, which lasted long enough to issue 55 numbers. The Scots Courant, also published by Watson, followed in 1706, and it again was succeeded by the Edinburgh Flying Post and the Scots Postman. These papers were all short-lived. In 1718 a privilege was given to a printer named James M 'Ewan to publish the Edinburgh Evening Courant three times a week, on condition that a copy should be given to the magistrates before publication. This paper, as The Courant, is still in existence as the organ of the Conservative and Established Church parties. The Caledonian Mercury was published first as a three times a week paper in 1720 by James Rolland, but always claimed a longer history by tracing back its lineage to the Mercurius Caledonius of 1660. The political history of this paper was full of change. The entrance of Prince Charles Stewart into Edinburgh altered its sentiments from the soundest Hanoverianism to the most rabid Jacobitism, while the retreat from Derby was the signal for a demonstrative rejoicing at the over. throw of ' Rebellion. ' When Liberal doctrines began to pervade Scotland, the Mercury espoused them with moderateness; and during this period, as well as for many years previously, it was conducted with much ability. It latterly became a Radical organ of the fiercest sort, and about 1865 was finally merged in the Weekly Scotsman. The Edinburgh Advertiser, established in 1764, was also a Tory organ, and was so profitable a venture, combined as it was with a book work office, that its proprietor, James Donaldson, at his death in 1830 was enabled to leave £200, 000 for the erection and endowment of the princely hospital which bears his name. Another, named the Edinburgh Weekly Journal, which continued down to 1848, was also a successful paper. The Scotsman, founded in 1817 in the Whig interest, has always been one of the ablest and most consistent of that party's organs, and fought the battles of Reform and Free Trade with indefatigable vigour. Under the editorship of Charles M 'Laren, J. R. M'Culloch, and particularly Alexander Russell, it distanced all competitors, and has now attained a circulation greater than that of any paper in Britain out of London. The Scotsman was the first to initiate various enterprises, in which it has been followed with commendable alacrity by several other Scotch papers, such as the establishment of special telegraphic wires to London, and the running of special trains to different parts of the country for the transmission of early editions. It also introduced the ' Walter Press ' into the printing department before any other non-metropolitan journal. It has two special London wires and three Walter presses. Under its present management it has shown a resolute determination to throw off the reproach of provincialism (which Mr Russel's editorship, brilliant though it was, tended to confirm), has boldly challenged the infallibility of the London press, and on several notable occasions anticipated the latter in the publication of important news. It has also conspicuously widened the range of its intellectual sympathies- literature, education, and social progress receiving a much larger and more liberal attention than formerly. The Edinburgh Daily Review, founded in 1861, took the place of the old Witness as the leading Free Church paper, and has specially signalised itself by an almost uninterrupted series of attacks on the Church of Scotland. It is certainly the most vehement and persistent organ of Disestablishment N of the Tweed. The other daily papers of Edinburgh are the Evening News (Liberal) and the Evening Express (Conservative). Numerous others have been issued from time to time, but are all now extinct. There is also a number of weekly papers, generally class organs, such as the Guardian (Episcopal Church), North British Agriculturist, etc., etc. A great impetus was given in Edinburgh as elsewhere to newspaper enterprise by the successive repeal of the various taxes on knowledge-the advertisement duty on 4 Aug. 1853, the stamp duty on 15 June 1855, and the paper duty on 1 Oct. 1861, and this brought down several of the above papers from their former high prices to the almost universal penny.

Ecclesiastical Affairs.—Large portions of the parliamentary burgh include St Cuthbert's and Canongate parishes, which have been already noticed as to their ecclesiastical affairs; there are also within the same area portions of South Leith, North Leith, Duddingston, and Liberton parishes. Tolbooth parish comprehends the N side of the ancient royalty from the Castle esplanade to Bank Street; High Church parish, the N side from Bank Street to North Bridge; Trinity College parish, the N side from North Bridge to Cranston Street; Old Church parish, from head of Canongate to St John Street, and from thence by South Back of Canongate to Cowgate at foot of South Gray's Close; Tron Church parish, the middle of South Gray's Close to Blair Street, and from High Street to Cowgate; New North parish, the middle of Blair Street to George IV. Bridge, and from High Street and Lawnmarket to Cowgate; St John's parish, the middle of George IV. Bridge to Castle Wynd, and from Lawnmarket to Grassmarket; New Greyfriars' parish, the S side from Vennel foot to Candlemaker Row and Bristo Port; Old Greyfriars' parish, the S side from Bristo Port to College Wynd, and along Cowgate to Candlemaker Row; Lady Yester's parish, the S side of Cowgate from College Wynd to the eastern line of the City Wall at Surgeons' Square; St George's parish comprehends the parts of the extended royalty, southward from the line of Queen Street, between the city boundary on the W and Hanover Street on the E; St Andrew's parish, the parts between Queen Street and York Place on the N, Hanover Street on the W, and Picardy Place on the E; Greenside parish, the parts between Leith Walk to foot of Elm Row on the N, Catherine Street on the W, and the city boundary on the E; St Mary's parish, all the north-eastern parts westward to Dundas Street and Pitt Street; St-Stephen's parish, all the north-western parts westward from Dundas Street and Pitt Street. Part of St George's forms the quoad sacra parish of St Luke; some portions of most of the parishes, or rather small portions of their population, form the quoad sacra parish of the Gaelic Church, which has no definite limits; and small parts of the parishes of Greenside and Lady Yester are included in the quoad sacra parishes of Abbey, Newington, and St Leonard's.

The High, the Tron, and St Andrew's parishes were recently collegiate, but are now single charges. The patronage of all the charges was held by the town council till the abolition of the annuity tax in 1860, and by a body of ecclesiastical commissioners from 1860 till the abolition of patronage in 1875. The ecclesiastical commissioners were elected by certain public bodies, in terms of the Annuity-tax Abolition Act, to administer the temporal affairs of the city churches, and had power, at the next vacancies after 1860, to allow five charges- the second High, the second Tron, the second St Andrew's, the Old Church, and the Tolbooth-to lapse. Prior to 1872 they had opportunity to allow all of them to lapse, retaining none except the Tolbooth charge. The three second charges were allowed to become extinct; but that of the Old Church was taken under the care of the Edinburgh presbytery, both as regards provision and patronage. The stipends of all the city ministers, prior to 1860, were derived mainly from the annuity tax on houses and shops within the royalty, and rose from £200 each in 1802 to £625 in 1850; but, in consequence of the Annuity-tax Abolition Act of 1860, they were fixed at £600 to each of the existing incumbents, which might afterwards be decreased to £550. Eventually these stipends were payable to only thirteen ministers, and were raised partly from seat-rents, and partly from new taxes mixed up with the police rates; came, by means of these taxes till 1870, through a bond of annuity for £4200 by the town council to the ecclesiastical commissioners; and now, in terms of the Amendment Annuity-tax Abolition Act of 1870, are derived from a redemption fund of £56,500 paid for extinction of the annuity bond. The statistics of the Established churches in Edinburgh show the number of communicants or members to be as follows: Buccleuch, 497; Canongate, 1116; Dean, 430; Gaelic, 146; Greenside, 1480; New Greyfriars', 537; Old Greyfriars', 635; High Church, 443; Lady Glenorchy's, 743; Lady Yester's, 1855; Morningside, 559; Newington, 1342; Mayfield, 143; Old Kirk, 73; Robertson Memorial, 799; St Andrew's, 771; Elder Street, 219; St Bernard's, 1442; St Cuthbert's, 2796; Merchiston, 313; Dumbiedykes, 123; St David's, 1104; St George's, 858; St John's, 427; St Mary's, 1503; St Stephen's, 2058; Tolbooth, 781; Trinity College, 836; Tron, 927; West Coates, 616; and West St Giles', 527.

The Free churches within the parliamentary bounds and suburbs show the following number of members and income in 1881: Barclay, 1152, £4163; Buccleuch, 242, £713; Chalmers' Church, 1132, £879; Cowgate, 799, £668; Cowgatehead, 161, £99; Dalry, 368, £1239; Dean, 283, £480; Fountainbridge, 402, £276; Grange, 698, £3615; Greyfriars', 379, £757; High, 676, £2334; Holyrood, 359, £428; Knox's, 279, £248; Lady Glenorchy's, 616, £1993; M'Crie, 265, £272; Martyrs', 250, £628; Mayfield, 252, £2193; Moray, 494, £610; Morningside, 260, £1019; Newington, 703, £1102; New North, 504, £3539; Pilrig, 586, £1350; Pleasance, 1177, £535; Roseburn, 244, £543; Roxburgh, 345, £2443; St Andrew's, 441, £886; St Bernard's, 557, £802; St Columba's, 483, £778; St Cuthbert's, 435, £2136; St David's, 804, £996; St George's, 1084, £11, 301; St John's, 341, £817; St Luke's, 567, £1721; St Mary's, 457, £1300; St Paul's, 465, £949; St Stephen's, 422, £1832; Stockbridge, 747, £1336; Tolbooth, 380, £1957; Tron, 303, £533; and Viewforth, 1072, £1587. The United Presbyterian churches within the same area in 1881 show the following results: Argyle Place, 230, £1073; Arthur Street, 340, £523; Blackfriars Street, 216, £131; Bristo Street, 990, £2359; Broughton Place, 1412, £3011; Canongate, 275, £190; Colston Street, 207, £254; College Street, 1245, £1560; Davidson Memorial, Eyre Place, 246, £1408; Dean Street, 627, £682; Gilmore Place, 1123, £1352; Haymarket, 410, £2009; Hope Park, 719, £1059; Infirmary Street, 584, £1024; St James Place, 997, £1531; Lauriston Place, 1120, £2340; London Road, 570, £866; Lothian Road, 900, £1246; Morningside, 557, £1591; Newington, 677, £1958; Nicolson Street, 800, £1152; Richmond Street, 627, £594; Palmerston Place, 691, £3123; Portsburgh, 191, £521; Rose Street, 543, £1456; and Rosehall, 86, £1090.

The other places of worship in 1882 are the Original Secession churches in Lauriston Street, in South Clerk Street, and Forrest Road; the United Original Secession church in Victoria Terrace. Of Episcopal churches there are, St Mary's Cathedral in Palmerston Place; St Paul's, York Place; St Paul's, Jeffrey Street; St John's, Princes Street; St George's, York Place; St Andrew's, South Back of Canongate; St Peter's, Lutton Place; St Columba's, Johnston Terrace; St James's, Broughton Place; Trinity, Dean Bridge; All Saints', Brougham Street; St John's School Chapel, Earl Grey Street; High School Yards Mission Chapel, off Infirmary Street; St Thomas's, Rutland Street; Christ Church Chapel, Morningside; and Christ Church, St Vincent Street. Of Independent or Congregational churches there are: Augustine chapel, George IV. Bridge; Albany Street chapel; Hope Park chapel; Richmond chapel, Preston Street; and Caledonian Road chapel. Of Roman Catholic places of worship there are: St Mary's Cathedral at Broughton Street; St Patrick's, Cowgate; Church of the Sacred Heart, Lauriston Street; and St Margaret's Convent chapel near Bruntsfield Links. Of minor religious bodies there are Evangelical Union churches in Brighton Street, in Fountainbridge, and the Buccleuch, in Crosscauseway; Baptist chapels at Dublin Street, Bristo Street, and Duncan Street, Newington; the German church at Bellevue, the Wesleyan Methodist chapel in Nicolson Square, the Primitive Methodist Ebenezer chapel in Victoria Terrace, the Catholic Apostolic church in East London Street, the Glassite chapel in Barony Street, the Friends' or Quakers' meeting-house in Pleasance, the Unitarian chapel in Castle Terrace, the Jews' Synagogue in Park Place, etc., etc.

A presbytery of the Church of Scotland takes name from Edinburgh, is in the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and meets at Edinburgh on the last Wednesday of every month except May. It has jurisdiction over all the old parishes, quoad sacra parishes, and chapels of ease within the parliamentary bounds of Edinburgh and Leith, the old parishes of Colinton, Corstorphine, Cramond, Currie, Duddingston, Kirknewton, Liberton, and Ratho; the quoad sacra parishes of Gilmerton, Newhaven, and Portobello, and the chapelries of Granton, Restalrig, Portobello Town-Hall, Mayfield, Merchiston, and Elder Street.-The Free Church also has a presbytery of Edinburgh, comprehending the 41 churches within the burgh and suburbs, 5 in Leith, and 7 at respectively Juniper Green, Corstorphine, Cramond, Liberton, Newhaven, Portobello, and Ratho.-The U.P. presbytery of Edinburgh comprehends the 26 churches within the burgh and suburbs, 5 in Leith, 3 in Dalkeith, 2 in Dunbar, 2 in Haddington, 2 in Musselburgh, 2 in Portobello, 2 in Peebles, and 1 each at Aberlady, Balerno, Bathgate, Broxburn, Burra, East Calder, East Linton, Fala, Ford, Gorebridge, Howgate, Lasswade, Lerwick, Midcalder, Mossbank, Newlands, North Berwick, Ollaberry, Penicuik, Queensferry, Slateford, Tranent, West Calder, West Linton, and Whitburn. -The Reformed Presbyterian presbytery of Edinburgh has churches in Airdrie, Loanhead, Thurso, Douglas Water, Wick, and Wishaw.-The United Original Seceders' presbytery of Edinburgh has churches in Edinburgh, Carluke, Kirkcaldy, and Midholm. -The Scottish Episcopal diocese of Edinburgh, besides its 13 churches within the bounds, has 22 at respectively Alloa, Alva, Armadale, Balerno, Borrowstounness, Broxburn, Dalkeith, Dalmahoy, Dunbar, Dunmore, Dunse, Falkirk, Haddington, Leith, Musselburgh, North Berwick, Penicuik, Portobello, Roslin, Stirling, Trinity, and Greenlaw.-The Roman Catholic diocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh has its seat in Edinburgh, and reckons within that diocese the places of worship in Edinburgh, and 27 others respectively at Leith, Portobello, Bathgate, Broxburn, Dalkeith, Denny, Dunbar, Dunfermline, Falkirk, Fauldhouse, Galashiels, Haddington, Hawick, Innerleithen, Jedburgh, Kelso, Kilsyth, Kirkcaldy, Lennoxtown, Linlithgow, Loanhead, Oakley, Peebles, Ratho, Selkirk, Stirling, and West Calder.

Edinburgh is always the meeting-place of the General Assemblies both of the Established and the Free Churches, the synod of the United Presbyterian Church, the Church of Scotland synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, as well as the same synod of the Free Church, and it alternates with other of the chief towns of Scotland as the meeting place of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod and the Congregational Union.

Population.—The population of the parliamentary burgh in 1841 was 140, 241; in 1851, 160, 302; in 1861, 168,121; in 1871, in the 5 registration districts into which the city is now divided, the census returns were -St George's, 50, 985; St Andrew's, 39, 781; Canongate, 33, 183; St Giles', 31, 960; Newington, 41, 079-total, 196, 988. In 1881 the returns were-St George's, males, 29, 412; females, 36, 016-total, 65, 428; St Andrew's, males, 19, 821; females, 24, 766-total, 44, 587; Canongate, males, 13, 231; females, l5, 459-total, 28, 690; St Giles', males, 15, 687; females, 16, 954-total, 32, 641; Newington, males, 23, 483; females, 30, 612-total, 54, 095: showing a gross total of males, 10l, 634; females, 123, 801 = 225, 435, being an increase in the ten years from 1871 to 1881 of 28, 447. Adding to this a number of persons in the landward districts properly to be considered as town population, the census returns of 1881 show the population of Edinburgh to be altogether 228, 190; separate families, 52, 668; houses-inhabited, 41, 230; vacant, 2616; building, 426; rooms with one or more windows, 172, 863.

Mortality.—In 1863 the death-rate was 26 per 1000, but since 1867 there having been about 3000 unwholesome houses removed, and over half-a-million spent in city improvements, letting in fresh air and light where they were unknown before, the death-rate has gradually decreased, and the number of deaths in March 1882 was 372, being at the proportion of 17.18 per 1000 of the population; in March 1881 the rate was 21.69 per 1000. In March 1882 the births registered were 352 males and 330 females = 682, of which 53 were illegitimate.

History.—There can be little doubt that the Castle rock early became a most desirable place in the eyes of the ancient inhabitants of the district on which to build their dwellings, since, from its precipitous character and limited accessibility, a defence could here be easily made against the assaults of their enemies. That it was so used in early times appears from the name given to the Castle in the oldest record which mentions it, viz., Castell-Mynd-Agned-signifying the 'fortress of the hill of Agnes;' and there are some who affirm that, before it received this appellation, it had been fortified by the Ottadini ere their subjugation by the Romans, and after the introduction of Christianity dedicated to St Agnes. At a later date, according to a monkish fable, it is said to have been the refuge of the daughters of the Pictish kings, they being kept and educated here as a place of safety in barbarous and turbulent times; and, about 617, when the Anglo-Saxons absorbed the Lothians, it derived from Eadwine, a powerful king of Northumbria, the name of Eadwinesburh. The Castle and town-the latter, according to Simeon of Durham, being about 854 only a considerable village, on the eastern slope of the hill-next became a possession of the Celtic kings in the reign of Indulf (945-961), and was then called Dun-Edin, signifying, in their language, ' the face of a hill, ' and descriptive of its natural aspect. The name given to the Castle and the town, however, by King Eadwine proved to be the one by which it was ever afterwards fated to be known, though it was not till about the middle of the fifteenth century that it came to be recognised as the capital city, being long considered to be too near the English border to be a place of safety. In 1093, on the death of Malcolm Ceannmor, Edinburgh became the place of refuge of his widow and children, and was besieged by Malcolm's brother, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. The town, though still consisting of mean thatched houses, had grown to be one of the most important by the time of David I., being then constituted a royal burgh, and had in the reign of William the Lyon made material progress. King William made the Castle a frequent place of residence; but having attempted to seize a portion of Northumbria, the Scottish king was defeated by Henry II. of England, who took possession of the Castle in 1174. On its restoration in 1186, Alexander II., son and successor of William the Lyon, held his first parliament in Edinburgh, and in 1215 the pope's legate here held a provincial synod. Alexander III. made it the residence of his youthful queen, the daughter of Henry III., and the depository of the regalia and the archives; and here also Alexander suffered a kind of blocade by the rebellious Earl of Dunbar.

Edinburgh shared greatly in the turmoils arising from the wars of the succession, owing to the rivalry of Bruce and Baliol for the crown. The Castle was surrendered to Edward I. in 1291; and, having afterwards thrown off his authority, it was again taken possession of by him in 1294, when the authorities of Holyrood swore fealty to the English king, the city holding out, however, till 1296. After holding it for about twenty years, the Castle was recaptured in 1313 by Randolph, Earl of Moray. According to a policy he adopted, Robert Bruce, after the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, ordered the demolition of this fortress, as he had done several others, lest they should again become places of protection and strength for the English. Holyrood Abbey was in 1322 plundered by an army of Edward II.; in 1326 it was the meeting place of a parliament of Robert Bruce, and in 1328 of that parliament which ratified the treaty with Edward III. which secured the independence of Scotland. In 1334, after Edward Baliol had usurped the throne of David Bruce, the Castle and town were again surrendered to Edward III., who had invaded Scotland to support Baliol. While the King of England lay encamped near Perth in 1336, after a campaign which inflicted great distress on Scotland and reflected little credit on England, the Earl of Moray encountered a body of mercenary troops under Guy, Count of Namur, on their way to join Edward at Perth at the Boroughmuir near Edinburgh. Moray defeated the mercenaries, drove them in confusion into the town, overtaking and slaying a number of them in St Mary's Wynd and Candlemaker Row, and pursued the rest to the dismantled heights of the Castle rock. Being unable to defend themselves here, they surrendered next day to Moray, by whom they were set free on condition of never again bearing arms against David Bruce. The Castle was rebuilt and strongly garrisoned in 1337 by Edward III. on his return from the N, but in 1341 it was captured by Sir William Douglas through means of a singularly expert stratagem. One of Douglas's party, feigning to be an English merchant, went to the governor of the Castle and represented that he had a cargo of wine, beer, and spiced biscuits in his vessel, just arrived in the Forth, which he wished the governor to purchase. Producing a sample of the wine and another of the beer, both of which pleased the governor, he agreed upon a price and an hour for the delivery of the goods, which was to be early in the morning, that they might not be intercepted by the Scots. At the hour appointed the merchant arrived, accompanied by twelve resolute and well armed followers, habited as sailors, and the Castle gates were immediately opened for their reception. On entering the Castle, they easily contrived to overturn the waggon on which the supposed goods were piled, and instantly put to death the warder and the sentries. The appointed signal being given, Douglas, with a chosen band of armed followers, quitted their place of concealment in the neighbourhood, and rushed into the Castle. Being joined by their confederates, the pre tended sailors, they put the garrison, after a brief resistance, to the sword, and the fortress was thus regained by the Scots.

Edinburgh now ceased for a time to be harassed by the English, and began to grow more into consideration. During the reign of David II. it was the seat of numerous parliaments, the source of several issues of coin, and confessedly the chief town, though not yet the actual capital of Scotland. It was on the accession of the Stuart dynasty that Edinburgh first became the chief burgh of the kingdom, and its fortunes became identified all throughout with those of that ill fated house. In the reign of Robert II., the first king of that line, and who made it the royal residence, the city was visited by a body of French knights and gentlemen, who came to give aid to the King against the English. Froissart describes the city at this time as consisting of about 4000 houses, so poor that they could not afford these French visitors anything like proper accommodation. Richard II., in l385, in retaliation for alleged wrongs, made an incursion into Scotland, set fire to St Giles' Church, Holyrood Abbey, and the greater part of the town, spending five days in their destruction, but was foiled in his attempt to capture the Castle. Henry IV., in 1400, repeatedly assaulted the Castle, but he was firmly repelled by the Duke of Rothesay, then heir apparent to the Scottish crown. In 1402, Edinburgh again became the meeting place of a parliament, convened at this time to inquire into the assassination of the Duke of Rothesay; but while James I. of Scotland was a prisoner in England, the city partook of the desolation which swept generally over the country, arising very much from the continual strife of the dominant parties for the ascendency, when the Castle was taken and retaken. After his release from captivity on the payment of the ransom, to which the city contributed 50, 000 English merks, King James frequently resided here, and received, in l429, at Holyrood, the submission of the rebellions Lord of the Isles. At Holyrood his queen gave birth to a son, who afterwards became James II.; and the city in 1431, was scourged with a pestilence, which added not a little to the general desolation resulting from the continual strifes of the turbulent nobility.

Edinburgh in 1436 was the scene of the last parliament of James I., and after his murder on Feb. 20, 1437, it became formally the metropolis of Scotland. James II. became king when only seven years of age, and was the first king crowned at Holyrood, this ceremony having previously taken place at the palace of Scone, near Perth. During his minority the Castle was a frequent scene of contests and intrigues for the custody of his person; and this stronghold in 1444 was held by ex-chancellor Crichton, in opposition to the regent, Sir Thomas Livingstone. A serious quarrel having occurred between the regent and Crichton, the king for a time was kept as a kind of prisoner in the Castle, from which he was released by the artifices of his mother, who favoured the regent's party. In 1445-46 the Castle was besieged by the King in person, and Crichton at last capitulated on terms of restoration to royal favour. About this time there occurred within its walls a singular instance of the revolting barbarity of the times. The Earl of Douglas, in the exercise of the great power which he possessed, encouraged the most galling oppression over the country, and was sufficiently strong in his numerous retainers to bid defiance to the authority of the state. Cunning and unscrupulous in their policy, the regent Livingstone and Crichton managed to decoy Douglas into the Castle, where he was received with the most hypocritical demonstrations of friendship and marks of favour. At the close of a banquet, of which Douglas had partaken in company with the King, a bloody bull's head was set before him-a signal then well known to be the precursor of an immediate and violent death to him before whom it was presented. Understanding the fatal symbol too well, Douglas sprang to his feet, but both he and his brother, who was present with him, were instantly seized by armed men, and, despite the tears and entreaties of the young king for their preservation, dragged to the outer court of the Castle, and there murdered. James II. and his queen, Mary of Gueldres, whom he married in 1449, were both great benefactors to the city, which, by the grants and immunities they bestowed, was more indebted for its prosperity to them than to any previous monarch.

James III., during the course of his troubled reign, also conferred on the city, which he made his chief place of residence, various other privileges; and during his time Edinburgh became a place of refuge to Henry VI. of England, after his defeat at Towton in 1461. James III. married the Princess Margaret of Denmark in 1469, an event which was celebrated by the city with much rejoicing; but, shortly after, Edinburgh suffered again the desolating effects of pestilence, which was so deadly and destructive that a parliament, summoned to meet in 1475, was deterred from assembling. Troubles of another kind soon followed, for in 1478 the Duke of Albany, a putative brother of the King, commenced a series of intrigues which caused much disaster to the city and kingdom. Albany was imprisoned in the Castle, but effected his escape to France, whence he passed in 1482 into England, and bargained there with Edward IV. for assistance in seizing the crown of Scotland, pledging himself to hold it as Edward's vassal. In consequence of this, an English army under the Duke of Gloucester marched on Edinburgh, meeting there with little or no resistance. The King took refuge in the Castle, and the English were only induced to depart after the reconciliation of the King and Albany, on payment of certain sums of money claimed by the English, and the permanent cession of the town of Berwick. The citizens contributed the money, and proceeded to the Castle to escort the King and Albany to Holyrood, where they received from James munificent expressions of gratitude. Albany not long after again conspired against the King, who at once retired to the Castle and roused the citizens, from whom he received such support as entirely crushed Albany's treason. Early in 1488 James again became hard pressed by a powerful combination of insurgent nobles, when he deposited his treasure and other valuable effects in the Castle, and retired to the North. The royal army was defeated by the rebels at Sanchie on 18 June 1488, and though the King escaped from the field, he was afterwards discovered by one of the rebels and murdered.

Edinburgh, in the latter part of 1488, amid the turbulence of rebellions faction, was the meeting place of the first parliament of James IV., and for some time the city and Castle were under the domination of the Earl of Bothwell. James IV., as he grew in years, made the city a frequent scene of tournaments and other like entertainments, and in 1503 he was married at Holyrood to the Princess Margaret of England, daughter of Henry VII., from which union descended that line of Stuart sovereigns which, in the following century, united both kingdoms under one crown. In 1513, while a dreadful plague was desolating the city, James IV. made preparations for an imprudent expedition into England. After inspecting his artillery in the Castle and the outfit of his navy at Newhaven, he mustered all his available forces on the Boroughmuir, from whence he marched to encounter death on the field of Flodden. The city lent him vigorous aid, sending many of its burgesses in his train to the field; and, on receiving news of his total defeat and death, adopted resolute measures for a stern resistance-fortifying the town, and ordering all the inhabitants to assemble in military array to oppose the expected approach of the enemy. The privy council withdrew for some time to Stirling, but, a peace with England having been effected, James V. was there crowned. The Duke of Albany in 1515 was appointed regent by a parliament in Edinburgh, receiving from the citizens great demonstrations in his favour; and he took up his residence at Holyrood in all the grandeur of royalty, causing the young King and his mother to retire to the Castle. Albany afterwards adopted measures which first drove the dowagerqueen to take flight with the young King to Stirling, and next compelled her to surrender that fortress and return to Edinburgh, when the regent converted the Castle into a state prison for the King. The contentions of parties at this time filled the city with excitement, deprived it of the most ordinary protection of common law, and made it the scene of frequent strifes among the turbulent nobles. One of the most noted of these tumults arose between the Earl of Arran and Cardinal Beaton on the one side, and the Earl of Angus on the other. Angus having roused the jealousy of the opposite party by the influence he had gained over the young King through his marriage with the queendowager, he and his friends were set upon near the Netherbow on 20 April 1515, and upwards of 250 persons were slain in the skirmish, which was long afterwards known under the name of ' Cleanse the causeway. ' Not many years after a similar skirmish occurred, through a dispute which had arisen between the Earl of Rothes and Lord Lindsay. With characteristic ferocity they attacked each other with their retainers on the High Street, to the great danger of the inhabitants, and such was the fury of the strife that peace was not restored till both noblemen were made prisoners by the city authorities. Pestilence also, and a menacing armed force from the Borders, combined in 1519 and 1520 to add to the city's calamities. Parliaments were held in 1522 and 1523, mainly to devise measures for suppressing the prevailing lawlessness, but without much effect. In May 1524 Albany departed for ever from Holyrood to France, leaving state affairs in utter confusion; and the dowager-queen in the following July proclaimed that James V., then in his thirteenth year, had assumed the reins of government. While parliament was sitting in the November following, the Earl of Angus raised a disturbance, which drew disastrous fire from the Castle upon a part of the city. Early in 1525 James V. removed from the Castle to Holyrood, and met his parliament in the Tolbooth; and Angus, in the same year, acquired such ascendency as enabled him to impoverish the city for the pampering of his favourites. From this time till his forfeiture in 1528 he had the entire kingdom under his control, occasioning incessant disturbances not only in Edinburgh, but throughout the whole country.

The College of Justice, the germ of the present Court of Session, being instituted in 1532, speedily contributed to raise the dignity of the city, and draw to it many wealthy residents. The principles of the Reformation had also begun to be privately diffused, and in 1534 the fact was publicly notified in the execution at Greenside of the martyrs Norman Gourlay and David Straiton. The two successive consorts of James V., Magdalene and Mary of Guise, in 1537 and 1538 respectively, made public entrances into Edinburgh amid great rejoicings, and James, having died at Falkland in Dec. 15 42, was buried in Holyrood by the side of Magdalene, his first queen. Shortly after the death of James, Henry VIII. of England proposed an alliance between his son Edward and the infant Queen Mary, daughter of James V., on terms unequal and dishonourable to the Scots, in order to obtain the dominion of their country; but this proposal, though at first favourably entertained as containing provisions agreeable to the reformed doctrines, was resisted powerfully and successfully by Cardinal Beaton and the Catholic party. To revenge this insult, King Henry sent an army under the Earl of Hertford, which, after landing at Leith, set fire to Edinburgh, Holyrood Abbey, the castles of Roslin and Craigmillar, and made an unsuccessful attempt upon Edinburgh Castle. John Lesley, Bishop of Ross, who wrote a History of Scotland in the Scottish language, of which a modernised edition was printed by the Bannatyne Club in 1830, gives the following account of this event:-' On the next day, being the sixth May ' [the day after the English army marched from Leith], ' the great army came forward with the haill ordinances, and assailed the town, which they found void of all resistance, saving the ports of the town were closed, which they broke up with great artillery, and entered thereat, carrying carted ordinances before them till they came in sight of the Castle, where they placed them, purposing to siege the Castle. But the laird of Stanehouse, captain there of, caused shoot at them in so great abundance, and with so good measure, that they slew a great number of Englishmen, amongst whom there was some principal captains and gentlemen; and one of the greatest pieces of the English ordinances was broken; where through they were constrained to raise the siege shortly and retire them. The same day the English men set fire in divers places of the town, but were not suffered to maintain it, through continual shooting of ordinance forth of the Castle, wherewith they were so sore troubled, that they were constrained to return to their camp at Leith. But the next day they returned again, and did what they could to consume all the town with fires. So likewise they continued some days after, so that the most part of the town was burnt in cruel manner; during the which time their horsemen did great hurt in the country, spoiling and burning sundry places thereabout, and in special all the Castle and place of Craigmillar, where the most part of the whole riches of Edinburgh was put by the merchants of the town in keeping, which not without frand of the keepers, as was reported, was betrayed to the English men for a part of the booty and spoil thereof. '

After the battle of Pinkie in 1547 the city was again troubled and pillaged by an English force, and in 1548 was garrisoned by a French corps of 6000 men, sent by Henry II. of France to facilitate the intrigues of the queen-dowager, Mary of Guise, in procuring the marriage of the infant Queen Mary to the Dauphin of France. In 1551, the city gave a great reception to the queendowager, on her return from the court of Henry II., after witnessing there the marriage of Queen Mary to the Dauphin Francis. John Knox arrived in Edinburgh in 1555, and by his impressive discourses to large and excited audiences, soon attracted many zealous adherents, and speedily gained for the principles of the Reformation general and popular acceptance. He retired for a time to Geneva, but returning in 1559, found his partisans in an attitude of open resistance to the suppressive measures of the queen regent. Multitudes of the Reformers party organised themselves into an army at Perth, under the name of the Army of the Congregation, and, marching triumphantly to Edinburgh, took possession of the mint and other offices of government, and presented a front of open hostility to the royal forces. Leith, which was then put in a fortified condition, became the headquarters of the Romish or government party, who were aided by the opportune arrival of an auxiliary force from France. Edinburgh was the headquarters of the Reform party, and entirely in their possession, whilst the plain which stretches between the Calton Hill and Leith became the scene of frequent skirmishes and resolute onslaughts. The irregular troops of the Reformers could ill cope with the well0 disciplined auxiliaries from France; but eventually, aided by a force sent by Elizabeth of England, they succeeded about the middle of 1560 in expelling the queen regent's forces from the kingdom. They then dismantled Leith, and removed every hindrance to the ascendency and civil establishment of the principles for which they contended. A parliament immediately assembled in the city, and enacted laws for the abolition of Popery and the establishment of the Presbyterian form of worship.

Queen Mary, after the death of her husband Francis, sailed from France, and made a public entrance into Edinburgh in Aug. 1561. The Ettrick Shepherd indulges a poetic licence in the Queen's Wake, when describing Queen Mary's progress from Leith to Holyrood, after her return from France:—

' Slowly she ambled on her way,
Amid her lords and ladies gay.
Priest, abbot, layman. All were there,
And presbyter with look severe.

'There rode the lords of France and Spain,
Of England, Flanders, and Lorrane;
while serried thousands round them stood
From shore of Leith to Holyrood.'

Mary set up her government at Holyrood, where she gave formal countenance publicly, but not privately, to the settlement of the Reformation, and the city, with Knox for its minister, and the general assembly for its most influential court, now gave tone to the whole country, sought to make an end of the very remnants of Popery, and kept a keen and observant watch on the religious predilections and social manners of the court. General displeasure soon showed itself at Mary's fondness for the Romish ritual, and her disregard of the Reformers rigid notions of morality. Riotous crowds again and again assembled beneath her palace windows; Rizzio, her favourite, was slain at her feet; and on the death of her second husband, Lord Darnley, and her subsequent marriage to Bothwell, the popular indignation burst into fury, the people pursuing her and Bothwell from the city, and taking possession of the seat and powers of government. Mary was brought back a captive from Carberry Hill, and conducted through the streets amid the jeers and insult of the citizens to the house of Sir Simon Preston, the provost, and sent off a prisoner next day to Loch Leven Castle. All these portentous events were crowded into the space of one year, 1567. Four successive regents, thence till 1573, failed either to bring peace to the metropolis, or a cessation of hostilities between the two great conflicting parties of King's men and Queen's men, as the respective partisans of Mary and her son, James VI., styled themselves. The city, at the time of Mary's escape from Loch Leven in 1568, was both desolated with pestilence and bristling with arms; and, after the assassination of Regent Moray at Linlithgow in 1570, suddenly passed under the military ascendency of the Queen's party. Kirkcaldy of Grange, provost of the city, and governor of the Castle, and one of the ablest soldiers of the period, ordered all opponents of the Queen to leave the city within six hours, planted a battery on the roof of St Giles' Church, strengthened the City Walls, and provoked a long and disastrous strife. Two parliaments sat in the city in May 1571-the one on the Queen's part in the Tolbooth, the other for King James in Canongate, and while they fulminated forfeitures at each other, their respective partisans maintained a continuos conflict with frequent skirmishes in the streets and lanes of the harassed city. The Castle was held for the Queen with great superiority of advantage; Calton Hill, overlooking and protecting Holyrood, maintained a front of bravery for the young King, till an army sent by Queen Elizabeth in 1573 from Berwick eventually brought victory to the followers of the King, and forced the Castle to surrender.

On the coming of age of King James, the city was the scene of a succession of excitements—a magnificent public entrance was made by James into Holyrood, when he was escorted by a cavalcade of about two thousand horsemen; the Abbey received his parliaments, which sat there in great style; and there the King made a struggle for his personal liberties and royal prerogatives against factions of the nobility. Costly entertainments were also given to ambassadors and other notables in Holyrood at the city's expense, till at length he provoked antipathy and insurrection by his greed and continuos encroachments on public rights. At times James would be on good terms with the citizens, receiving from them gifts of money and public services; while again, as at the beginning of 1579, he was so infuriated at them that he left the city, removed all the offices of national administration, threatening to utterly destroy the city, and cherished such an intense resentment that nothing short of the intercession of Queen Elizabeth could induce him to abate his anger. After various negotiations, James was pleased to revoke his declarations of hostility, and made another pompons ceremonial entrance into Edinburgh, amid great demonstrations of loyalty; but in 1599 he came once more into collision with the city, this time, however, without any great disturbance of the public tranquillity. He delivered a formal valedictory address in St Giles' Church in 1603, on the eve of his departure to assume the English crown, and, after a lapse of fifteen years, visited the city again, when he was greeted with great demonstrations of joy and much servile adulation, and presented with a large sum of money.

Charles I. in 1633 was crowned King of Scotland with great splendour at Holyrood, and held in the city, two days after, his first Scottish parliament; but shortly after, by his proceedings against Presbyterianism and attempted introduction of a liturgy and bishopric, on 23 July 1637, excited strong disaffection to his government throughout the country, and kindled a resentment which lasted more or less till the end of his dynasty. In all this Edinburgh, as the seat of executive government, had an extensive and distressing share. The citizens were organised and trained, under direction of the town council, to resist the King's measures of ecclesiastical change. A stiff conflict of beleaguerment and defence arose between the city and Castle, which terminated in favour of the city; and, though the King afterwards appeared in person and was well received and entertained by the magistrates, the city still adhered to the cause of the Covenant, and embodied a regiment of 1200 men for its support. On the establishment of the Commonwealth in England, however, the city offered a large sum of money to maintain a regiment in the service of the crown; but afterwards, on the plea of impoverishment by plague and civil war, claimed exemption from paying it.

Charles II. in 1650 was proclaimed at the Cross, and, could he have attained tolerable footing in England, would evidently have been well supported in Edinburgh. Cromwell, in September of the same year, following up his signal victory over the Scottish army at Dunbar, took possession of Edinburgh, laid siege to the Castle, and forced it to capitulate; and towards the end of next year allowed the magistrates, who had all left the city, to return and resume its management. The city enjoyed a repose of several years under Cromwell, but was so impoverished that its corporation could not meet a claim upon it for £55,000, and scarcely any citizen was able to pay his debts. The news of the Restoration in 1660 was enthusiastically welcomed, and drew from the town council a congratulatory address and gift of money to the King; but parliaments which met in Jan. 1661 and May 1662, and which hurled enactments against Presbyterianism and in favour of Prelacy, renewed all the former confusion, and gave rise to strong measures against the Covenanters. Edinburgh was put in a posture of defence; its gates were barricaded, and all ingress and egress prohibited without a passport. The very members of the law courts assumed arms; the gentlemen of the surrounding country were called in to afford their aid; and, from 1663 till the end of Charles II.'s reign, the city was the scene of the trial, torture, and execution of great numbers of Covenanters, many of them the best and brightest men of the age. But the tyranny which was exercised, the inquisitorial proceedings carried on, the martyrdoms which were endured, and the practising of military manœnvres by a standing army in their midst, did not for an hour coerce the inhabitants into submission, and scarcely succeeded in repressing them from attempting bold though hopeless deeds of insurrection.

The Duke of York, afterwards James II. of England and VII. of Scotland, resided in Edinburgh from 1679 to 1682, and diffused among the people a ruinous taste for show and extravagance, lnring the magistrates into many acts of mean servility. During his short reign from 1685 till 1688, this morose and bigoted King adopted such strongly offensive local measures in favour of Roman Catholics, as provoked general disgust, and caused several riotous ontbreaks. In particular, after convoking a parliament in Edinburgh in 1686, and find ing it not snfficiently pliable for his pnrposes, he, by his own authority, did what the parliament refused to dotook the Catholics under his royal protection, assigned for the exercise of their religion the chapel of Holyrood Abbey, and promoted as many Catholics as possible to the privy council and other offices of government. In all his actions he was utterly reckless, and prosecuted his attempts to force the Catholic religion upon the people with the most abhorrent cruelty and consummate madness, which ended at last in the entire subversion of the Stuart dynasty, after an existence of more than three centuries. Towards the end of 1688 his officers of state sank into inaction under fear of the anticipated movements of the Prince of Orange, the court of session almost ceased to sit, the students of the University burned the Pope in effigy, and clamoured for a free parliament, and the Earl of Perth, the acting head of the government of Scotland, at length took flight to the Highlands, leaving the city entirely at its own disposal.

No sooner did it become known that the Prince of Orange had landed in England, and that the regular troops were withdrawn from Scotland, than Edinburgh was peopled with Presbyterians from every part of the country, and the city became a scene of tumultuous confusion. A mob, comprising citizens, students, and strangers, rose at the beat of drum, gave riotous expression of inveterate hatred against everything popish and prelatic, and proceeded to demolish the royal chapel of Holyrood. There they were fired upon and repulsed by a guard of some hundred men, who still adhered to the interests of James. The mob, however, soon rallied, and overcame the guard, slaying some and capturing the rest; they then pillaged the Abbey Church, pulled down the Jesuits' college, plundered and sacked other religions houses and private dwellings of Roman Catholics throughout the city, and burned at the cross the paraphernalia of the Roman Catholic chapels; in short, everything connected with the scorned religion or the ecclesiastical policy of the dethroned monarch was extirpated with a fierceness approaching to frenzy. The magistrates, notwithstanding their former obsequiousness to James, were equally zealous in their alacrity to accept the Revolution, and promptly sent a congratulatory address to the Prince of Orange, assuring him of their allegiance. A Convention of Estates, soon after held at Edinburgh, declared the forfeiture of James VII., and offered the crown of Scotland to William and Mary. It next abolished prelacy and re-established Presbyterianism; and this convention was protected during its sittings by 6000 Covenanters from the West. The Castle continued for some time to be held for the Jacobites by the Duke of Gordon, and received some slight support from a small armed force under Viscount Dundee, prowling about the outskirts; but though the Jacobite party thus menaced the city and occasioned some panic, it made no active demonstration, and after the last hopes of the party were extinguished at Killiecrankie, the Castle surrendered in June 1689.

The citizens of Edinburgh now cherished bright prospects of prosperity, and began to tnrn their attention to commerce, through which they saw great advantages were gained by other states; and a company was formed to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Darien, which they thought might become an emporium for American and Indian produce. They subscribed among themselves for this purpose about £400, 000, to which was added more than as much again by merchants in Holland and in London. The jealousy of other trading companies, and the remonstrances of the Spaniards, who feared interference with their colonies, induced King William to withdraw his countenance from the scheme, after he had sanctioned it by Act of Parliament; but, nevertheless, a gallant expedition, consisting of about 1200 persons, sailed from Leith in July 1698, in presence of great crowds assembled to witness the departure. This expedition founded a town called New Edinburgh, about midway between Portobello and Cartagena, under the ninth degree of latitude. During the winter months everything seemed likely to answer the expectations of the colonists; but summer brought disease, and on their provisions running low, they found, to their dismay, that they could get no supplies, the Spanish colonists of the neighbouring countries being forbidden to deal with them. In May and Sept. 1699, ere intelligence of these circumstances could reach home, two other expeditions had sailed, consisting of 1800 men, who were involved on their arrival in the same disasters. After disease had swept off hundreds, the last remaining colonists were attacked by the Spaniards, to whom, after enduring incredible sufferings from famine and disease, the survivors were compelled to surrender in 1701, and scarcely a waif of either men or means ever found the way back to Scotland. The failure was believed to arise, in a great degree, from court influence and intrigue; and, being concurrent with some other disastrous events in Scotland, it operated to produce in Edinburgh strong feelings of sullenness and irritation, accompanied by tumults and riotous outbreaks.

The accession of Queen Anne in 1702 was received without much show of feeling, but the meeting of parliament at Edinburgh in 1706-7 to discuss the proposal for national union between Scotland and England caused much excitement. Even while the proposal was merely hinted at, the citizens, smarting under the Darien disaster, with the recent massacre of Glencoe still fresh in their memories, and dreading the removal of government offices to London, regarded it with keen suspicion. When the proposal became known in its details, the long cherished antipathies and jealousies of all classes against England kindled into a fierce spirit of opposition, and the citizens pressed in vast crowds to the Parliament House, and insulted there every member who was believed to favour the union. They afterwards attacked the house of their late provost, who was a strenuous advocate for it, then scoured the streets, became absolute masters of the city, and seemed as if actuated by a desire to crush the authorities altogether. The crown-commissioner ordered a party of soldiers to take possession of the Netherbow, posted a battalion of foot guards in Parliament Square and other central localities, and thus quelled for a time the surging riot. So deep and general, however, was the popular rage, and so great the alarm of the authorities, that nothing less than the whole available force was deemed sufficient for protection. The horse guards attended the commissioner, a battalion was stationed at Holyrood, and three regiments of infantry were constantly on duty in the city, and these proved barely strong enough to protect the parliament during its deliberations on the union. The members encountered great difficulties, submitted to remarkable privations, and adopted various devices, in order merely to attach their signatures to the deed- first they retired in small numbers to a summer-house behind Moray House in Canongate, and when discovered and scared thence, went under cover of night to an obscure cellar in High Street, and then, before they could be seen by persons early afoot in the morning, took a precipitate leave of the city and started for London. Scenes of similar violence to those in the city also occurred in many parts of the country-the national pride having been fairly aroused at the thought that Scotland, after having given to England a race of kings, should become a province of the latter country, and the people generally protested that the votes in parliament had been influenced by military compulsion. Edinburgh now suffered loss of a great part of her prosperity, and lay, for many years, in an impoverished and heartstricken condition.

The Rebellion of 1715 commenced with an attempt to capture Edinburgh Castle by surprise, but this was checked at the outset by measures which foiled it. Fifteen hundred insurgents marched from Fife upon the city, but found it so well prepared by the fortifications which the magistrates had erected, and by the presence of a force under the Duke of Argyll, to give them a warm reception, that they declined to attack it, and soon after dispersed. The arrival, shortly after, of 6000 Dutch troops prevented the city from suffering any further menace. A remarkable tumult occurred in Edinburgh in 1736, which is known by the name of the Porteous Mob. Two smugglers, named Wilson and Robertson, had been condemned to death for robbing the collector of excise at Pittenweem, in Fifeshire. Both these criminals made an attempt at escape one night by forcing a bar from the window of their cell in the Tolbooth prison, but Wilson, being a stout and powerful man, stuck fast in trying to get through, so that the jailors were alarmed and the escape frustrated. Wilson regretted much that he had attempted the passage first, and considering that by doing so he had prevented his fellow culprit Robertson's escape, made a desperate resolve that he would yet give him an opportunity of evading the last penalty of the law. According to custom they were taken, under the charge of four soldiers, to hear sermon at the Tolbooth Church on the Sunday previous to their execution. When the congregation was dismissing, Wilson suddenly seized one of the guards with each hand, and a third with his teeth, calling to Robertson to make his escape, which he very quickly did, after knocking down the fourth guard. Wilson's bold exploit made him an object of popular sympathy, and the magistrates, being afraid of a riot and an attempt at rescue on the day of execution, supplied the town guard, then commanded by Captain Porteous, with ball cartridge. After the execution of Wilson in the Grassmarket, the crowd began to hoot, and throw stones, as well as other missiles, at the executioner and the guard, when Captain Porteous rashly ordered his men to fire, and six people were killed and eleven wounded. For this conduct Captain Porteous was tried for murder and condemned to be hanged. George II. was then in Hanover, and Queen Caroline, who was acting as regent, gave a respite for six weeks to the convict, preparatory, it was believed, to a full pardon; but such was the exasperation of the people, that they determined he should suffer, despite the royal clemency. A party of citizens accordingly assembled on 7 Sept. 1736, the night previous to the day fixed for Porteous' execution, and sounding a drum, soon gathered an immense number to their aid, when they took possession of and shut the gates of the city, to prevent the entrance of the soldiers, and then seized and disarmed the town guard. The mob tried to force the Tolbooth door with sledge-hammers and iron bars, but finding these ineffectual, they had recourse to fire, and soon gained an entrance. The rioters seized the unfortunate prisoner, and carried him on their shoulders down the West Bow to the Grassmarket, calling at a shop on the way to provide themselves with a rope. Wishing to despatch Porteous as near the place where the people were killed as possible, they selected for the purpose a dyer's pole which stood on the S side of the street, exactly opposite the Gallows Stone. Here the unfortunate Captain's body was found dangling in the morning by the authorities - the rioters having quietly dispersed, leaving no trace, immediately after the deed was done. Great indignation was excited by all this at court-the lord provost being taken into custody, and not admitted to bail till after three weeks' confinement. The city was threatened with severe punishment, and a bill passed the House of Lords to confine the provost for a year, to abolish the city guard, and raze the city gates; but in the Commons this bill was modified into an order upon the city to pay the widow of Porteous a pension of £200 a year.

At the outbreak of the Rebellion of 1745, the city was put in a posture of defence, and on 19 Ang. Sir John Cope, with the troops stationed at Edinburgh, left that city for the North to meet the rebels. Prince Charles avoiding an engagement with Cope, if Cope did not rather avoid one with him, descended with his adherents upon the Lowlands by Perth, and crossed the river Forth a few miles above Stirling. Rapidly proceeding, the Prince soon reached Corstorphine, a village about 3 miles from Edinburgh, where, to avoid the guns of the Castle, he made a southerly detour to Slateford. Charles, after an anxious night in camp, gave orders early in the morning to try and take the city by surprise. A party of 24 men were placed at the Netherbow gate, and 60 at the city gate at St Mary's Wynd, This latter gate being opened to let out a coach containing a deputation which had been sent out to Prince Charles and brought back to Edinburgh, and was now on its way to the Canongate, gave access to the Highlanders, who rushed in, overpowered the guard, and soon obtained possession of the town. Thus, on the morning of 17 Sept., the citizens found the government of their capital transferred from King George to the Highlanders under Prince Charles Edward, acting as regent for his father, and at noon that day the heralds with their usual formalities proclaimed James VII. as king, and read the Prince's commission of regency, dated at Rome, 23 Dec. 1743. Charles, having learned that the city was in possession of his troops, left his quarters and proceeded to Edinburgh, taking a route which would not expose him to the fire of the Castle guns, the fortress being still held by the royal troops under General Guest. Passing round by Arthur's Seat, he rode forward to Holyrood, and for the first time saw the palace of his ancestors. Here he commenced a round of festivities, compelling the magistrates to furnish supplies and the citizens to give up their arms, though he respected their private property. After his return from the victory of Prestonpans, he blockaded the Castle, provoking from it a cannonade which did considerable damage, but after two days he removed the blockade, and thus prevented further mischief to the inhabitants. After the Prince's final defeat at Culloden. the Duke of Cumberland visited the city, and caused 14 of the standards taken from the rebels to be burned at the cross-the standard of the Prince was carried thither by the common hangman, and the remaining 13 by 13 chimney sweeps.

Famine tumults occurred in the city in 1763, 1764, and 1765, and were quelled only by aid from the military. In 1778 an occurrence took place, which, though eventually terminated without bloodshed, at first bore a threatening aspect, and caused great anxiety. This was a mutiny of the Earl of Seaforth's Highland regiment, then quartered in the Castle. It having been determined to send the regiment to India at a time when considerable arrears of pay were due, the soldiers took counsel among themselves in regard to their present condition and future prospects. One morning, as the regiment was at drill upon Leith links, an unusual place for this purpose, suspicion was aroused that they were about to be entrapped on board ship, and sent off without payment of their arrears. Instantly, as in all probability had been previously arranged, the whole body shouldered their arms and marched off at quick step to Arthur's Seat, and fixed their quarters near its summit. Their officers, in the first instance, tried to soothe them with fair promises, but to these the men turned a deaf ear, having already experienced their worthlessness. Threats were then resorted to, but these were equally unavailing, as the Highlanders knew they were so situated as to place infantry at defiance, and that, from the nature of the ground, cavalry would be equally ineffective. When it was then represented to them that the Castle guns would fire upon and dislodge them from their position, the answer was simply that the Highlanders would remove behind the hill, and so place that barrier between them and the new danger. In these circumstances an accommodation through the intervention of some one in whom the Highlanders would place confidence was the only resource, and this was at last effected through Lords Macdonald and Dunmore, on whose honour the men had great reliance. Their differences were arranged satisfactorily, and the regiment returned to its allegiance, and shortly after embarked for foreign service.

A no-Popery riot, on the occasion of the attempt to repeal the penal laws against Catholics in 1799, led to the demolition and plundering of several chapels, and the destruction of considerable property belonging to Roman Catholics; but under military force order was restored without loss of life. The city, during the menaces of Buonaparte against Britain, made great demonstrations of loyalty, and raised a volunteer force of between 3000 and 4000 men.

In 1822 George I V. made a visit to Edinburgh, and remained there from the 15th till the 29th of August, occasioning great excitement in the city, and drawing to it many visitors from all parts of the country. Two great fires broke out in the Old Town in l824, on the nights of 24 June and 15 November respectively, working great destruction. One of these lasted three days, destroying the greater part of the High Street between St Giles' and the Tron Church, and it was feared at one time that it might involve the whole city. The demonstrations in Edinburgh which accompanied the general demand for parliamentary reform in 1830, were remarkably strong, as were also those associated with the election of the first members for the city under the new bill in 1832. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited the city in 1842, at first only as lying on their way to Dalkeith, but they were induced to make public processions through the streets, and were everywhere received with the greatest enthusiasm, even greater than that extended to George IV. The accounts of the sudden overthrow of Louis Philippe's government at Paris in Feb. 1848, excited intense interest in Scotland. On the 6th and 7th March alarming riots took place in Glasgow, an d on the latter evening a serious riot also occurred in Edinburgh. Upwards of 3000 persons assembled at the Tron Church, when the Lord Provost enrolled a number of citizens as special constables, and sent to Piershill and the Castle for military aid. The sheriff read the Riot Act, and advised the crowds to disperse. These energetic proceedings succeeded in putting a stop to the disturbances, but not before considerable mischief had been done.

The royal family again visited Edinburgh in 1849 and 1850, and on the latter occasion remained two nights at Holyrood. The Prince Consort at this time publicly laid the foundation of the National Gallery, amid crowds of spectators computed to amount to about 150, 000. These royal visits were repeated again and again, and the Prince of Wales resided at Holyrood during several months of 1859, partaking of the benefits Edinburgh as a seat of learning. In 1860 Her Majesty reviewed upwards of 20, 000 volunteers in the Queen's Park; and in 1861 the Prince Consort officiated at the laying of the foundation stones of the new General Post Office and the Industrial Museum -this being among the last public appearances which the Prince made, as he died a few months afterwards. A great public illumination was made in 1863 on the occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales, which, alike for the artistic beauty of many of its features and its general effect, has rarely, if ever, been equalled by any city. The Prince and Princess of Wales made a public appearance, accompanied with great masonic display, on the occasion of the Prince laying the foundation stone of the new Royal Infirmary in 1870. In 1874, on the occasion of the marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, another illumination took place, though on a smaller scale than that of 1863. Repeated visits have been made by Her Majesty to the city since the occasions already mentioned, and in Aug. 1881, the Queen again reviewed the northern volunteers to the number of about 40, 000 in the Park at Holyrood.

Edinburgh was the meeting place of the British Association in 1834, 1850, and 1871; of the Social Science Congress in 1863 and 1880; of the Highland and Agricultural Society in 1842, 1848, 1859, 1869, and 1877; and of the Librarians' Congress in 1880. In April 1882 an International Fisheries Exhibition was held in the Waverley Market, at which were shown a comprehensive variety of appliances relative to fishing and the curing of fish, the stocking of lakes and rivers. salmon ladders, fish hatching, models of improved fishing boats, and other relative inventions.

An accompanying 19th C. Ordnance Survey map is available, or use the map tab to the right of this page.

Note: This text has been made available using a process of scanning and optical character recognition. Despite manual checking, some typographical errors may remain. Please remember this description dates from the 1880s; names may have changed, administrative divisions will certainly be different and there are known to be occasional errors of fact in the original text, which we have not corrected because we wish to maintain its integrity. This information is provided subject to our standard disclaimer

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